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to advance upon, after having si- of the 30th of September, in the follenced your batteries; or if you your ing words.-"Although I fear I shall selves, rendered impatient by this not be able to obtain the object I ruinous contest, march against him, had in passing the Mondego, and in what will be the consequence? If occupying the Sierra of Busaco, yet you are victorious you will derive no I do not regret to have done so,' advantage from it, for you

will was to defend the position of the have scarcely made two marches be- Mondego, the right of which rested fore you are met by new armies. If on that river, and on the inaccessiyou are conquered, you are lost. ble mountains of the right bank of The loss of 60,000 men to England, the Zezere, which empties itself into is as great as that of 500,000 to the Tagus 30 leagues from thence France. The two countries are in and whose left extended on the moun. the proportion of one to three to each tains which rest on the Douro. By other with respect to population; this central position, the English gethe same proportion prevails with neral did not obtain the glory of de respect to the extent of the coun- fending Portugal, since he had altries where you are obliged to have ready abandoned $0 leagues of the troops, which on the whole produces country to the enemy. To defend a propertion of one to nine.

Portugal he should have raised the We are ignorant of the intentions seige of Almeida, or at least have of the cabinet of the Thuilleries; occupied the one positions of Guarda. but we wish with all our heart, that However, having thought proper to the Prince of Essling may maneuvre occupy the position of Busaco, he instead of attacking you, and by so covered 3-4ths of Portugal : he produing keep you some years where tected the fine vallies of the Tagus you are. "The consequences would and the Mondego; he kept the French be, you would add 100 millions army at 40 leagues from the capital; more to your debt, and we should he kept up his communications with be certain of the more complete sub- Oporto, and with all the provinces mission of the peninsula. When the on the other side of the Douro, of question is about a great extent of which he remained master. The continent, what are a few years ? French army of Portugal remained seAll the nations who have been sub. parated for upwards of eighty leagues jugated, have defended themselves from the army of the South, and defor several years; you alone have rived all its subsistence from a counexhibited the solitary instance in try, which Wellington had intenhistory, of a nation conquered in one tionally laid waste, employing all battle, and so subjugated by the the time that was necessary to make Normans your conquerors, that your the devastation complete. It was laws, your customs, every thing was thus reduced to the necessity of drawtorn from you by a single victory. ing its provisions from Spain by im

(8) Speech.-“ And particularly passable roads; and when the rains

by the brilliant part which they began, the communication would be " bore in the repulse of the enemy cut of with Spain, and the army at Busaco."

would have been obliged to return Moniteur.—The affair at Busaco, to Almeida. The English army ocwhatever was its nature, or whatever cupying the position of Busaco, all accuracy there might be in the ac- Portugal would have supplied it with counts on either side, did it answer provisions, and furnished nothing to the object of the French or of the the French army. If the English English general?

general, then, had maintained his The object of the English general, position at Busaco only for 15 days, as he tells us himself in his dispatch he could have boasted of having won

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the campaign, and saved Portugal. The English, then, were defeated He would, in truth, have exposed at Busaco: whether it was the fault himself to the imputation, of having of the general, the officers, or the laid waste thirty leagues of country, soldiers, is of no consequence. An but he could have found an answer army is composed of all these. The to that imputation if he had obliged French general did every thing he the French to evacuate the country; wished; the English general did noand proved by the event that these thing, protected nothing, executed ravages contributed to the success none of his plans; the battle of Buof the campaign.

saco frustrated them all. All these combinations and consi- Speech (9). “ On which the liberderations were not unknown to the ties and independence of the SpaEnglish general. He svished to de- “nish and Portuguese nations enfend his position, and he gave battle “tirely depend.” at Busaco; the result of the engage- NIoniteur.--It would be curious ment was the passage of the Monde. to read the speeches in parliament go, the evacuation of Coimbra, and during the last twenty years. When a retreat by forced marches to Lis- the expedition of the Duke of York bon. In his flight Wellington could to Belgium was to be defended, it only lay waste to the extent of a lea. was said that the war was carried on gue on the right and left of his line for the independence and liberty of of march; and thre French army ar. Belgium. When the Duke of York riving almost at the same moment landed in Holland, it was for the that he did, in sight of his ships, liberty and independence of Holland, found immense quantities of provi- so necessary to England, that he did sions in the fine vallies of the Tagus. so. Such is always the language, The French general did every thing without paying any greater attention he wished ; the English general ef- now than on former occasions, that fected nothing that he intended. The it is not sufficient to justify a great battle of Busaco rendered all the ra. undertaking, to shew the advanvages he committed, and for which he tages arising from var followed by will ever be execrated by the Portu- victory; but that it is necessary to guese, useless. Wher they wish to ex. calculate the probability of such plain to their children the English victory. By this mode of reasoning, manner of defending a country, they it would be much the plainer way will point to the ruins of their villages, to land at Havre and march to their castles, and their towns ! Paris; for certainly upon the siip

