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crimes, will sometime be the destruction. The author in chapter III. gives of all who allow or encourage it.' That an account of the principal writers the trade should have been suffered to who have noticed and reprobated continue ainder such a princess, and after such solemn expressions as those
slavery and the slave trude, in which which she has been described to have
honourable list we perceive the names uttered, can be only attributed to the
of those eminent nonconformist dipains taken by those concerned in it to vines, Mr. Richard Baxter, and Dr. keep her ignorant of the truth.
James Foster: Pope's beantiful lines " From England I now pass over to respectingFrance. Labat, a Roman missionary,
“The poor dark Indian whose untuin his account of the isles of America,
stored mind mentions, that Louis the Thirteenth “ Sees God in clouds, or hears him in was very uneasy when he was about to
[the wind;" issue the edict, hy which all Africans
and quotations from Thomson, Sa coming into his colonies were to be made slaves, and that this one siness conti
vage, Cowper, &c. are introduced nued, till he was assured, that the in
as evidence that our first rate poets, troduction of them in this capacity into as well as our first rate divines, have his foreign dominions was the readiest not been backward in enlisting unway of converting them to the principles der the banners of justice and huof the christian religion.
manity. One of the most energetic These, then, were the first forerun
sermons preached on the subject, ners in the great cause of the abolition
appears to be that of Bishop Warof the slave trade. Nor hare their services towards it been. of small moment.
burton's preached in 1788, before For, in the first place, they have ena- the society for the propagation of bled those, who came after them, and the gospel in foreign parts, of which who took an active interest in the same the following is an extract. cause, to state the great authority of “From the free savages, I now come their opinions and of their example to the savages in bonds. By these I Thev have enabled them, again, to de- mean the vast multitudes yearly stolen tail che bistory connected with these, in from the opposite continent, and sacriconsequence of which circımstances ficed by the colonists to their great idol have been laid open, which it is of great the god of gain. But what then, say importance to know. For have they these sincere worshippers of mammon not enabled them to state, that the They are our own property which we African slave trade never would have offer up.-Gracious God! to talk, as been perniitted to exist but for the go of herds of cattle, of property in rational Horance of those in authority concerning creatures, creatures endued with all our it---That at its commencement there was faculties, possessing all our qualities but a revolting of nature against it--a sus; that of colour, our brethren both by picion--a cantion-a fear--both as to nature and grace, shocks all the feelings. its unlawfulness and its effects? Have of humanity, and the dictates of comthey not enabled them to state, that mon sense! Brit, alas ! what is there, falsehools were advanced, and these in the infinite abuses of society, whichi concealed under the musk of religion, to does not shock them? Yet nothing is deceive those who had the power to more certain in itself and apparent to suppress it? Have they not enabled all, than that the infamous traffic for them to state that this trade began in slaves directly infringes both divine and piracy, and that it was continued upon human law, NATURE CREATED MAN
the principles of force? And, finally, FREE, AND GRACE INVITES HIM TO AS. i have not they, who have been enabled SERT HIS FREEDOM.
to make these statements; knowing all." In excuse of this violation it hath the circunstances connected with them, been pretended, that though indeed found their own zeal increased and their these miserable outcasts of humanity be own courage ansk perseverance strength- torn from their homes and native counened ; and have they not, hy the com- try by fraud and violence, yet they munication of them to others, produced thereby become the happier, and their many friends and even labourers in the condition the more eligible. But who Cause ?"
