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charter to Adam, is translated living them dominion over the fowls of the air thing, and is also the same word used, and the fishes of the sea, and the terrese Gen. ix. 2. where this grant is renewed trial creatures, wild beasts and reptiles, to Noah, and there likewise translated the same words that in the text before beast. 5. The third rank were the us, Gen. i. 28. are translated every niocreeping animals, which ver. 24 and 25. ving thing, that moveth on the earth, are comprised under the word nun, which by no means can comprehend the same that is used here, ver. 28. and man, the grant being made to Noah is translated moving, but in the foriner and his sons, all the men then living, verses creeping, and by the Septuagint and not to one part of men over anoin all these places, stretá, or reptiles; ther: which is yet more evident from from whence it appears, that the words the very next words, ver. 3. where God which we translate here in God's dona- gives every moving thing, the very words tion, ver. 28. living creatures moving, used, ch. i. 28. to them for food. By are the same, which in the history of all wbich it is plain that God's donation the creation, der. 24, 25.“ signify two to Adam, ch. i 28. and his designation, ranks of terrestrial creatures, viz. wild der 26. and his grant again to Noah and beasts and reptiles, and are so under- his sons, refer to and contain in them stood by the Septuagint.

neither more nor less than the works of 26. When God had made the irra- the creation the fifth day, and the betional animals of ihe world, divided ginving of the sixth, as they are set into three kinds, from the places of down from the 20ch to the 26tb ver. intheir babitation, viz. fishes of the sea, clusively of the 1st chap. and so comfowls of the air, and living creatures of preljend all the species of irrational anithe earth, and these again into cattle, mals of the terraqueous globe, though wild beasts, and reptiles, he considers of all the words, whereby they are express inaking man, and the doininion he should sed in the bistory of their creation, are have over the terrestrial world, ver. 26. no where used in any of the following and then he reckons up the inhabitants grants, but some of them omitted in of these three kingdoins, but in the ter one, and some in another. From whence restrial leaves out the second rank, wild I think it is past all doubt, that man beasts : but here, ver. 28. where he ac- cannot be comprehended in this grant, tually exercises this design, and gives nor any dominion over those of his own bim this dominion, the text mentions species be conveyed to Adain. All the the fishes of the sea, und fowls nf the air, terrestrial irrational creatures are enuand the terrestrial creatures in the words murated at their creation, ucr. 25. unthat signify the wild beasts and reptiles, der the names beasts of the earth, cattle though translated living thing that mo- and creeping things; but man being not veth, leaving out catile. In both which they created, was not contained under places, though the word that signities any of those names; and therefore, wild beusts he omitted in one, and that whether we understand the Hebrew which signifies cattle in the other, yet, words right or no, they cannot be supsince God certainly executed in one posed to comprehevd man, in the very place, what he declares he designed in same history, and the very next verses che other, we cannot but understand following, especially since that Hebrew the same in both places, and have here word won which, if any in this dona. only an account, how the terrestrial ir- tion to Adam, ch. i. 28. must comprerational animals, which were already hend man, is so plainly used in contracreated and reckoned up at their crea- distinction to him, as Gen. vi. 20. vii. tion, in three distincts ranks of cattle, 14, 21, 23. Gen. viii. 17, 19. And if wild beasts, and reptiles, were here, God ipade all mankind slaves to Adam ver. 28. actually put under the domni- and his heirs, by giving Adam dominion nion of man, as they were designed, over every living thing that moreth on ver. 26. noi do these words contain in the eurth, ch. i. 28 as our author would them the least appearance of any thing have it, methinks Sir Robert should have that can be wrested to signify God's gi- carried his monarchical power one step ving to one man dominion over another, higher, and satisfied the world, that to Adam over his posterity.

princes might eat their subjects too, 27. And this further appears from since God gave as full power to Noah Gen. ix. 2. where God.renewing this and his heirs, ch. ix 2. to eat every liv. charter to Noah and his sons, he gives ing thing that moveth, ás lie did to

VOL. IX.

