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creasing under the very act of dimi. only books, it appears that this or. nishing, though some part of it may der bitherto is far insufficient to the for a time be withdrawn from some end which it intends. Do we not persons, it cannot from all, in such see, not once or oftener, but weekly, a universal thing as books are; and that continued court-libel against when this is done, yet the sin re- the parliament and city, printed, as mains entire. Though ye take from the wet sheets can witness, and disa covetous man all his treasure, he persed among us for all that licenhas yet one jewel left, ye cannot be sing can do? Yet this is the prime reave him of his covetousness. Ba- service a man would think wherenish all objects of lust, shut up all in this order should give proof of youth into the severest discipline that itself. If it were executeil, you can be exercised in any hermitage, will say. - But certain, if execuye cannot make them chaste, that tion be remiss or blindfuld now, came not thither so: such great and in this particular, what will it care and wisdom is required to the be hereafter, and in other books? If right managing of this point.-Sup- then the order shall not be rain and pose we could expel sin by this frustrate, behold a new labour, lords means: look how much we thus ex- and commons, ye must repeal and pel of sin, so much we expel of vir- proscribe all scandalous and unlitue: for the matter of them both is censed books already printed and the same: remove that, and ye reniove divulged: after ye have drawn them them both alike. This justifies the up into a list, that all may know high providence of God, who though which are commended, and which he commands us temperance, jus- not; and ordain that no foreign rice, continence, yet pours out be- bonks be delivered out of custody, fore us even to a profuseness all de- till they have been read over. This sirable things, and gives us minds office will require the whole time of lhat can wander beyond all limit not a few overseers, and those no and satiety. Why should we then vulgar men. There be also books affect a rigor contrary to the man- which are partly useful and excelner of God and of nature, by a- lent, partly culpable and pernicious; bridging or scanting those means, this work will ask as many more ofwhich books, freely permitted, are ficials, to make expurgations and both to the trial of virtue, and the expunctions, that the commonwealth exercise of truth? It would be bet- of learning be not damnified. In ter done, to learn that the law must fine, when the multitude of books needs be frivolous, which goes to increase upon their hands, ye must restrain things, uncertainly and yet be fain to catalogue all those prinequally working to good and to evil. ters who are found frequently ofAnd were I the chooser, a dram of fending, and forbid the importation well doing should be preferred be- of their whole suspected typography. fore many times as much the forci. In a word, that this your order ble hindrance of evil doing. For may be exact, and noi deficient, God sure esteems the growth and ye must reform it perfectly accorcompleting of one virtuous person, ding to the model of 'Trent and Semore than the restraint of ten vici- vil, which I know ye abhor to do. ouş. And albeit, whatever thing Yet though ye should condescend to we hear or see, sitting, walking, this, which God forbid, the order travelling, or conversing, may be still would be but fruitless and defitly called our book, and is of the fective to that end whereto ye meant samc effect that writings are; yet it. If to prevent sects and schisms, grant the thing to be prohibited were who is so unread or uncatechised in

story, that hath not heard of many at certain seasons; but to be enjoin. sects refusing books as a hinderance, ed the reading of that at all times, and preserving their doctrine un- and in a hand scarce legible, wheremixed for many ages, only by un- of three pages would not down at written traditions ? The christian, any time in the fairest print, is an faith, (for that was once a schism !) imposition which I cannot believe is not unknown to have spread all how he that values time, and his over Asia, ere any gospel or epistle own studies, or is but of a sensible was seen in writing. If the ameud- nostril, should be able to endure. ment of maoners be aimed at, look In this one thing I crave leave of the into Italy and Spain, whether those present licensers to be pardoned for places be one scruple the better, the so thinking; who doubtless took this honester, the wiser, the chaster, office up, looking on it through their since all the inquisitional rigour obedience to the parliament, whose that hath been executed upon books. command perhaps made all things

Another reason, whereby to muke scem easy and unlaborious to them : it plain that this order will miss the but that this short trial bath wearied end it seeks, consider by the quality them out already, their own expreswhich ought io be in every licenser. sions and excuses to them, who li cannot be denied, but that he who make so many journeys to solicit is made judge to sit upon the birth their licence, are testimony enough. or death of books, whether tliey may Seeing therefore those, who now be wafted into this world or not, possess the employment, by all evihad need to be a man above the dent signs wish themselves well rid common measure, both studious, of it, and that no man of worth, learned, and judicious; there may none that is not a plain unthrift of be clse no mean mistakes in the cen- bis own hours, is ever likely to suc. sure of what is passable or not; ceed them, except he mean to put which is also no mean injury. If himself to the salary of a press corhe be of such worth as behoves him, rector, we may easily foresee what there cannot be a more tedious and kind of licensers we are to expect unpleasing journeywork, a greater hereafter, either ignorant, imperious, loss of time levied upon his head, and remiss, or basely pecuniary. than to be inade the perpetual rea. This is what I had to show, wbereder of unchosen books and pamph- in this order cannot conduce to that lets, ofttimes huge volumes. There end, whereof it bears the intention. is no bouk that is acceptable, unless

[To be continued.]