are you, who pretend to judge of anos
ther man's happiness; that state, which to this most interesting subject. His each man under the guidance of his first publication was an Essay on the Maker forms for himself, and not one slavery and commerce of the human man for another ? To know what constitutes mine or your happiness is the
species, particularly the African, sole prerovative of hin who created us, translated from a latin dissertation, and cast us in so various and different which was honoured with the first moulds. Did your slaves ever complain prize in the University of Cambridge, to you of their unhappiness amidst their for the year 1785. This essay nas natives woods and deserts?' or rather followed by tracts on the injustice let me ask, did they ever cease com
und impolicy of the African slave plaining of their condition under you
trade, all of which do equal honour their lordly masters, where they see indeed the accomodations of civil life,
to the head and the heart of the aubut see them all pass to others, them thor; whose strenuous exertions in selves unbenefited by thein ? Be so this glorious cause were, after much gracious then, ye petty tyrants over hu- opposition from certain statesmen, man freedom, to let your slaves judge
and from the generality of slave-trafor themselves, what it is which makes
ders, and slave-hollers, the disgrace their own happiness, and then see whether they do not place it in the return
of their species, at length crowned to their own country, rather than in the with success. contemplation of your grandeur, of which In May 1787, our author bad their misery makes so large a part; a the happiness of uniting various perreturn so passionately longed for, that, sons in a committee for the abolition despairing of happiness here, that is, of the accursed traffic; and a body of escaping the chains of their cruel
of evidence was by him collected taskmasters, they console themselves with feigning it to be the gracious re
and drawn up to be laid before parward of heaven in their future state.” liament. Of the horrible effects of
Chapters IV. and V. details the this trade in turning the hearts of proceedings of different sects in be- those engaged in it, to stope, anii half of the oppressed Africans, in rendering them deceitful above all which the methodists in general, and things, and desperately wicked, may Mr. Whitfield in particular; toge- le aduced amongst other numerous ther with the Moravians have their instances, the following. due shade of praise; but the Qua
" In tlie year 1767, the ships Indian kers both in England and America,
Queen, Duke of York, Nancy, and
Concord, of Bristol, the Edgar, of Liseein to have been peculiarly active, verpool, and the Canterbury, of London, and zealous in this great cause; the lay in old Calabar river. former as a body set the honourable “ It happened at this time, that a example of petitioning parliament quarrel subsisted between the principal for the suppression of the internal inhabitants of Old Town and those of traffick.
New Town, Old Calabar, which had The six following chapters give
originated in a jealousy respecting slaves.
The captains of the vessels now menan account of the principal persons
tioned joined in sending several letters in this country who have exerted to the inhabitanıs of Old Town, but themselves as friends to the abuli particularly to Ephraim Robin John, tion; amongst whom the author who was at that time a grandee or prinhimself, although he in a plain, un- cipal inhabitant of the place. The teassuming manner, mencions his ser
nor of these letters was, that they were
sorry that any jealousy or quarrel should vices, stands most honourably dis
subsist between the two parties; that tinguished; we have not unfrequent
if the inhabitants of Old Town would ly witnessed his labours, his journey, come on board, they would afford them ings, and his strenuous exertions security and protection ; adding at the to draw the altention of the public same time, that their intention in in
viting them was, that they might be the greatest part of those whom they come mediators, and thus heal their caught. Many dead bodies were soon disputes.
seen upon the sands, and others were The inhabitants of Old Town, hap- floating upon the water; and including py to find that their differences were those who were seized and carried off, likely to be accomodated, joyfully ac- and those who were drowned and killed, cepted the invitation. The three bro- either by the firing of the ships or by thers of the grandee just mentioned, the the people of New Town, three huneldest of whom was Ämboe Robin John, dred were lost to the inhabitants of Old first entered their canoe, attended by Town on that day. twenty-seven others, and, being fol. “ The carnage, wbich I have been lowed by pine canoes, directed their now describing, was scarcely over, when course to the Iudian Queen. They were a canoe, full of the principal people of dispatched from thence the next morn- New Town, who had been the promoing to the Edgar, and afterwards to the ters of the scheme, dropped along-side Duke of York, on board of which they of the Duke of York. They demanded went, leaving their canoe and atten- the person of Amboe Robin John, the dauts by the side of the same vessel. brother of the grandee of Old Town, In the mean time the people on board and the eldest of the three on board. the other canoes were either distributed The unfortunate man put the palms of on board, or lying close to, the other his hands together, and beseeched the ships.