That several brigades, hurried on position of victory, the advantages by the noble iinpetuosity of French and the glory would be incontestable., troops, should wish to bound over in, Is it probable that England can accessible heights--that they should maintain a contest with France in not find on the crest of these moun- Spain? This is the whole of the tains sufficient space to extend them. question. She was not able to do so selves--all this is very possible ; but when considerable Spanish armies this does not give the enemy a right occupied Sarragossa, St. Andero, to claim the victory. All that oc. Bilboa and Burgas. The fine army curred on that day tends to prove, of Moore was even then forced to a that the composition and the spirit shameful flight, in which it lost a of the French troops were so far su- great many men, horses, a part of perior to those of the English army, its baggage, and even its treasure. that thelatter neither could nor would She could not do so upon the fifth defend a position upon which the fate coalition. Wellington advanced as of Portugal depended!

far as Talavera; he gained some ad

are the

vantages, and almost, immediately to the advice of all their generals, was compelled to abandon his hos- and recognised the impossibility of pitals, his sick, and to escape into withdrawing Spain from the influPortugal. The presence of Moore ence of France, had renounced the was unable to prevent the defeat of Spanish war, the Spanish war would Blake at Espinosa, of the army of have been ended; all the provinces Estremadura at Burgos, of Castanos united in their integrity and their at Tudela, and the capture of Sara- energy, having experienced some gossa and Madrid. Wellington, vic- checks balanced by some successes, torious at Talavera, was unable to would have formed a happy and prevent the passage of the Sierra powerful nation under the governMorena, the occupation of Jaen, of ment of a prince allied to the family Seville, of Grenada, the blockade of of France; and the integrity and inCadiz, and the capture of the camp dependence of Spain 'would, have of St. Roch. Wellington has not de- been more confirmed thereby. France fended Portugal; he has suffered the and Spain, governed by members of fortresses to be taken; he has aban- the same family, would have been, doned the country; he has retired in fact, a revival of the relations to inaccessible heights, where he which existed since the time of Phi. holds himself in readines to embark lip V. The only advantage that with the first favourable wind. Such France would have derived from this

consequences of the preten- arrangement, would have been the ded victory of Busaco. If the En- security that Spain would never take glish lose 80 leagues of a country part against her in any civil war. after victory, what events are they Spain, regenerated by the constituin expectation of to enable them to tion of Bayonne, and deriving fresh drive the French out of the Penin- vigour from them, would have besula? And if it be admitted, as no come more independent than she man of sense can doubt, and as the had been for 300 years before; and English generals themselves have ad- the wish expressed in the speech mitted, since Moore's expedition, from the throne would have been that it is impossible for them to de- accomplished. Angland, though she fend the Peninsula; why do they knew io a certainty that she could run such risks without the hope of not defend Spain, has indeed found success? It will be said---" all this einployment for 300,600 French ; is allowed, but still the English pro- but Spain, conquered foot by foot, long the contest: they prevent the becomes wholly subjugated: and it country from settling; is that no- is England herself who has endanthing?" No man with the least sen- gered the independence and integrity sibility, or possessing the common of Spain, by engaging in a contest feelings of hmmanity, can contain his in which it is proved by experience indignation in seeing a nation so im- that all the chances are against her. moral as to excite every species of dis- The conquest of Spain will produce order among fourteen millions of peo- effects quite different from those of ple, without any other object than a simple change of dynasty, which that of retarding for some moments would have turned to the advantage the progress of a social organization ! of the nation, the plans of reform, But the consequences of the con- and the liberalideas introduced by a duct of England, on this occasion government, young, firm, and vigoas on many others, will be to con- rous. Posterity, to whom years are solidate the power of France. In only as

a moment, will attribute fact, if after Moore's retreat, the the great results which have so conEnglish administration had listencd spicuously combined to the advantage of France, to the short-sighted self by that immense currency which, policy of England alone.

through Amsterdam and Hamburgh, Speech. (10)– Have in some de- embraced the whole continent of gree affected a part of his Majes Europe ; while 17 or 1800 millions ty's revenue, particularly Ireland." are not the consequence of the riches

Moniteur.. This is a remarkable of the soil, or the revenues of the passage. Last year you said, that country, but of industry and of a the Orders in Council had all the system of credit, which is not suffisuccess you expected, that your trade cient to provide for the wants that it was augmented by that of America has to satisfy, the moment it is preand neutral powers; now you re- vented from extending to the conticant all this; you admit that your nent. A three months check has trade has laboured under difñculties, already made the city of London that your revenues are diminshed, turn pale ; and there is not an Enand yet the Continental system has glish speculator who can coolly conbeen only three months in force. template the perspective of ten years What will it then be in three years? of a similar system. The French The accounts of the French finances Exchange for the last four


has proves that it has quite a contrary been constantly improving, and that effect upon them. It is true, that in all the commercial towns of the in France, as well as in other places, world, at the rate of from three to numerous instances of private miso ten per cent. That of England is fortune have occurred; but these constantly losing. Within the last have no effect upon the national three months, it has fallen from 30° revenues. Bankruptcies have taken to 40 per cent. Nothing can more place, because speculators, seduced completely represent the relative siby lucre, become the discounters of tuation of the two countries. In your credit. The canals by which point of finance, as well as politics, you drew to yourselves the sub- France owes every thing to the er. stance of the whole continent of roneous calculations of that hatred Europe, have been all blocked up by by which the English government is the shocks that you have received. constantly blinded. It is for and by England that this circulation of paper has been created; but the crisis is past, and new

LAW INTELLIGENCE. channels are disclosing themselves for the real trade of the continent. Court of King's Bench, Feb. 7.