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Allain to have dominion over them, the 30. But perhaps it will be said, Eve Hebrew words in both places being the was not made till afterward : grant it saine.

so, what advantage will our author get 28. David, who might be supposed by it? The text will be only the more to understand the donation of God in directly against him, and shew that God, this text, and the right of kings too, as in this donation gave the world to manwell as our author in his comment on kind in common, and not to Adam in this place, as the learned and judicious particular. The word them in the text Ainsworth calls it, in the 8th Psalın, finds must include the species of man, for it here no such charter of monarchical pow- is certain them can by no means signify er: his words are, Thou hast niade him, Adam alone. In the 26th verse, where i. e. man, the son of inan, a little lower God declares his intention to give this than the angels; thou madest him to have dominion, it is plain he meant, that he dominion over the works of thy hands, thou would make a : pecies of creatures, that hust put all things under his feet, all sheep should have dominion over the other and oren, and the beasts of the field, and the species of this terrestrial globe: the fowls of the uir, and fish of the sea, and words are, And God said, let us make, whatsoever passeth through the paths of man in our image, after our likeness, the sea. In which words, if any one can and let them have dominion over the fish, find out, that there is meant any mo- &c. They then were to have dominion. narchical power of one man over ano- Who? Even those wbo were to have ther, but only the dominion of the whole the image of God, the individuals of that species of mankind over the interior spe spécies of mun, that he was going to cies of creatures, he may, for aughi I make; for that then should signify Adam know, deserve to be one of Sir Robert's singly, exclusive of the rest that should monarchs in habit, for the rareness of be in the world with him, is against both the discovery. And by this time, I hope scripture and all reason; and it cannot it is evident, that he that gave dominion possibly be made sense, if man in the over every living thing that moveth on former part of the verse do not siguify the earth, gave Adain no monarchical the same with them in the latter; only power over those of his own species, man there, as is usual, is taken for the which will yet appear more fully in the species, and then the individuals of that next thing I ain to shew.

species: and we have a reason in the 29. 2. Whatever God gave by the very text. God makes him in his own words of this grant, Gen. i. 28. it was image, after his own likeness ; makes not to Adam in particular, exclusive of him an intellectual creature, and so caall other men : whatever dominion he pable of dominion: for whereinsoever had thereby, it was not a pricate. domi- else the image of God consisted, the innion, but å dominion in common with tellectual nature was certainly a part of the rest of mankind. That this dona- it, and belonged to the whole species, tion was not made particular to Adam, and enabled them to have dominion appears evidently from the words of the over the inferior cratures; and therefore text, it being made to more than one; David says in the 8tb Psalm above cited, for it was spoken in the plural number, Thou hast made him a little lower than the God blessed them, and said unto them, angels, thou hast made him to have dumiHlave dominion. God says unto Adam nion. It is not of Adam king David and Eve, Have dominion; thereby, says speaks here, for verse 4, it is plain it is our author, Adam was monarch of the of man and the son of' mun, of the speworld : bit the grant being to them, i.e. cies of mankind. spoke to Eve also, as many interpreter3 3 1. And that this grant spoken to think with reason, that these words were Adam was made to him, and the whole pot spoken till Adam had his wife, inust species of man, is ciear from our author's not she thereby be lady, as well as he own proof out of the Psalmist. The lord of the world ? If it be said, that eurth, saith the Psalinist, hath he giren Eve was subjected to Adam, it seems to the children of men: which shews the she was not so subjected to him, as to title comes froin fatherhood. These are linder her dominion over the creatures, Sir Robert's words in the preface before or property in thein: for shall we say, cited, and a strange inference it is he that God ever made a joint grant to two, makes; God hath given the earth to the and one only was so have the benefit children of men, ergo the title comes from

fatherhood. It is pity the propriety of the Hebrew tongue had not used fathers meaning of the 'place; and then with of men, instead of children of men, to subordination and in succession, will not express mankind, then, indeed onr au- be best understood, in a grant of God, thor might have had the countenance of where he himself put thein not, por inenthe sound of words, to have placed the tions any such limitation. But yet, our title in the fatherhood. But to conclude, author has reasons, why it may best that the fatherhood had the right to the be understood so. The blessing, shvs lie earth, because God gave it to the chil- in the following words, might truly be dren of men, is a way of arguing pecu- fulfilled, if the sons, either under or after liar 10 our author : and a inan must their father, enjoyed a private dominion, have a great mind to go contrary to the Observations, 211, which is to say, that sound as well as sense of the words, be- a grant, whose express words give a joint fore he could light on it. But the sense title in present (for the text says, into is yet harder, and more remote from your hands they are delivered) may best our author's purpose : for as it stands in be understood with a subordination or in his preface, it is to prove Adaun's being succession ; because it is possible, that in monarch, and his reasoning is thus, God subordination, or in succession, it may be gate the earth to the children of men, enjoyed. Which is all one as to say, ergo Adam was monarch of the world. I that a grant of any thing in present posdefy any man to make a more pleasant session, may best be understood of reverconclusion than this, which cannot be sion; because it is possible one may live excused from the most obvious absur- to enjoy it in reversiou. If the grant be dity, till it can be shewn, that by.chile indeed to a father and to his sous after -dren of men, he who had no father, him, who is so kind as to let his children Adam, alone is signified; but whatever enjoy it presently in common with him, our author does, the scripture speaks one may truly say, as to the event one mot nonsense.

