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blood," are falsehoods, as gross as all his servants to be constantly prethey are wilful. The author must 'sent with him at it.” The principal suppose his readers to be totally ig- officers in the army and the navy norant of all histories of our coun• during the civil war were episcopatry, even the most partial. As to lians. Dr. Williams, Archbishop the political principles of the vene- of York accepted a commission from rable puritàns, let our historian, Mr. the parliament, and was commander Hume, who was by no means par- in chief of their forces in North tial to their opinions or characters, Wales. Lord Clarendon adds~" So answer. The precious spark of that I think it is past dispute with “ liberty was preserved by the puri- reasonable men, if there was any tans alone, and it was to this sect, fault in opposing the king's mea" that the English ove the , whole sures, and taking up arms against freedom of their constitution. The him, it must be imputed to the church author of the “ Notes," with his usual OF ENGLAND, for they were the first violation of truth, charges the whole and the DEEPEST in the quarrel.. So body of the dissenters with having far from the presbyterians, or indeed begun that noble and constitutional any other denomination of dissenters resistance to despotic tyranny which being instrumental to the death of he insolently terms “ the great re- the king, that they were very much bellion," and with “ the crime of against it, and were as Bishop Bure murdering the King!" But the house net observes, “ every were fasting of Commons which restored Charles and praying against it.” The bishop II. so far from deeming the consti, adds-" It was the crime of but a tutional resistance to his father " a few hot-headed enthusiasts, or am: great rebellion.” had one of its mem- bitious soldiers. Many of the most bers (Mr. Lenthall) reprimanded on considerable dissenters, did even then bis knees for using similar language, when it was not so safe to do it as and the Speaker declared it as the now, (1680) openly declare against sense of the house.:-" That those it both in their sermons and writings. who drew the sword did it to bring This is what in justice cannot be dedelinquents to punishment, and to nied them!—The body of London vindicate their just liberties; and dissenting ministers (upwards of 50) that Mr. Lenthall's words, are an presented a solemn and bold protest high reflection upon the justice and to the parliament, against “ doing proceedings of the Lords and Com- the least hurt to the person of the mons in their actings before 1648.” kiny,” and carnestly petitioned" that That the puritans as a body, cannot instead of bringing his Majesty to claim the honour of beginning the justice as some speak, they would resistance to Charles I. or bear the put him in a better condition to du dishonour of beheading him, we as- justice." The plain fact is, that the sert on the authority of Lord Cla- dissenting ministers were the only rendon,, Rapin, and various other persons of the sacred order who achistorians.-" They were members tively endeavoured to preserve the of the church of England who began monarchy, and the person of the the quarrel with the King, and first king.* What can ihe author of the drew the sword against him. The “Notes” reply to this incontroverEarl of Essex, the parliament's general, and whose very name raised

* See a collection of evidence on this an army, was episcopal; and as,

subject, in-An Essuy towards attaining Lord Clarendon observes, was as

' a true idea of the character and reign of..

Charles I. &c. By the late M. Towmuch devoted as any man to the good of Exeter. A new edition of this book of Common Prayer, and obliged work will speedily be published.

