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that no greater calamity could come tion : yet one observation at least I upon a people than the privation of may be permitted to subjoin without free speech. (Id. ibid.) 'Tacitus men offence. He, who approves prosetions with singular complacency, cution for writings and opinions, and and even triumph, the pre-eminent gives his suffrage for the punishment felicity of his own times, the reign of men so persecuted, whatever his of Trajan, in the privilege of free station, his intellect, his abilities, or sentiments, and the frie utterance virtues may be, that man most asof those sentiments. (I list. i. 1.) But suredly bears no resemblance in this these noble speciinens of just and respect to the noblest of his, species, generous conceptionsilluminate with to Demosthenes and Tacitus, to So. wonderfnl richness and variety the crates and Locke. At the instiga. pages of ancient literature, whether tion of my family and friends, I shall in their pocts, philosophers or histo- not hesitate to mention another par. rians.

ticular for your consideration ; but I shall solicit your indulgence to prevent any misconception in your only to one quotation more, from minds, as if I were inclined to win the works of a man, whose name is by supplication, rather than claim sacred to genius and to virtue; I by justice and extort by reason, I mean John Locke. This illustrious must beg leave to preface that conphilosophermentions a society, which munication by some remarks, not required from every inember at his very acceptable perbaps for all to admission an explicit declaration of hear, but absolutely necessary for assent to these three propositions. me to utter. I mean not, in any 1st That he loved all men of what thing that I have now said, or may profession or religion soever. 2d. hereafter say, to insinuate the least That he thought no person ought to possible contrition or change of senbe harmed in his body, name, or timent on the subject of these progoods, for mere speculative opinions, ceedings--By no means. I underor his esternal way of worship. 3d. stand, I hope, too well that digniThat he loved and sought truth for fied sentiment of a great philosopher, truth's sake; and would endeavour“ a reverence of my own character;" jinpartially to find and receive it I understand too well the only pro himself, and to communicate it to per inference from such persecutions others.

of unambitious and pacific men by Surely now the examples and opi- the children of this generation, the nions of such heroes whose heads idolaters of secularity and power and and hearts conspire to recommend preferment; I understand too well each other with most amicable reci-' the veneration due 10 all that is procations, their philosophy sancti- lovely in morals, and sacred in relified by their virtue, and their virtues gion, to contemplate interminable war illuminated by their philosophy; the and extirpation, with any other feellives and sentiments, I say, of men ings than those of irreconcileable like these, are calculated, I should hostility to the measures themselves, think, to excite some mistrust in and of aların for the promoters of minds not self-opiniated and obdu- . these measures, whenever my mind rate, respecting the reasonableness anticipates their presentment before and equity of their proceedings in his tribunal, wbo came not to destroy such prosecutions, of which it is my men's lives but to save thein. Upon fortune this day to have become a these subjects I have constructed my victim. I, however, can do no more opinions with too much deliberation, than present these impressive docu- and on principles tou solid to be merits to your dispassionate delibera. shaken by this blast of persecution, which is rather calculated to fix their transport the soul beyond the sphere toots, encourage their growth, and of sublunary vicissitudes to the reinvigorate their stability: nor is any gions of blessedness permanent and other depraved and inhuman process unchangeable, such events as this, at all likely to disabuse one of my the formalities of these courts, the persuasion, if such it be, whilst the maxims by which they are directed, christian religion continues to be thé that authority and power which gives. directory of my conduct, and PEACE them reverence, dwindle into dimiwith GOOD WILL universal and un- nutive and obscure frivolities, scarely bounded, not blood-gurltiness and war, discernible, amidst objects of such the characteristic attributes of that mighty magnitude, and transcendent religion. .

lustre. Can the child of true wiss - [After this provisions for a just ap- dom disquiet his mind with the solipreciation of his motives,"Mr.Wake- citude of a single moment about his held proceeded to votify what need passage over that short isthmus which not be given at length in the speaker's separates time and corruption from words: it was indeed a most afflicting duration and immortality ; which malady which ought to have had a divides the scanty tribes now roving strong effect upon the humanity of on the surface of the earth from the the parties to whom he addressed countless myriads of former generahimself. Mr. Wakefield was, when tions intombed in her bosom! ever seized with this complaint, sub. I may he told perhaps of the laws ject to most acute pain, and a watch- of my country, the wisdom of para fulness which no medical ability liaments, and the constitutions of could alleviate even for months, so, our ancestors. These are things to as he expresses it, to render existence which it will be iny happiness as all but insupportable and extin- well as interest to pay all the respect guished. He then adds as follows.] and obedience in my power : but