EXTRACT FROM Mr. GILBERT WAKEFIELD'S ADDRESS

TO THE COURT OF KING'S BENCH.

[Mr. Finnerty in his late manly and The artillery of my literary war arduous contest with the Court of King's was levelled against what I deemed Bench, baving referred to the late Mr. the hypocrisy, the vcnality, the ima Wakefield's address to the court when

pieties, of our present administration; standing in a similar situation, and as that address, which lasted three hours, an administration of which the atalthough printed for the use of friends, torney general is a part. Though was never published, we are persuaded his learning and abilities in the law the following admirable extracts will were equal, I believe, to the firme prove acceptable to our readers.)

emoluments of his profession without VOL. ix.

the patronage of ministers; still they to every object not immediately conare in fact the prolific fountain of nected with their own emoluments his honours and expectations: and or power, probably knew nothing of for him, so circumstanced, to arro- the apostles but from rumour, and gate an exemption from the partia- the relation of those who had apprelities of selfish influence in what hended them, in consequence of what most intimately concerns the charac. was deemed a tumultuary concourse ter and condition of his patrons, is in the city. Common fame had to arrogate a superiority over all stigmatised them as seditious inno• the weaknesses of human nature, vators, disturbers of the public peace, and an equality with the divine. enemies 10 Cæsar, and to the civil We will accept his pretensions when and political constitution of their invariable causes have suspended country. Uuder these impressions their activity: when night no longer and appearances. the severities of follows the departure of the sun; bodily castigation and imprisonment when the moon ceases to be eclipsed were exercised in various instances by falling into the shadow of the on these faithful followers of their earth.

divine master. I suppose we are all The biographer of Sir Thomas very ready to acknowledge the culMore records the following among pability of the jewish rulers on those other instances of magnanimity in occasions, and the laudable persethe conduct of that great man.- verance of the apostles in their pur“ Instead of exerting his power to pose ; but observe in one instance, crush or silence those who opposed where the simple factis a tumultuous or slandered him as a minister, he assemblage in the city, and a prethought, as their arrows did not hit sumption of inischievous incitement him, he received more benefit from to confusion lies against Peter and them than from his friends; and it his brethren,-observe I say, in one seems it was his opinion, that no mi- instance, where they were examined nister, who was innocent of the charge for these appearances of outrage, beagainst him, would treat his accusers fore the sanhedrim: what was the rewith insolence, or persecute them sult: a result which all governors in with power.

every age, who prosess any reverence They who sincerely venerate the for the scriptures, are bound to regospel will come properly prepared spect, and imitate in similar examfor my statement. I propose to your ples of abstinence, on the side of the dispassionate attention that transac- arraigned party, froin actual violence tion in the acts of the apostles, where to the community. Whilst the maPeter and his brethren 'are-summon- jority of the judges were recommended before a council of Jewish magis- ing or approving severe punishments, trates, to give an account of their under the influence, I presume, of conduct for presuming to disobey the the modern notion of subduing minds injunctions of the sanhedrim, by ex. by rigour, Gamaliel, a man of learnecuting their evangelical "office in ing, interposed with this sensible adpreaching to the people. Let us es- vice. Refrain from these men, and bibit to our minds, as accurately as let them alone : for, if this counsel, we can, the different apprehensions or this work, be of men, it will come and motives of the accusers and de- to nought; but, if it be of God, ye fendants in this exainple. The ac- carinot overthrow it, lest haply ye be cusers, men of learning, distinction, found even to fight against God. The and authority, but inattentive, as jewish magistrates adopted this wise this description of people are uni. and moderate counsel. The apostermly represented in the scriptures, les were discharged, and left to their pacific employment of refuting error themselves, as we say now, peace and enforcing truth, after their own and safety, (1 Thes. v, 3) but sudden discretion, without punishment or and irretrievable destruction, was at molestation. Now every propagator that very moment falling on their of an opinion, fraught with benevo- heads. Perhaps even now the senlence, and instinct with universal tence of fery indignation is written happiness, though he be the most down against us by the recording insignificant of all his species, must angel in the register of supernal venbe allowed to be so far at least, in geance, as a just retribution for our a similar situation with the apostle ferocious principles. For myself I Peter, and his associates. And it regard the friend of war* and slaughiwill be acknowledged I trust that a ter as the epitome of all mischief, as belief in the sinfulness of war, a the true man of sin, visually exhimong christian nations for example, bited in a human shape: and no and also in the efficacy of peace, as considerations of worldly benefit, no essential to the happiness of the supposed political advantages, should world, are opinions, not only inof- ever prevail on me to lift up with fensive in themselves, but extremely deliberation a murderous hand aconsonant to the spirit of christiani- gainst a fellow creature of any chaty. I go further; and make no scru- racter or country; nor will I prefer ple of declaring before men and an a temporary prosperity in the perishgels, without any hostility to those able communities of the earth to a who disapprove my sentiments, or polity secure and and permanent in any fear of their displeasure, that a city which hath foundations, whose real christianity, divested of these contriver and builder is God. The pacific dispositions and pacific prac. situation in which I am placed has tices, has no existence, and can have been allowed by the wisest writers no existence beyond an idle name, to excuse some portion of self-comand an unmeaning ceremonial a- mendation, and I might appeal in mung men ! This propensity to war, - corroboration of these positions to and a restless incitement of other those who know me, and they are European states to its horrid deeds, very numerous, whether my social by the ministers of this country, in and familiar intercourse be not trag. conjunction with the unutterable quil and unassuming, studiously at. enormities of our traffic in human tentive to the delicate sensibilities flesh, is that great offence, that mon- and innocent accommodation of all strous exhibition of gigantic wicked with whom I converse; without ma'ness, which must pour down the lice, asperity, or arrogance: and choicest phials of divine wrath on a though it be a motive of inferior conland of most pre-eminent blood-guil- 'sideration, it may not niisbecome tiness; which must render our utter you to reflect, how far the reputaobliteration from the map of nations, tion of this country, as pretending. a judgment of of God, almost essen to enjoy a liberal and happy governtial to the very preservation and con ment, will be consuited among the tinuance of our species on earth! polished nations of Europe by the