The English government can have no credit when that of its trade de. [Concluded from page 67.) clines. It feels every private bank- The Attorney General stated, that ruptcy. The French government, on

he had heard wth deep regret and conthe contrary, has a credit indepen- siderable disgust, the address recently dent of that of bankers and mer

made, in which the defendant had en

deavoured to introduce fresh calumpies chants. Nine hundred millions of

upon the prosecutor. That their lordrevenue, collected in specie, consti- ships had long abstained from interfetute the proper revenue of the eme ring, from a merciful consideration of pire, represent the riches of its soil, the defendant, but which he conceived and are more than sufficient for all from his conduct be did not deserve, its expences; while 17 or 1800 mil- though he knew their lordships would necessary for the

extend mercy towards him. That it was

expences England, can only be collected

impossible to have heard bis address

without seeing that he entertained a dethrough the medium of a paper cir- liberate object in the publication of the culation, which only supporting it- libel, in defending bimself against the



charge, and in the address he had now met with a case in which there was dismade, namely that of representing Lord coverable a greater degree of malignity Castlereagh as a monster of iniquity, by the libeller, against the person libeland that, against his own knowledge of led, they would pass a mitigated senthe facts which he pretended himself to tence against Mr. Finnerty; but that have correctly stated. That he had li- while their lordships remembered that belled every description of persons in justice was to be tempered with mercy, the country, from the judges on the they would remember somewhat of their bench to the Middlesex magistrates, first own dignity, and the dignity of the law, arraigning the declaration of the court That they would not forget how the law that the letter complained of was a li- had been outraged and insulted by the bel, and then desiring their lordships defendant, and how that outrage had not to send him to the custody of the been aimed at the law through the permagistrates of Middlesex, because, ow- sons of their lordships, in the reflections ing to political differences, he was of cast upon the conduct pursued by their opinion' his life would be endangered. lordships. That they would remember That he asked any one acquainted with the repeated and accumulated injuries the manner in which justice was admi- which the prosecutor had received at nistered, whether they could believe that the hands of the defendant: and having the defendant really thought suck hard- put into the one scale every thing in exships would be inflicted upon him as tenuation, giving to extenuation as much would lead to his death. The Attorney weight as they could, they would place General called upon the court to consi- in the other the claims of justice. And der what redress Lord Castlereagh was he thought they would feel themselves to receive for the gross injury he had bound to inflict a sentence of the severest sustained, considering the situation in nalure! which Lord Castlereagh stood, the spirit Mr. Garrow followed on the same in which Mr. Finnerty published the li- side, stating, that if any ane unącquaintbel in question, the spirit in which he ed with the forms of proceeding had had suffered judgment by default, and come into the court, he would have supin which he had now defended himself. posed, that instead of Mr. Finnerty beThat to endeavour to aggravate the case ing awaiting their lordships' judginent would indeed be an ineffectual attempt; for a libel published by him, Loid Casthat the nature of the libel was too stri- tlereagh and other persons of high coosiking to escape observation, and such as deration were there to defend themselves to shew the deliberate malice which ac- against a supposed malversation in office. tuated it. That Mr. Finnerty had stated He concluded by observing, that if this himself not to have been without legal course of proceeding were to be suffered advice, but that from what he (the At- with impunity, libels would increase, but torney General) knew of the gentlemen most probably prosecutions would deat the bar, he was satisfied he must have crease, for that no man would have the received advice which he had rejected; firmness to come to the court to ask for for that no barrister would have advised justice. the offering of such affidavits as those Mr. Justice Grose then pronounced which had been tendered, but that they the judgment of the court in nearly the would have told him he was violating following terms :the law, and insulting the court by pro- “ PETER FINNERTY--You are to reducing them. That he (Mr. F.) had ceive the sentence of this court, upon acted as a man reckless of his own life, an indictment charging you with having so that he could do but mischief to one composed and published one of the most whom he chose to consider as his enemy. inflammatorylibels against Lord Viscount

That without regard to any thing like Castlereagh, as one of bis Majesty's prinfoundation for that which he had im- cipal secretaries of state, that the enve. puted, he had endeavoured, first hy his nomed pen of malice could put upon affidavits, and then by his address, to paper, in respect of a gentleman of bis heap upon Lord Castlereagh unmerited rank and situation in the country. Of infamy; and therefore he trusted their this libel we must deem you to be the lordships would feel it a duty to inflict composer, for upon the indictment it is upon the detendant, by their sentence, so charged, and by your suffering judga punishment considered as attaching in- ment to go by default, you have admitted gamy! That if ever their lordships had the fact." Upon the precise nature of it

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