commander of the vessel, that he would “ This being the situation of the three not violate the rights of hospitality by brothers, and of the principal inhabi- giving up an unoffending stranger to his tants of the place, the treachery now enemies. But no entreaties could avail. began to appear. The crew of the Duke The conimander received from the New of York, aided by the captain and Town people a slave, of the name of mates, and armed with pistols and cut. Econg, ju his stead, and then forced Jasses, rushed into the cabin, with an him into the canoe, where his head was intent to seize the persons of their three immediately struck off in the sight of innocent and unsuspicious guests. The the crew, and of his afflicted and disunhappy men, alarmed at ibis violation consolate brothers. As for them, they of the rights of hospitality, and struck escaped his fate; but they were carried with astonishment at the behaviour of off with their attendants to the West Intheir supposed friends, attempted to dies, and sold for slaves. escape througli the cabin windows, but “ The knowledge of this tragical event being wounded were obliged to desist, now fully confirmed me in the sentiand to subinit to be put in irons. ment, that the heart of those, who were
“ linthe same moment, in which this concerned in this traffic, became unatrocious attempt had been made, an uscally hardened, and that I might reaorder had been given to fire upon the dily believe any atrocities, however canoe, which was then lying by the side great, wbich might be related of them. of the Duke of York. The canoe soon It made also my blood. boil as it were filled and sunk, and the wretched at- within me. It gave a new spring to tendants were, either seized, killed, or my exertions. And I rejoiced, sorrowdrowned. Most of the other ships folo ful as I otherwise was, that I had vilowed the example. Great numbers sited Bristol, if it had been only to gain were additionally killed and drowned on an accurate statement of this one fact." the occasion, and others were swimming This detail is followed by another to the shore,
of the horrid treatment of the crew " At this juncture the inhabitants of of the Alfred by the incarnate devil New Town, who had concealed themselves in the bushes by the water side,
its captain, who escaped in one in
t and between whom and the comman
stance the vengeance due to his ders of the vessels the plan had been crimes, hy bribing the principal wit. previously concerted, came out from dess to disappear, and who would their hiding-places, and, embarking in often boast,“ how he had tricked their canoes, made for such as were the law on that occasion.” swimming from the fire of the ships.
The author proceeds to give an. The ships' boats also were manned, and joined in the pursuit. They butchered
account of his various journeys in
different parts of the kingdom, and and reputation, became the intimate of his endeavours to interest his of Lord Grenville, more especially countrymen in forwarding his views on the subjects of peace, reform, in bringing about the abolition. A and the catholic question, we have considerable number of petitions on various occasions brought the were at length presented to the most irrefiragable proofs before our house of Commons, and towards the readers ;* and these “ Observations” end of the session, 1788 Mr. Wilher of Mr. Roscoe on the subject of the force being indispused, Mr. Pirt war, confirm us in the justice of our after a few introductory observations opinions. on the importance of the subject, Our author sets out by inquiring and declining to give his own opi- into the nature and tendency of Lord nion on the question of the abolition, Grey's proposed address; and removed, that the house should " ear marks that “its tendency to encou. " ly in the next session take the “rage a continuance of the war, is “ circumstances of the slave trade, “ too apparent to admit of a doubt." " complained of in the petitions into It is true his lordship assures us of “ consideration," Mr. Fox expres- " his Majesty's readiness to conclude sed bis open and decided con- " a peace, on just and reasonable demnation of the trade, and his “ terms,” and acknowledges“ his great surprise at the secrecy which “ Majesty's just and moderate views." Mr. Pitt had observed relative to And at what period in the history of his own opinion on this important the world, we should be glad to subject. After a short debate the know, did there ever exist a king, motion was carried. Shortly after or the ministers of a king, who did wards Sir W. DOLBEN introduced a not make the same professions; and bill for regulating the middle pas- which are, in general, similar to sage, and thereby somewhat allevi. Lord Liverpool's professions on the ating those horrors, the result of subject of liberty : that staunch aud the avarice and cruelty of the tra uniform advocate of the slave trade, ders, attending the transportation of seldom arose for the purpose of opthe miserable Africans from their posing not only its abolition, but own country to the West Indies. even its regulation, without declaring The bill after some resolute opposi- “ that no one could be a greater tion in both houses froin the friends " friend to the liberties of the human to the trade in all its branches, and “ race than himself!" In like mancarried on to its full extent, was ner the war-loving Pitt, whose inipassed into a law. These dawnings quitous and impolitic measures, have of humanity inspired the friends of produced more devastation throughthe abolition with the hope that out Europe, and brought more comtheir complete triumph would ere plicated miseries on his own counlong be accomplished.