will be as good as the other; but it can · S2. To maintain this property and never be true, that what the express private dominion of Adarn, our author words grant in possession, and in comlabours in the following page to destroy mon, may best be understood, to be in the commmunity granted to Noah and reversion. The sun of all his reasoning bis sons, in that parallel place, Gen. ix. amounts to this: God did not give to 1, 2, 3, and he endeavours to do it in the sons of Noah the world in common (wo ways.

with their father, because it was possi1. Sir Robert would persuade us a- ble they might enjoy it under or after gainst the express words of the scripture, him. A very good sort of argument that what was here granted to Noah, against an express text of scripture: but was not granted to his sons in common God must not be beliered, though he with hiin. His words are, As for the speaks it himself, when he says he does general community between Noah and any thing which will not consist with his sons, which Mr. Selden will have to Sir Robert's hypothesis. be granted to them, Gen. ix. 2. the text, 33. For it is plain, however he would duth not warrant it. What warrant exciude them, that part of his benedic- • our author would have, when the plain tion, as he would have it in succession, express words of scripture, not capable must needs be meant to the suns, and of another meaning, will not satisfy him, not to Noah himself at all: Be fruitwho pretends to build wholly on scrip- ful, and multiply, and replenish the ture, is not easy to imagine. The text earth, says God, in this blessing. This says, God blessed Noah and his sons, part of the benediction, as appears by and said unto them, i. e. as our author the sequel, concerned not Noah burself would have it, unto him : for, saith he, at all; for we read not of any children although the sons are there mentioned he had after the flood; and in the 101- · with Noah in the blessing, yet it muy best lowing chapter, where his posterity is be understood, with a subordination or reckoned up, there is no inention of benediction in succession, Observations, any; and so this benediction in succes211. That indeed is best, for our au- sion was not to take place till 350 years chor to be understood, which best serves afier; and to save our author's inagito his purpose; but that truly may best be wary monarchy, the peopline of the understood by any body else, which best world must be deterred 350 years; for agrees with the plain construction of the this part of the benediction cannot be words, and arises froia the chyjous understood with subordination, unless

our author will say, that they must ask world; why should it be thought that leave of their father Noah to lie with God would disinherit him of his birththeir wives. But in this one point our au- right, and make him of all men in the thor is constant to himself in all bis dis world the onlar tenant in common with courses, he takes great care there should his children ? Observations, 211. be monarchs in the world, but very lite 36. The prejudices of our own illtle that there should be people, and grounded opinions, however by us callindeed his way of government is not the ed probable, canyot authorise us to unway to people the world: for how much derstand scripture contrary to the diabsolute monarchy belps to fulfil this rect and plain meaning of the words. I great and primary blessing of God Al grant, it is not probable, that Adam's mighty, be fruitful, and multiply, und private dominion was here abrogated : replenish the earth, which contains in it hecause it is more than improbable, the improvement too of arts and sciences, (for it will never be proved) ihat ever and the conveniencies of life, may be Adam had any such private dominion : seen in those large and rich countries and since parallel places of scripture which are happy under the Turkish go- are most probable to make us know vernment, where are not now to be how they may be best understood, there found one third, nay in many, if not needs but the comparing this blessing most parts of them one thirtieth, per here to Noah and his sons after the baps I might say not one hundredth of flood, with that to Adam after the crezthe people, that were formerly, as will tion, Gen. i. 28. to assure any one that easily appear to any one, who will com- God gave Adam no such private domipare the accounts we have of it at this nion. It is probable, I confess, that time, with antient history. But ibis by Noah should bave the same title, the the bye.

same property and dominion after the 34. The other parts of this benedic- food, that Adam had before it: but tion, or grant, are so expressed, that since pridnte dominion cannot consist they must needs be understood to be with the blessing and grant God gave to long equally to them all; as much to him and his sons in common, it is a Noah's sons as to Noah himself, and sufficient reason to conclude, that Adam not to lis sons with a subordination or had none, especially since in the dona. . in succession. The fear of you, and the tion made to him, there are no words dread of you, says God, shall be upon that express it, or do in the least favour every beast, &c. Will any body but it; and then let my reader judge wher our author say, that the creatures fear. ther it may best be understood, when in ed and stood in awe of Noab only, and the one place there is not one word for not of his sons without his leave, or till it, not to say what has been above after his death! And the following proved, that the text itself proves the words, into your hands they are deliver- contrary; and in the other, the words ed, are they to be understood as our au- and sense are directly against it. thor says, if your father please, or they 37. But our author says, Noah was shall be delivered into your hands bere- the sole heir of the world; why should after? If this be to argue from scrip- it be thought that God would disinherit ture, I know not what may not be pro- him of his birth-right? Heir, indeed, ved by it; and I can scarce see how in England signifies the eldest son, who much this differs from that fiction and is by the law of England to have all his fancy, or how much a surer foundation father's land; but where God ever apa it will prove, than the opinions of philo- pointed any such heir of the world, our sophers and poets, which our author so author would have done well to have much condemns in his preface.