tible evidence, convicting him of ig. hell without redemption! Horrible rance the most consummate, or false- as is the supposition, every clergyhood the most wilful and malignant? man has given his unfeigned assent He has dared to appeal to history and consent to this infernal falsehood, “ What trick, what device, what and solemnly proclaims it every time starting hole, canst thou now find he reads in public worship that most out, to hide thee from this open and abominable creed. Other instances apparent shame?"* With respect to might he mentioned, but this is sufthe controversy relative to the pre- ficent to prove that the foundation cise sense of the 39 articles, although stone of the church of England is it is an important truth, that no DISHonesty, and amongst other coman or body of men, have a right to get reasons, were there this only impose 39, any more than 390 arti- remaining, a dissent from such a cle, on any member of the christian church is the imperious duty of every church, we do not think it necessary friend to real christianity and geto enter on this part of the subject, nuine integrity. We challenge the for this plain reason, that we deem “Annotator," or any one of his bre. it impossible for any man to vindi thren to confute what we now decate the subscription of ALL and clare, and what we have repeatedly EVERY thing in the articles, and in declared to the christian world, on the book of Common Prayer, on any this awful subject. . principle of common sense or com- The author of the Notes in his mon honesty. All the apologies made usual superficial manner glances at by Dr. Paley, or oibers for signing another most solid reason for dissent the articles in different senses, (thir. -The manner in which ministers are tcen senses have been discovered,) or appointed by the establishment. What. as articles of peace, that is in no ever he may have hinted about the sense at all, are a disgrace not only established church, he dare not deny to the first principles of christianity, the plain facts,—That the sale of but to those inculcated by the light church livings is legalised ; that of nature: heathens would have some of them are mere sinecures; blushed at the subscription required that many of the clergy are plura. of all the ministers of the church of lists, and the majority non-residents; England, and at all the'various apo- and that for several centuries after logies made for ecclesiastical prevari- the promulgation of christianity, the cation and falsehood. We do not pastors of the church, ordinary and believe there is a thinking man a- extraordinary, were chosen by the mongst the whole body of the clergy people. When he talks of the supe. who gives the unfeigned ussent and rior moral qualifications of the clergy, consent required. Does the author he is requested just to examine how of the “ Notes” believe, that some many of the reverend body have, of the most illustrious members of during the present reign, been conhis own church,--Archbishop Til. victed of adultery, and other crimes, lotson, Bishop Burnet, Drs. Clarke, and how many have ended their lives Jortin, &c. &c. and the equally il- ou the gallows ? Let him make the lustrious members of our dissenting. same inquiry respecting the dissenchurches, Drs. Watts, Doddridge, ters.-Verbum sat. Lardner, &c. &c. who all disbe- The Annotator adds, as a reason lieved the Athanasian Creed, and for depriving the people of their just abhorred its damnatory clauses, are right of choosing their own pastors: now suffering the eternal torments of “In the Old Testament we find, un

der the institution of God himself, a se* Shakespear's Hen. IV. 1st. part. parated order of men for the priesthood, in whose appointment most assuredly up the number of the apostles. .... In the people had no voice. And in the the primitive churches it appears that New Testament, the council of the apos- all might preach or prophecy. 2. Cor. tles in Jerusalem, after the resurrection XIV. 24. and it is evident by the efof our Saviour, sent forth' by their own fects produced on strangers, who came especial appointment preachers; and in during their worship, that some were instituted bishops, presbyters, and dea- convinced and converted thereby : this cons in the several churches and congre- therefore being so desirable an object, gations of their extended proselytes. Thus a wise regulation is enjoined respecting therefore the appointment of preachers the preachers; that they seek the ediby the suffrages of separate congrega- fying of the church, and speak to be fions, is not scriptural, nor has it any understood. ... No church ruler apfoundation in the sucred writings !!!pears to contioul this liberty, nor his

As to any argument from the Old license asked : and I can see no scripTestament, it is sufficiently answered tural reason or injunction to hinder by the Annotator himself, who re

any man with the approbation of ihe marks that_“ The Almighty did

congregation, from speeking for their

instruction : the exclusion of women not see good to establish a theocracy, (v. 31.) from becoming public teachers, upon the christian revelation ;" to seems to admit the right of any man which she might have added, Jesus who is .qualified and approved ; and Christ absolutely prohibited any

this qualification every christian brother

(v. 39 ) should covet earnestly to obtain. member of the christian church from

Origin, when a layman thus preached, having dominion over the faith of ano- even before bishops in the third centher, or calling in religion, any one tury..... During the first ages, the his master or father. That the apose ministry was not appropriated to gentles sent furth preachers to publish tlenen or scholars; no inan was bred the gospel no one denies; and that to it as a profession, or went into it for the primitive christians when formed a maintenance : they were pastors of a into societies, chose their own bishops

different staip. ..A learned and in

genions age prides itself in its superioor overseers, that is pastors of their rity, in defences of revealed religion, respective churches, and other offi- and apologies for the bible; these will cers as they might judge necessary, be read with admiration and applause no honest man acquainted with eccle- by scientific men, and those who are siastical history will dispute. When initiated in all the learned lore : but we add that these officers of the pri. what hath this arguing proved? The

plain story of a poor, unlettered man mitive churches did not arrogate any

any telling of the sufferings of Christ, and sacred titles, nor exterior distinc. the glory which hath followed, with tions from the laity, nor were even their consequences, bath done more in paid for their services, we are per the way of conversion to real and vital suaded we shall “ harrow up" the christianity, than all the writings of our feelings of the Annotator and of every great polemics put together. . . He is priest who reflects for a moment on

the best doctor who cures me.

