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rant men, and ignorant men are inca- very evident that their hearers derivepable of explaining the scriptures. This any superior illumination. Nor, consiis a proposition on which the enemies of dering that the majority of every conmethodism dwell, with all the confidence gregation must necessarily be deficient of argumentative victory; but, to exa-. in taste and learning, would it be prudent mine its truth, we must first attend to to bring into use all those acquirements the import of the term ignorant. Igno- for which the modern clergy are su emirant is a relative terin, and relates both nently conspicuous. Their weak eyes to the subject to be explained, and to night be dazzled by the refulgent lustre the people who are to be benefited by uf clerical erudition; and perhaps it is the explanation. Many good Greek compassionate to twinkle upon them scholars could explain a passage from with milder and less irritating rays. To Homer, who would find it impossible to speak seriously, there certamly should explain satisfactorily the “ tenebrous” be some equality preserved between the fragments of Lycopbron. Because a per- discourse and the congregation, who are son never read Cæsar's Commentaries in intended to benefit by it; and this is the original, may be not be acquainted another reason that great learning is not with all the facts in that work? May be an essential qualification for a useful not describe the formation of the famous minister of the Gospel. bridge across the Rhine, as correctly as if “ With respect to eloquence, the me- € he were a first-rate Latio scholar? As far thodists are certainly not inferior. Their then as our version of the Holy Scrip- eloquence may be rude, but it is animatures is correct, every person of good ted. Theirs is never the unwilling elosense, and of moderate proficiency in quence of a school-boy repeating his bis native language, can understand and lesson. The emotious of their soul geexpatiate upon them with propriety.-- nerally accompany their lips. They Our version is not so correct as it might shew anxiety to make converts, and is it be made; but is that the fault of the surprising that they should be successmethodists? Where are our two uni- ful? To enter the majority of the versities? Where are the bishops ? churches in this metropolis, and hear Where the much-boasted learning of the preachers reading over, with monothe established clergy? As to the doc- tonous drone, their stolen serions, and trinal parts, or mysteries of our religion, then express surprise that the methodists they are certainly as well understood by are increasing, certainly shews no great the most ignorant methodist preacher, acuteness of the reasoning faculty." as the most profound linguist--as well by Jobn Bunyan as by Dr. Lowth; and
The superiority of the methodists the election which our Saviour pade of over the established clergy in their the apostles, to be depositaries of his visitation of the sick, and in their doctrines, is at least a presumptive general usefulness in society is insis. proof that it required no high scholastic ted on; and the following instances attainments to understand, and interpretare brought in proof of the author's them correctly. - “ The cant about the importance of poskun a knowledge of the learned languages to “The great argunient for the methoo correct reasoning, is daily becoming dists still remains untouched, thầt is, the more obsolete; and the most ardent good they have done to society, and are advocate of the established church, will daily employed in doing. If there be scarcely assert, that our modern clergy any criterion by which we can judge often break their rest by poring over the the merits of a sect, it is this; and here original Hebrew. Indeed, I believe, we can fortunately support our defence, there have been as many ghosts laid in by the evidence of stubborn facts. The the Red Sea, by speaking latin, as diffi- late Marquis of Lansdown had expecult texts of scripture explained, in the rienced much trouble from the immorapresent æra of our establishment by a lity, and consequent quarrels among the reference to the Hebrew text. It can- tenantry on one of his estates-he solinot be denied, that the methodists ge- cited the advice of his intimate friend nerally bring into use all the stock of Dr. Price, what method he should adopt knowledge they possess; and supposing to obviate the evil. Dr. Price was, it is them ignorant, when compared with the well known, himself an Arian, and cerestablished clergy, yet if the light of the tainly cannot be suspected to have had įster be hid under a bushel, it is not any partiality for the tenets of method,
ism; Dr. Price, however, recommend- Introduction to the History of the ed, as the most efficacious remedy, to Revolution of Spain ; by Alvaro place among them a few methodist
Florez Estrada, Attorney General preachers. The experiment was tried, and succeeded beyond expectation.
