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the campaign, and saved Portugal. The English, then, were defeated He would, in truth, have exposed at Busaco: whether it was the fault himself to the imputation, of having of the general, the officers, or the laid waste thirty leagues of country, soldiers, is of no consequence. An but he could have found an answer army is composed of all these. The to that imputation if he had obliged French general did every thing he the French to evacuate the country; wished ; the English general did noand proved by the event that these thing, protected nothing, executed ravages contributed to the success none of his plans; the battle of Buof the campaign.
saco frustrated them all. All these combinations and consi Speech (9). “ On which the libere derations were not unknown to the “ties and independence of the SpaEnglish general. He svished to de " nish and Portuguese nations enfend his position, and he gave battle “tirely depend.” at Busaco; the result of the engage- Moniteur.--It would be curious ment was the passage of the Monde. to read the speeches in parliament go, the evacuation of Coimbra, and during the last twenty years. When a retreat by forced marches to Lis- the expedition of the Duke of York bon. In his flight Wellington could to Belgium was to be defended, it only lay waste to the extent of a lea. was said that the war was carried on gue on the right and left of his line for the independence and liberty of of march; and tlre French army ar. Belgium. When the Duke of York riving almost at the same moment landed in Holland, it was for the that he did, in sight of his ships, liberty and independence of Holland, found immense quantities of provi- so necessary to England, that he did sions in the fine vallies of the Tagus. so. Such is always the language, The French general did every thing without paying any greater attention he wished; the English general ef-' now than on former occasions, that fected nothing that he intended. The it is not sufficient to justify a great battle of Busaco rendered all the ra. undertaking, to shew the advanvages he committed, and for which he tages arising from var followed by will ever be execrated by the Portue victory; but that it is necessary to guese, useless. When they wish to ex- calculate the probability of such plain to their children the English victory. By this mode of reasoning, manner of defending a country, they it would be much the plainer way will point to the ruins of their villages, to land at Havre and march to their castles, and their towns ! Paris; for certainly upon the slip
That several brigades, hurried on position of victory, the advantages by the noble iinpetuosity of French and the glory would be incontestable. troops, should wish to bound over in, Is it probable that England can accessible heights-that they should maintain a contest with France in not find on the crest of these noun- Spain? This is the whole of the tains sufficient space to extend them. question. She was not able to do so selves--all this is very possible; but when considerable. Spanish armies this does not give the enemy a right occupied Sarragossa, St. Andero, to claim the victory. All that oc- Bilboa and Burgos. The fine army curred on that day tends to prove, of Moore was even then forced to a that the composition and the spirit shameful flight, in which it lost a of the French troops were so far su- great many men, horses, a part of perior to those of the English army, its baggage, and even its treasure. that the latter neither could nor would She could not do so upon the fifth defend a position upon which the fate coalition. Wellington advanced as of Portugal depended !
far as Talavera; he gained some advantages, and almost, immediately to the advice of all their generals, was compelled to abandon his hos- and recognised the impossibility of pitals, his sick, and to escape into withdrawing Spain from the influPortugal. The presence of Moore ence of France, had renounced the was unable to prevent the defeat of Spanish war, the Spanish war would Blake at Espinosa, of the army of have been ended; all the provinces Estremadura at Burgos, of Castanos united in their integrity and their at Tudela, and the capture of Sara- energy, having experienced some gossa and Madrid. Wellington, vic- checks balanced by some successes, torious at Talavera, was unable to would have formed a happy and prevent the passage of the Sierra powerful nation under the governMorena, the occupation of Jaen, of ment of a prince allied to the family Seville, of Grenada, the blockade of of France; and the integrity and inCadiz, and the capture of the camp dependence of Spain would have of St. Roch. Wellington has not de- been more confirmed thereby. France fended Portugal; he has suffered the and Spain, governed by members of fortresses to be taken; he has aban- the same family, would have been, doned the country; he has retired in fact, a revival of the relations to inaccessible heights, where