The accomplishment of providen- servile punishment of one', whose tial purposes comes not with obserous wriungs have furnished a subject for tion - The Babylonians, Samaritans, the inaugural orations of professors and inhabitants of Jerusalem in for- in forcign universities ; of one who mer times--the Roman empire of Constantinople, at a later period.-- * An article on this subject in my pamthe monarchies of France, Sardinia, phlet was the chief accusation brought and Naples, of yesterday-said to against me.

has been honoured by the unsolicited of the historians who have recorded correspondence of the first scholars them. Philip the Second of Spain on the continent, whose names are liberated from prison a man, whom consecrated to immortality. One the council of state had condemned opinion,' at least, I am well per. to die for harsh animadversions on suaded, must be formed by men of the measures of his government; geletters both in the present and the nerously remarking at the same time, future generations of the world ; that that a king is never more secure they who can prevail upon them- “ from the malice of his people, than selves so to prosecute, and so to pu- " when their discontents are suffered nish such writings as my pamphlet, “ to evaporate in complaint.” (Wraxbring a charge of ferocity against all's I list. of France. Vol. I. p. 96.) their neighbours, with no sensations Even Caligula at the commencement of shame and decency. This prose- of-his reign, as we are informed by cution differs in degree only, not in Seutovius, (Vit. Calig. Sect. 15.) rekind, in form and semblance, not in fused to receive informations relative principle and spirit, from the most to his own personal safety by secret sanguinary excesses of the blackest communication; declaring with a tyranny. However it is for your noble sublimity of mind that “ he selves to determine whether ye will “had done nothing to deserve an follow the moderate and bumane “enemy, and that he had no ears for counsels of Gamaliel, or imitate the “ an informer.” Timoleon the delifierceness of others in the Sanhe- verer of Syracuse from the tyranny drim; whether ye will pursue that of Dionysius, told his friends, who conduct which is approved or that were urging him to punish a slanwhich is condemned, not by reason derer of his virtuous atchievements, only, but by the revealed will of that “his primary motive to all his God; this, I say, is a point in which “ painful enterprises had been the se. your characters for consistency and “curity of free speech to the meanest justice, as christian magistrates, are “ citizen.” (Corn. Nep. xx. 5. 23.) most deeply and momentously in- Nay, Tiberius himself (for the worst volved; for I challenge any man to of these Roman emperors admitted demonstrate the inapplicability of an occasional dilution of their ranthe case which I have stated to the cour and ferocity from the copious respective circumstances of your draughts of elegance and wisdom selves and me at the present hour; which they had imbibed at the founto myself ihe alternative is compa- tain of the muses) even Tiberius ratively most transitory and insigni. would often say, when instigated to ficant Permit me to request your the punishment of libellers, “ that indulgence, whilst I recal to your “ the tongues and minds of men in memories soine examples of true wis “a free country should be free." dom and magnanimity in princes of (Sueton. in Tiber. sect. 28.) But I ancient and modern times; which forbear to trespass on your patience will at once illustrate and confirm a by a more full detail; and will only sentiment in the former part of my recite a few sentiments on this sub. address, touching the security and ject from the most virtuous and inunconcern of good governments at telligent of mankind. the censures of the malicious, disin. Socrates was accustomed to degenuous, or mistaken writers, And clare that the sun might as easily these sxamples of liberality and he be spared from the universe as free roism, it may be observed, have speech from the liberal institutions commanded the applause and admi. of society. (Apud Stob. eth. ed. xiii.). ration not only of every reader, but It was a saying of Domosthenes,

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