of the Province of Asturins. TransThey became, in a short time, metho
lated from the Author's, MSS.dists, and good members of society. By W. Burdon, p. 287. Sher
“A friend of mine, residing lately, wood, Neely and Jones. for the benefit of his health, near a ma In our Review for February last, nufacturing village in the west of En
we noticed a plan of a constitution, gland, by chance, went to a methodist meeting in the vicinity, and observing,
presented to the Spanish jurta, by during divine service, the behaviour and
the author of this work, which evirespectable appearance of more than a dently discovered an enlightened hundred young females, belonging to the mind, and a love for the principles neighbouring manufactory, was induced, of genuine freedom. Mr. Burdon when, some days after, in company with the translator of hoth works, thus its proprietor, to inquire by what means
expresses his admiration of that now he was able tu produce such regularity
arity before us.-"My partiality for a of conduct; in answer to which he was informed, that until a methodist meeting
man who has done and suffered so was established in the place, all plans
much in the cause of freedom, may, for preserving their morality had füled, perhaps, mislead my judgment in and that they then were as depraved as estimating the merits of this perforany girls, under similar circumstances, mance; but to me it seems that I in the kingdom ; but that since their at- have never met with any thing mo. tention had been roused by the instruc
dern to be compared with it for tions of their methodist pastor, they had become equally conspicuous for decorum
clear and circumstantial narrative, and propriety of conduct.”
for dignified sentiment, and for geThe author concludes by alluding neral interest.” to Lord Sidmouth's long threatened in the preface the author after bill, which is at length introduced making some miscellaneous obserto the house of Lords : bis reflec- vations on the use of history, which tions on the prospect of such a bill he considers as “the best school for will be most cordially approved by “ all those who wish to know how every friend to civil and religious lie" to conduct themselves," "offers the berty.
following apology to the public for “ The liberal Hints of the Barrister to the present performance. induce ' legislative interference,” or, in . “ I well know the difficulty of the other words, religious persecution, seem task I have undertaken, but nothing to be taking effect. A bill is to be brought can contribute more to make a good before parliament, in the ensuing ses- government beloved and respected, than sion), to render it more difficult to obtain a faithful picture of tbe misfortunes and licences to preach, under the frivolous calamities which arise both from anarchy pretext of preventing fraudulent exemp- and despotism. To place the whole in tion from the inilitia; but it is to be a clearer light, I have thought it requihoped, before such an argument is per- site that this introduction should premitted to have any weight, it will at cede the history which I intend to give least be supported by one well-authentic of the revolution in the principality of cated instance of the kind, If we sup Asturias my native country, in which port toleration, and maintain that every I was personally concerned. It is imman should have the liberty to chuse his possible to penetrate to the bottom of a own religious creed, every man should be revolution so great, merely by the events equally at liberty to chuse his own reli- which occurred in it. A history of this . gious teacher. Absolute unrestricted to nature should be divided into two parts: leration, except in thc opinion of bigots, the first, which may be called the inis the right of every human being, und a troduction, ought to explain the nature right, which it is to be fervently hoped, and causes of the revolution, the direcevery Briton will have the virtue to claim.!" tion which it takes; aud 'to contain,
besides a relation of facts, just and than to reform the multitude of abuses acute remarks on a subject of such ge- which had grown up in their governneral interest. The second part ought ment; and no object could be more leto relate the events. Without this di- gitimate; but the Kings of Europe, see vision, the narrative will be confused, ing that it was contrary to their personal because the reader cannot understand interest, and inconsistent with their dig. the events whose origin he is unacquain- pity, that France should attempt to ted with, and without this kuowledge, place limits to the power of their mothey will seem both contradictory and narchs, lest the same thing should hapimprobable.
pen to themselves, could not look on i The first part is that of which I am with indifference, nor remain tranquil about to treat. Truth being the only spectators of such events. Without any guide which an historian ought to fol- oiher motive than this, and thinking low, I have rigidly adhered to this max- that it might afford them an opportunity im. I have published no other docu- of aggrandizing themselves, by diminishments than those which were circulated ing the power of a nation which all in Spain, by order of Napoleon himself, others had looked upon with jealousy, and which I received in my official ca- they easily agreed to form an alliance pacity, as attorney-general of the prin- the most unjust that ever existed. The cipality of Asturias. I have spoken of result was such as might have been exthe private meetings at Bayonne, in the pected by any sensible person who convery language in which I received an sulted his reason, and did not suffer account of them from those who were himself to be led astray by the spirit of present, whose names I forbear to men- party, The French fought for their tion, lest I should endanger their safety. freedom, and to defend those rights I have never ventured to make conjeć- which inspire the generality of men with tures which are not supported by facts valour and enthusiasm ; their enemies or probability, and I am satisfied that I sacrificed themselves to support the inhave not failed in any important condi- terest of Kings which they little undertion-nou been partial in concealing the stood : and since they attempted to defects of any one--nor in attributing confound the rights of freedom with the to them faults of which they were not name of licentiousness, which they gave guilty.