shewn us; and how God disinherited 35. But our author goes on to prove, him of his birth-right, or what harm was that it may best be understood with a done him if God gave tiis sons a right to subordination, or a benediction in suc make use of a part of the earth for the cession ; for, says he, it is not probable support of themselves and families, that the private dominion which God when the whole was not only more than gave to Adam, and by his donation, as Noah himself, but infinitely more than signation, or cession to his children, was they all could make use of, and the abrogated, and a community of all things possessions of one could not at all preinstituted between Noah and his sons judice, or, as to any use, streighten that Noah was left the sole heir of the of the olher.

38. Our author probably foreseeing of any thing more natural, nor more he might not be very successful in per- certain, than to say, it is delivered into suading people out of their senses, and, his hands. And verse 3. to shew that say what he could, men would be apt they had then given them the utmost to believe the plain words of scripture, property man is capable of, which is to and think, as they saw, that the grant have a right to destroy any thing by was spoken to Noah and his sons joint using it; every moving thing that liveth, ly; he endeavours to insinuate, as if saith God, shall be meat for you; which this grant to Noah conveyed no pro- was not allowed to Adam in his charperty, no dominion; because, subduing ter. This our author calls a liberty the earth and dominion over the crea of using them for food, and only an tures are therein omitled, nor the earth enlargement of commons, but no alteraonce numed. And therefore, says he, tion of property. Observations 211, there is a considerable difference between What other property man can have in these two terts; the first blessing gave the creatures, but the liberty of using Adam a dominion over the earth and all them, is hard to be understood; so that creatures; the latter allows Noah liber if the first blessing, as our author says, ty to use the living creatures for food : gave Adam dominion over the creatures, here is no ulteration or diminishing of his and the blessing to Noah and his sons, title to a property of all things, but an gave them such a liberty to use them, enlargement only of his commons, Ob- as Adam had not; it must needs give servations, 211. So that in our au- . them something that Adam with all bis thor's sense, all that was said here to sovereignty wanted, something that one Noah and his sons, gave them no domi- would be apt to take for a greater pronion, no property, but only enlarged perty; for certainly he has no absolute the commons; their commons, I should dominion over even the brutal part of say, since God says, to you are they the creatures; and the property be has given, though our author says his ; for in them is very narrow and scanty, who as for Noah's sons, they, it seems, by cannot make that use of them, which is Sir Robert's appointment, during their permitted to another. Should any one father's life-time, were to keep fusting who is absolute lord of a country, have days!

bidden our author subdue the earth, and · 39. Any one but our author would be given him dominion over the creatures mightily suspected to be blinded with in it, but not have permitted him to prejudice, that in all this blessing to have taken a kid or a lamb out of the Noah and his sons, could see nothing flock, to satisfy his hunger, I guess, he but only an enlargement of commons: would scarce have thought himself lord for as to dominion, wluch our author or proprietor of that land, or'the cattle thinks omitted, the fear of you, and on it; but would have found the diffethe dread of you, says God, shall be rence between having dominion, which upon every beast, which I suppose ex- a shepherd may have, and having full

pressess the dominion, or superiority was property as an owner. So that, had it · designed man over i he living creatures, as been his own case, Sir Robert, I befully as may be; for in that fear and dread lieve, would have thought here was an seeins chiefly to consist what was given alteration, way, an enlarging of properto Adam over the inferior animals; who, ty; and that Noah and his children had as absolute a monarch as he was, could by this grant, not only property given not make bold with a lark or rabbit to them, but such a property given them satisfy his hunger, and had the herbs in the creatures, as Adam bad not: for but in common with the beasts, as is however, in respect of one another, men plain from Gen. i. 2, 9, and 30. In the may be allowed to have propriety in their next place, it is manifest, that in this distinct portions of the creatures; yet in blessing to Noah and his sons, property respect of God the maker of heaven and is not only given in clear words, but in earth, who is sole lord and proprietor of a larger extent than it was to Adain the whole world, man's propriety in the Into your hands they are given, says creatures is nothing but that liberty to God to Noah and his sons; which words, use them, which God has permitced ; if they give not property, nay, property and so man's property may be altered in possession, it will be hard to find and enlarged, as we see it was bere, afwords that can; since there is not a ter the flood, when other uses of thein way to express a man's being possessed are allowed, which briore were not.

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