he which existed since the time of Phi. holds himself in readines to embark lip V. The only advantage that with the first favourable wind. Such France would have derived from this are the consequences of the preten- arrangement, would have been the ded victory of Busaco. If the En- security that Spain would never take glish lose 80 leagues of a country part against her in any civil war. after victory, what events are they Spain, regenerated by the constituin expectation of to enable them to tion of Bayonne, and deriving fresh drive the French out of the Penin- vigour from them, would have besula? And if it be admitted, as no come more independent than she man of sense can doubt, and as the had been for 300 years before; and English generals themselves have ad- the wish expressed in the speech mitted, since Moore's expedition, from the throne would have been that it is impossible for them to de- accomplished. England, though she fend the Peninsula; why do they knew io a certainty that she could run such risks without the hope of not defend Spain, has indeed found success? It will be said---- all this einployment for 300,600 French; is allowed, but still the English pro- but Spain, conquered foot by foot, long the contest : they prevent the becomes wholly subjugated: and it country from settling; is that no- is England herself who has endanthing?" No man with the least sen- gered the independence and integrity sibility, or possessing the common of Spain, by engaging in a contest feelings of hmmanity, can contain his in which it is proved by experience indignation in secing a nation so im- that all the chances are against her. moral as to excite every species of dis- The conquest of Spain will produce order among fourteen millions of peo- effects quite different from those of ple, reithout any other object than a simple change of dynasty, which that of retarding for some moments would have turned to the advantage the progress of a social organization ! of the nation, the plans of reform, But the consequences of the con- and the liberal ideas introduced by a duct of England, on this occasion government, young, firm, and vigoas on many others, will be to con- rous. Posterity, to whom years are solidate the power of France. In only as a moment, will attribute fact, if after Moore's retreat, the the great results which have so conEnglish administration had listened spicuously combined to the adyan. tage of France, to the short-sighted self by that immense currency which, policy of England alone.
through Amsterdam and Hamburgh, Speech. (10) Have in some de- embraced the whole continent of “gree affected a part of kis Majes Europe; while 17 or 1300 millions " ty's revenue, particularly Ireland." are not the consequence of the riches
Moniteur.. This is a remarkable of the soil, or the revenues of the passage. Last year you said, that country, but of industry and of a the Orders in Council had all the system of credit, which is not suffisuccess you expected, that your trade cient to provide for the wants that it was augmented by that of Americą has to satisfy, the moment it is preand neutral powers; now you re- vented from extending to the conticant all this; you admit that your nent. A three months check has trade has laboured under difficulties, already made the city of London that your revenues are diminshed, turn pale ; and there is not an Enand yet the Continental system has ghsh speculator who can coolly con. been only three months in force. template the perspective of ten years What will it then be in three years of a similar system. The French The accounts of the French finances Exchange for the last four years has proves that it has quire a contrary been constantly improving, and that effect upon them. It is true, that in all the commercial towns of the in France, as well as in other places, world, at the rate of from three to numerous instances of private misu ten per cent. That of England is fortune have occurred; but these constantly losing. Within the last have no effect upon the national three months, it has fallen from 30 revenues. Bankruptcies have taken to 40 per cent. Nothing can more place, because speculators, seduced completely represent the relative siby lucre, become the discounters of tuation of the two countries. In your credit. The canals by which point of finance, as weil as politics, you drew to yourselves the sub- France owes every thing to the era stance of the whole continent of roneous calculations of that hatred Europe, have been all blocked up by by which the English government is the shocks that you have received. constantly blinded. It is for and by England that this circulation of paper has been created; but the crisis is past, and new
LAW INTELLIGENCE. channels are disclosing themselves for the real trade of the continent. Court of King's Bench, Feb. 7. The English government can have
THE KING O. FINNERTY. no credit when that of its trade de