to the conduct of the French, it was not “I expect to obtain from my readers to be wondered that they were soon dethat indulgence which every man de- feated on all sides. It must be conserves who is impelled by an honourable fessed, that neither Louis XVI. would motive; and it ought to be considered, have been beheaded, nor would the that having suffered innumerable cala- French have succeeded against all Eumities for having served the cause of rope united, if the enemies of France my country, my mind cannot always had not committed those errors which preserye that serenity which may be the injustice of their cause naturally prothought requisite for a work of great duced. The ministers and counsellors meditation, and that I have composed of that feeble and ill-advised monarch, it somewhat hastily, on account of the not bearing that his power should decline circumstances under which I have writ- from that height to which it had been ten."
raised, under the pretence of reinstating On such a subject as the Spanish the king in all his rights, and that he revolution, it was natural in the might not give his consent to the reforms writer to refer to that great event
which the nation demanded, persuaded which may be considered as the pa
him to'fly the kingdom, without consirent of the various revolutions which
dering the danger of exposing the nation
to complete anarchy. The very means have since followed, however they they took to reinstate bio produced his may have differed in their principles ruin. The unhappy monarch would not or the means by which they have have ventured on a measure so precipiheen accomplished. Respecting the tate, if he had 'not been excited to it French revolution our author makes
Sales by the court of Vienna; but every thing
o contributed to produce an effect conthe following just observations...
trary to that which was expected, and “The French, at the commencement we need no wonder at the result which of their revolation, had no other object happened from the conduct of the ill
advised monarch. The enemics of France suffer men to act with calmness, the thinkig their coalition the most power- rivals of France, desirous to diminish, ful that had ever been formed, believed as soon as possible, the influence and that nothing could resist it and they power of that nation, bastened to dedid not find out, till it was too late, clare war, without perceiving that it that the advantages were all on the side could only serve to unite the French, of their opponents : being thus unde- and make them forget or suspend their ceived, their terror was equal to their internal dissentions, which were their former confidence.
chief :nisfortune. “One error generally produces ano- " The true lover of his country forgets ther. The pride and contempt with the insults of his fellow citizens when which, at the commencement of the he is called upon to drive away her enerevolution, they treated the power and mies. They did not perceive that the resonrces of France, and the despair interests of the French would be conwith which they afterwards regarded the centrated from that moment, anı, that contest, most probably contributed to their own would be divided. It is imthat uninterrupted series of victories possible that even two individuals can which compelled them to receive the long hold together to support an unjust law from those to whom they had ats, cause, much less two nations; and, tempted to give it. Contempt of their therefore, in proportion to the greater enemies, and un imprurient confidence in number of the allies, the sooner they their own superiority, has been, und ever were likely to quarrel. The wicked can will be, the cause of ruin to the inost never remain long united. powerful empires. A civil war, in which “ Our passions and our reason have the republicans and the royalists fell long conspired to persuade us that noupon each other-a want of money, ney is one of the sinews of war. Virthe which had occasioned a bankruptcy of alone is the true nerve of states, and in the government, and was a secondary that alone consists all their force. France, cause of the revolution-the general now so victorious, would have been subemigration of certain classes, who were dued, if, against so many enemies and averse to reform--the great effusion of in a state of bankruptcy, she had had blood among the different republican to sustain a war for any other object parties, gave the enemies of France the than that which she had. Her enemies hopes of certain triumph, and a blind understood not this truth : they believed confidence, which prevented them from the event would be the same as with seeing that all their unjust and impru- other governments, when they had no dent projects were perpetually liable to money to pay for men or provisions. be frustrated. Had they acted with But they were ignorant that a war, dewisdom and justice, they would have clared by a whole country, supposes a attempted to prevent the misfortunes of general and ardent spirit of patriotism; the nation, and per.nitted the reform, and, in that case, men will fight withwhich was indispensible, and in which out money; for when animated by a men of all countries were deeply inte love of their country, nations possess rested; but, as they thought only of the inexhaustible resources, which are neinterest of kings, and never of the good ver calculated by the policy of cabinets, of the people, they acted, eventually, us “ The emigration did no harm to, but it happens in all these cases, against rather served the cause of France : for, their own interest. Had they been ac- as the emigrants belonged, in general, quainted with true and sound policy, to classes who would not have been emthey would have known that nations ployed in war, in the arts, or in agriculowe as much to each other as indivi- ture, they deprived the country of nejviduals, and that that which is just, ther soldiers nor resources; and, by alone is useful : but even considering their departure, the French found themtheir own happiness alone, which is als selves in possession of a considerable ways bad policy, if they bad consulted portion of riches, with which they could their reason, they would have been con- supply the expences of the war., Betented to see the French engaged in a sides, the emigrants left them also the war among themselves, which cost them means of augmenting their population nothing, and would make them in the in future : for population being always end more powerful, by remaining quict in proportion to the means of subsisspectators. But, as the passions never tence and comfort, the great estates of
the nobles and clergy being equally di- most bloody war-terrified by the loss vided, increased the number of proprie of their most zealous republicans-and tors in France by more than a million, irritated at the injustice, weakness, and and in a few years will increase it still perverseness of the directory, they saw, further.”