“ The simplicity of Gospel truth ill actruths so disagreeable : plain truths

cords with a farrago of rites and cerehowever must be told. In confir- movies : nothing could be more vnamation of what we have advanced, dorned than the primitive worship. A we might refer to various ecclesias- plain man chosen from bis fellows, in tical historians; but a quotation or bis common gurb, stood up to speak, or two, not from a dissenting minister. sat down to read the scriptures, to as but from a modern clergyman of

many as chose to assemble in the house the establishment will be sufficient ship recorded, were those still observed

appointed : tbe particulars of their worfor the purpose.

in the true churches throughout the “All ecclesiastical officers from the world. Hymns sung to Christ, as their beginning, and for the first three hun- God, appeared to the heathens a strie dred years, were elected by the people. king feature of the christian worship : Evep Muthias was thus chosen to fill the holy scriptures were read; and the

VOL. XI.

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presbyter or bishop, or two or three of strides, to add greater sanctity to the the congregation, who were endued priesthood, and the not unpleasant adwith prophetic or preaching talents, junct of the divine right of TYTHES atspoke a word of exhortation to the peo- tached to the divine right of EPISCOPAple. Prayer from the heart without a cy. . . These abuses indeed grew not prompter followed. .... We have yet up at once : the remaining piety and no trace of any form or established ri- purity of the true church, and multitual : the mode of worship was left to tude of its primitive pastors retarded the discretion of the several churches the progress of worldly-mindedness and and its minister. The sacrament of the ambition, till the UNION OF CHURCIE Lord's supper closed the devotions of AND STATE in the establishment of the day. ... Then also I apprehend, christianity under Constantine, pretty every inan produced, according to his nearly completed the worldly system. .. ability, weekly, what he had laid by It is always observable that the forms for charitable purposes, which' formed f religion increase just in proportion a fund of oblations under the controul as the power of godliness is lost."* of the church for all the various pur. These quotations are fully suffiposes of general good. ... As yet (in cient to overturn all that the author the id century,) I can perceive no part of the Notes has said respecting the of this fund appropriated to pay the

different orders of ministers, the nasalaries of any minister of the sanctuary,

wder the title of an iure of their commission, the neces. itinerant evangelist; and being incapasity of forms of prayer &c. and to ble of providing his own maintenance, 'prove his utter ignorance of the and wholly occupied in the gospel work, constitution of the primitive churchwas justly entitled, as preaching the es as recorded in the New Testament, gospel, to live by the gospel. I very or Ecclesiastical History. much doubt if the bishop or presbyters, We should have scarcely thought and deacons, received at first any thing for their labours of love: I am persuas it possible that any person in the ded they thought their work the best 19th century, would have dared to wages.

vindicate the test, so subversive of • As pride and worldly mindedness the principles of the British constimust go hand in hand, assumed pomp tution passed in the reign of Charles and dignity required a sort of mainte

II. but repealed shortly afterwards :

bi nance very different from the state '