Concluded from page 67.] clines. It feels every private bank The Attorney General stated, that ruptcy. The French government, on he had heard wth deep regret and conthe contrary, has a credit indepene siderable disgust, the address recently dent of that of bankers and mer
made, in which the defendant had en
deavoured to introduce fresh calumnies chants. Nine hundred millions of
upon the prosecutor. That their lordrevenue, collected in specie, consti• ships had long abstained froin interfetute the proper revenue of the em ring, from a merciful consideration of pire, represent the riches of its soil, the defendant, but which he conceived and are more than sufficient for all from his conduct he did not deserve, its expences; while 17 or 1800 mil
though he knew their lordships would nons necessary for the expences of extend mercy towards him. That it was
impossible to have beard his address England, can only be collected
without seeing that he entertained a dethrough the medium of a paper cir liberate object in the publication of the culation, which only supporting it libel, in defending himself against the charge, and in the address he had now met with a case in which there was dis. made, namely that of representing Lord coverable a greater degree of malignity Castlereagh as a monster of iniquity, by the libeller, against the person libeland that, against his own knowledge of led, they would pass a mitigated senthe facts which he pretended himself to tence against Mr. Finnerty; but that have correctly stated. That he had lie while their lordships remembered that belled every description of persons in justice was to be tempered with mercy, the country, from the judges on the they would remember somewhat of their bench to the Middlesex magistrates, first own dignity, and the dignity of the law, arraigning the declaration of the court That they would not forget how the law that the letter complained of was a lin had been outraged and insulted by the bel, and then desiring their lordships defendant, and how that outrage had not to send him to the custody of the been aimed at the law through the permagistrates of Middlesex, because, ow- sons of their lordships, in the reflections ing to political differences, he was of cast upon the conduct pursued by their opinion' his life would be endangered. lordships. That they would remeinber That he asked any one acquainted with the repeated and accumulated injuries the manner in which justice was admi- which the prosecutor bad received at nistered, whether they could belieye that the hands of the defendant: and having the defendant really thought such hard put into the one scale every thing in exships would be inflicted upon him as tenuation, giving to extenuation as much would lead to his death. The Attorney weight as they could, they would place General called upon the court to consi- in the other the claims of justice. And der what redress Lord Castlereagh was he thought they would feel themselves to receive for the gross injury he had bound to inflict a sentence of the severest sustained, considering the situation in nature! wbich Lord Castlereagh stood, the spirit Mr. Garrow followed on the same in which Mr. Finnerty published the li- side, stating, that if any one upącquaintbel in question, the spirit in which he ed with the forms of proceeding had had suffered judgment by default, and come into the court, he would have supin which he had now defended himself, posed, that instead of Mr. Finnerty beThat to endeavour to aggravate the case ing awaiting their lordships' judginent would indeed be an ineffectual attempt; for a libel published by him, Loid Casthat the nature of the libel was too stri- tlereaga and other persons of high copsiking to escape observation, and such as deration were there to defend themselves to shew the deliberate malice which ac against a supposed malversation in office. tuated it. That Mr. Finnerty had statéd He concluded by observing, that if this himself not to have been without legal course of proceeding were to be suffered advice, but that from what he (the At. with impunity, libels would increase, but torney General) knew of the gentlemen most probably prosecutions would deat the bar, he was satisfied he must have crease, for that no man would have the received advice which he had rejected ; firmness to come to the court to ask for for that no barrister would have advised justice. the offering of such affidavits as those Mr. Justice Grose then pronounced which had been tendered, but that they the judgment of the court in nearly the would have told him he was violating following terms : the law, and insulting the court by pro « PETER FINNERTY--You are to reducing them. That he (Mr. F.) had ceive the sentence of this court, upon acted as a man reckless of his own life, an indictment charging you with having so that he could do but mischief to one composed and published one of the most whom he chose to consider as his enemy. inflammatory libels against Lord Viscount That without regard to any thing like Castlereagh, as one of his Majesty's prinfoundation for that which he had im- cipal secretaries of state, that the enve. puted, he had endeavoured, first hy his nomed pen of malice could put upon affidavits, and then by his address, to paper, in respect of a gentleman of bis heap upon Lord Castlereagh unmerited rank and situation in the country. Of infamy; and therefore he trusted their this libel we must deem you to be the lordships would feel it a duty to inflict composer, for upon the indictment it is upon the detendant, by their sentence, so charged, and by your suffering judga punishment considered as attaching in- ment to go by default, you have admitted famy! That if ever their lordships had the fact. Upon the precise nature of it