try, than the measures of almost any (To be concluded in our next.] other statesman ancient or modern,
professed that his wars were waged in support of the peace and the liber
ties of mankind, and for the interests Brief Observations on the Address to
? “ of religion and social order”! All his Majesty proposed by Earl Grey
such professions being so uniformly in the House of Lords, June 13th.
contradicted in practice, cannot sure1310. By W. Roscoe, Esq. p. 44.
ly much longer delude beings preOf the many and glaring incon- tending a claim to rationality. sistencies of Lord Grey, ever since he, unhappily for his own character * See, in particular, Vol. VȚII. p.v
Mr. Roscoe then gives an extract enemy adopting a different system. from Lord Grey's address, in which If Bonaparte should imagine (which his lordship appears, when speaking after the experience he has acquired of the French Emperor, servilely to by the violation of the treaty of A. have copied that abusive nonsense miens on the part of the British cawhich he once most justly and enero · binet, need not excite surprise) that getically reprobated. Who could the only end of our ministers in rehave imagined that Lord Grey would storing peace is that they “ may with ever have proposed or even consent. " more security pursue their plans" ed to an address to his Majesty in against the independence, and the the following terms?-" That we are existing government of France “ now reduced to the dilemma, either Should Bonaparte entertain this idea, * that the attempt on our part to what prospect of peace remains to * open the door to a negociation, this country? “ would not conduce to the attainment To shew the folly of such a mode " of our object; or if that object was of reasoning is the design of our au“ attainable, it would be unaccompa- thor, and that his arguments, power“ nied with those essential securities ful in themselves, are enforced in " which alone can render it truly ca- language pure and energetic, the fol6 luable."-- " That when we con- lowing extracts will amply demon“ sider that he who now sits exulting strate. 6 over the spoils of prostrate Europe, “ The question belween the advocates " is checked in his hopes of univer of the war, and the frievds of peace, is " sal dominion, and retarded in his
now fairly at issue. On the facts and “ progress to a more extended despo
circumstances on which their respective
opinions are founded, they are perfectly “ tism, by the power, resistance, and
agreed. The iminense accession of resources of this country alone, it power which our enemy has acquired in " is impossible not to believe him the course of the war, and the increasing “impelled by all those influences difficulty of providing our own resources, 66 which sway the human heart, to are subjects not less expatialed upon by “ look to the overthrow and destruc
the promoters of the war, than by those
who wish for its termination : but on this “ tion of Great Britain, as his fixed,
occasion, as on many others, froin the " his most desirable object; as that
same premises, different persons bare “ in which all his passions are con- drawn different results. Those who are “ centrated, and to which all his de favourable to the continuance of the “ signs are directed. This object is war, are of opinion that the successes « the sole aim of his policy, whether of Bonaparte have given him so decided « IN WAR OR IN PEACE. To the lat. a superiority over us, that there can be o ter, whenever our enemy may incline he retains his power; and that it is more
10 safely, either in peace or war, whilst " to make it, we must only look as to advisable to devote the remainder of our “ A PERJOD DURING WHICH HE MAY strength to the possibility of overturning " WITH MORE SECURITY PURSUE HIS him, than to consent to a reconciliation “ PLANS AGAINST THE FREEDOM, on any terins that can be proposed. “ INDEPENDENCE, AND EXISTENCE
Undoubtedly if that crisis be now ar.
rived; if our enemies be so far aggrann “ OF THIS COUNTRY."
dized, and this country so far reduced Such sentiments as these lay the
by the present contest, that a pacificafoundation of eternal war, or at tion can only seal our destiny, and conleast a war which must last as long sign us over to slavery, dishonour, and as the hostile parties can possibly contempt, it would be worse than folly, find resources to carry it on; and it would be the most detestable wickedthe only hope of peace, should the ness, not to expend the last drop of nur
blood, rather than subunit to such a disrulers of Britain adopt such an abo
grace. Fortunately however for us all, minable system, must arise from our this alarming period is not yet arrived;