"I. A. B, do swear that it is not when the pastor wrought with his own hands: the idea of priesthood bad yet lawful on any pretence to take arms scarcely entered into the christian sanc- against the King or against those tuary; as there remained no more sacri- commissioned by him, and that I fice for sin, and but one high priest of will not at any time endeavour any our profession, Jesus Christ : but on alteration of government either in the dissolution of the whole Jewish

church or state.This oath is de priesthood under Adrian, when the power of the associated clergy began

fended by our" Note” writer; one to put forth its bud, the ambitious and proof, amongst others, that he is an designing suggested, what many of the enemy to the principles of the Brirest received in their simplicity, that tis Constitution, and a libeller of the succession to those honours now the glorious Revolution. devolved upon them, and that the bi The author of the Protestant Dis. shop stood in the place of the high

senter's Catechism had remarked conpriest; the presbyters were priests, and the deacons levites, and so a train of consequences followed: thus a new tribe * See, An Impartial and Succinct arose completely separated from their History of the Rise, Declension, and brethren, of clergy distinct from LAI- revival of the Church of Christ ; from TY: men sacred by office, exclusive of the birth of our Saviour to the present a divine call and real worth : the altar time. By the Rev. T. Haweis, L. L. B. indeed was not yet erected, nor the un- and M. D). Rector of All Saints, Aldbloody sacrifice of the Eucharist per- winckle. Vol. I. p. 73, 94, 95, 103, fected; but it approached by hasty 169, 202-6.

cerning the Schism Bill, which he nesty to assign the doctor's reason ? justly terms a bill for enslaving the " It is thought more proper in a dissenters, “ Thui the Queen (Anne) catechism for children, to give the died the very day on which this ini- ten commandinents in short, and quitous act was to have taken place," not to write them down here at full On which the “ Note” writer has length ; which is not so needful for this most curious observation :- children, and would burden their This judgment is enforced by Ita- memories. Christ himself and St. lics, and when expressed viva voce Paul have done the same thing, when in a tone still more lively and ener. they rehearsed several of these comgetic, is no DUUBT intended to prove inands. See Mat. xix. 1S. and Rom. the ETERNAL DAMNATION of Queen xiii. 2." And for this that great Anne for the impious intention !"- ornament of our dissenting churches, This modern Sacheverel, as well as and of the world, the admiration of all his clerical brethren, being in the even high churchmen themselves, habit of pronouncing, “ without (witness Dr. Johnson's well-known doubt” the eternal damnation of all encomium) is compared to the Rowho do not receive the absurdities of man catholics, who in some of their the Athanasian creed, seems to ima- catechisms mutilate the second com-;' gine that no one can mention even a mandment, which bears hard on their remarkable providence, in defeating image worship, and who at the same the projects of the enemies of civil tine, prevent the word of God from and religious liberty, without at the being read by the common people; same time exercising a disposition as whereas, as the calumniator well unchristian as his own.

I knows, every dissenter constantly This Reverend calumniator has appeals to it as the rule of his faith not scrupled to slander the memory and practice, and encourages the of Dr. Watts; a man, as superior to reading of it in his family. him in every respect, as an angel is This bitter enemy of the dissenters to a toad.--After snecring at this in his complaints against the Tolemost excellent man, as a “ Dissen, ration act, observes as follows:ting Apostle," he has the effrontery “Any man, without exception, may to charge him “ with garbling the as the law now stands, declaring himself word of God; like the Romanists to be a dissenter of any denomination, curtailing and mutilating the ten demand, a license from the magistrates, commandments according to his ang

and for the tee of six-pence, become a

privileged minister of the gospel, and tancy, and dealing out the scriptures ibus stand qualified, not only to preach according to bis own discretion as it any doctrine which a supposed inspirámay suit bis purpose!"--comparing tion may dictate, but to set at denance him, with the dissenters in general, the laws of the land, which call upon 66 to the Dissenting and rebellious every inan to serre or find a substitute Israelites, who raised up the molten

ind in the molton in the militia of his county. This apcalf, the monster of their own ima. per

pears to be so shameful an abuse of

an act of Toleration, that a noble peer gination, Opposing it to the voice or lately thought it worthy parliamentary God himself, calling to them amidst investigation, and the ill success of bis the thunders of Sinai!” The reader eiforts is to be attributed to a popular will doubtless with astonishment en cry artfully fabricated and most jesuitiquire, on what such an heinous çally cloaked.” charge is grounded? Why truly-- To this mass' of priestly malice, Dr. Watts in his second catechism, misrepresentation, and falsehood, we thought proper to give a summary of reply, that the six-penny licence of the commandments only: but why she magistrate although it protect a had not the reverend libeller the ho- man from persecution, does not con

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