with tranquillity, the sanctuary of their To the mistaken principles of those laws and the sovereignty of the people who opposed the French revolution, which had by no means been sufficientin its origin, and the rigour with
ly defended by their constitution) at
tacked and annihilated by Bonaparte at which the French expelled those
one single stroke." who attacked their independence,
The character and the history of “ the only motive which can make Bonaparte is then given in a man. men invincible," are ascribed those
ner naturally to be expected from events which have filled the world
a Spaniard, whose love of liberty with astonishment. It is very justly and independence excite in him the added-“ To acquire liberty, a mo
utmost indignation agrinst the man “ ment of fervour is sufficient, but
whom he considers as the de“ to preserve it men must be virtu
stroyer of both. Although some “ous and of rigid morals.” To il
prejudice and partiality are appalustrate this position, and to account
rent on this part of the work, it afor the submission of the French to
bounds with useful observations the tyranny of Bonaparte, our au which are applicable to all counthor remarks as follows.
tries, where the will of the tyrant *« All nations who have lost their li
is law. On the subject of the li
lo.." berty, have lost it by slow degrees, from the effects of corruption, and not in a
" berty of the press, we have the folmoment, as France bas; and this can lowing just observations. only be accounted for by the corrupt “ To censure the measures of governstate of the French people before the ment was considered as the highest state revolution. A moral revolution can ne- crime; and to prevent the possibility of ver be sudden, because men cannot it in future, he (Bonapartel put an end change in a day their habits of thinking to the liberty of the press; which saand feeling, without which an enslaved cred right, though considerably limited, penple can never be free. Nothing can had produced so many great men in more strongly prove this truth than the France from the time of Louis XIV. He indifference with which the French na- did that which every despotic government tion submitted, without the least resis- does to prevent their iniquitous schemes tance, to a inan who openly attacked being discovered : he fixed the seal of and annihilated, in a moment, their na- despotism on the people, by forbiding tional representation, that is, their total the exercise of a right, without which no independence. How is it possible, if idea of liberty can exist among men. He the French had possessed either morals reserved to himself the sole right of or spirit, that they could have submit- forming the public opinion, as if he ted to so unjust and violent a proceed alone possessed the right of being haping. As nations lose their liberty, they py, since the people, who are not allose the martial spirit inherent in free lowed to declare their grievances, can: men. France lost her newly-acquired expect no remedy. He removed the onfreedom so suddenly, that she had not ly barrier that existed to arbitrary powtime to lose that warlike enthusiasm ac- er. He insulated and rendered himself quired during her revolution; a spirit impenetrable by that cloud of mystery, which destroyed every thing that oppos- in which those, who govern by their ed it, and gave the French sufficient own caprice, always enwrap themselves, energy to defend themselves; but they lest the truth should bring their crimes had not time to strengthen their virtue, to light. He deprived the French of nor to secure their liberty. Horrified that most sacred privilege of man, viz. at the blood which the revolution bad that of communicating their ideas, discost them; they were hardly able to es- covering truth, reclaiming their rights, timate the merit of what they had per- denouncing injustice, instructing them. formed, harrassed for ten years with a selves on the state of their nation and