I have had so lately occasion to com
SPECIALS. ment, in giving the judgment of the 1 Samuel Bishop, Upper Grafton Street. court on another offender, that I need 2 George Baxter, Church Terrace, Paronly repeat, that that which was an of- cras. fence in him, must be a still greater of
COMMON JURYMEN. fence in you, the author ; and whether 3 Robert Maynard, Glass-house Street. we consider the steps taken by you pre Oilman. paratory to the publication of this libel, 4 Walter Row, Gt. Marlborough Street, or the malignant purpose of taking those Stationer. steps and sending it into the world, no- 5 Richard Bolton, Silver Street, Porkman. thing can be devised much more stu- 6 John Rutton, Vigo Lane, Cutler. diously libellous, base, cruel, or maligo 7 Henry Perkins, Great Marlborougla nant than this offensive publication. As Street, Grocer. to mitigation, we in vain look for any 8 Willium Lonsdale, Broad Street, Can thing like it; the whole of your conduct binet Maker. seems to shew you to have proceeded 9 John Sebrook, Rupert Street, Cook. with a cool deliberate intention to com- 10 Thomas Rixon, Carnaby Street, Vic mit the crime charged upon you; and tualler. in wbat has passed this day we are sorry 11 John Nunn, Great Crown Street, to find nothing like a sense of your of Victualler. fence, or any thing like true contrition, 12 David Millar,Carnaby Market North, I have stated that the whole of this sub Baker. ject has been lately before us. It has Mr. Richardson opened the pleadings, been so lately before us, and is so fresh by stating, that this was a criminal inin our memory, that we have no diff- formation filed against John Hunt and culty in passing upon you, without fur- Leigh Hunt, the printer, and two of the ther deliberation, the sentence of the proprietors of the Examiner, Sunday law; and accordingly this court doth newspaper, for a seditious libel, to which order and adjudge, “ that for this of the defendants had pleaded Not Guilty. « fence you be imprisoned in his Ma- The Attorney General then rose, and " jesty's gaol, in the county of Lincoln, said, that he had thought it incumbent « for eighteen calendar months, and that on him to presecute the defendants for a « at the expiration of that time you do libel; the tendency of which was not “ give security for your good behaviour only to excite the disatfection of the sol 5 for five years, yourself in 500l. with diery, hy representing that they were « two sureties in 250l. each; and that treated with improper and excessive se« you be further imprisoned in the said verity, but (what was still more mis“ gaol till such security be given.-And chievous) to represent the treatment of " that you be in the mean time com Bonaparte towards his troops, and the “ mitted to the custody of the Marshal means which were used to enlist them, " of the Marshalsea, in execution of as infinitely preferable to the system em- your sentence."
ployed in Great Britain. The effect of
this libel was obviously to excite disconTHE KING O. MESSRS, HUNT. tent and dissatisfaction in the minds of Trial before the Chief Justice, Lord El- the soldiers who had already entered the
lenborough, in the Court of King's British service, and to disincline others Bench, at Westminster, on Friday, from entering into that service. How Feb. 22, 1811, on an Ex Officio infor- fatal such efforts were to the country, it mation, laid by the Attorney-General, was unnecessary for the Attorney Gene. Gibbs, against Messrs. Hunt, the pro- ral to state. The defendants had chosen prietors and one of the printers of a to select for their motto, what they supweekly news-papers, called the Exu- posed him to have said upoa the occaaniner.
sion of a foriner trial of this nature, when A SPECIAL JURY had been called for it became necessary for the Attorney by the prosecutor, and were, of course, General to prosecute Mr. Cobbett for summoned; but, only two of them ap- animadversions of extreme severity and peared. Of course the trial was obliged injustice, upon an occasion of a mutiny to be put of, or ten men were to be taken in the local militia, which was punished from the common jurors.----The Attorney by a court-martial, with a sentence of General chose this, and thus the jury lashes, the infliction of a part of which was formed.
was remitted. The defendant, on that