A detail of this peculiarity would there are other laws, other wisdom, appear too singular for credibility ex, and other constitutions of much cept to those who have been witnesses higher dignity, of more deep conof its reality, or who know me suffi- cernment, and of uncontroulable auciently to confide in the veracity of my thority ; I mean the laws, the wisnarration, and therefore I forbear to dom, and constitutions of the gospel: enlarge on this grievance, which may, nor, I apprehend, is it frivolous, or or may not, eventually occur with sen presumptuous to suppose, that divine rious severity, and has my full permis- injunctions and municipal arrangesion to influence your determinations ments, the imbecility of man and just as much, and just as little as it infallibility of God, may be at vapleases. The cause of liberty, of bene- riance, and even inconsistency with volence, of humanity, and the gospel, each other. In such a case, I shall in which I feel myself engaged, is able choose to say, in the words of Peter to support me under a much heavier and John to the Jewish council ; pressure of affliction that what any " Whether it be right in the sight of resentment of my persecutors may God, to hearken unto you more than wish you to impose upon me. When unto God judge ye.” One proposiI embarked on the ocean of public tion is unquestionably true, and life, I could not but forlode some rests on the immuveable basis of future tempests, and I am prepared reason and experiment: violent and to endure their fury. The vessel cruel measures, intimidation and may be wrecked, but my purpose no persecution, cannot possibly con. catastrophe shall frustrate; and the spire with the real happiness and voyager will reach his haven. In improvement of man, in any form those heavenly contemplations wbich whatever, nor will they eventually complete the purposes, or promote have endured too many conflicts; the prosperity of their employers, my consciousness of desert is too under a divine administration of the well corroborated by the consenting universe. The fire of tyranny may regards of estimable men, to enable purify, bụt will never consume the such persecutions on such principles, unalloyed gold of resolute and disin- even to pollute the current, much terested virtue. One race may be ex- Jess to extinguish the source of my * tinguished, but another of congenial consolations. In the mean time I principles will be raised from their look forward with enraptured anticiashes to confront their adversaries, pation to a removal of these unen - Genus immortale manet ; mul- lighiened operations, these vexatious tosque per annos,

encroachments of a mistaken policy, « Stat Fortuna domus, et avi nume

by those gentle triumphs of religion rantur avorum." Truth and benevolence are the essen

and philosophy, which will here. tial components of genuine felicity :

after bind the whole creation in one but the antipathy between truth and

indissoluble tie of benevolence and force, between persecution and be peace : when all attempts to eradi. nevolence is fundamental, irrecon.

cate opinions and produce convico cilcable and eternai. Impregnated

tion by oppressive force will be reby these persuasions, prompted by

garded as the very excess, not of in

justice only, but of puerile delusion; prospects, I acknowledge no offence: as an extravagance no less disgrace. I have committed none. I depre

ful to humanity, than contradictory cate no punishment; I have den

to common sense: and I now appeal, served none. An absolution from

with entire confidence, in the purity all suffering and censure would ex

of my intentions, -and the intrinsic cite in my breast not so much a

meritoriousness of my conduct, front selfish joy from mere escape from

rash and inapprehensive ignorance to danger, as a generous gratulation

the sober votaries of philosophy and on the exhibition in you of that sen

letters, from the perturbed spirits of sibility and benevolence, which ex

my delirious contemporaries to the alts the human nature to a resem unalarmed judgments of future geneblance with the divine. Not that I

rations; froin the reversible: formuam so estranged from the satisfac

laries of transient judicatures to the tion of personal security, from the

unswerving tribunal of changeless luxuries of literary leisure, and the

truth ; from the perishable dispensacomforts of domestic peace, as to

tions of worldly politics to the con: view with indifference or compla

stitutions of the everlasting Gospel ; cency, much less to solicit, penalties

from the condemning sentence of frail and imprisonment: nor again so un

and mistaken men to the irrevocable influenced by true dignity of cha

decision of an absolving and apracter, and the exhortations of un

plauding Gou! impeached integrity, as to enter

[The admirable address from which into any commutation with a timid

the above is extracted did not prevent and temporising selfishness; as to Mr. Wakefield from receiving sentence, surrender for mere animal existence to be imprisoned for two YEARS in Dorall that renders life itself either va chester goal! His long confinement, had luable or supportable. Iam equally so weakened and enervated his frame as provided for each alternative ; for

to render him incapable of those exer

tions before common with him.-long ease and freedom with contentment

walks ; in one of these he caught the And equanimity; for restraint and

fever of which he died. History will repunishment with fortitude and ex- cord him as a martyr to the cause of ultation. I have lived too long, and TRUTA, PEACE aud PHILANTHROPY.]

REVIEW OF BOOKS.

Clarkson's History of the Rise, Pro- mory, refused the proposal, not only

gress, and Accomplishment of the judging it to be unlawful to consign inabolition of the African Slave Trade pocent people to slavery at all, but to

be very inconsistent to deliver the inhaby the British Parliament.

bitants of one country from a state of (Continued from page 43.1

misery by consigning to it those of anoMr. Clarkson having briefly con- ther. Ximenes therefore may be con sidered the evils of the slave trade, sidered as one of the first great friends proceeds to trace its history from its of the Africans after the partial begiucommencement; respecting which wing of the trade. we have the following account.

" This answer of the cardinal, as it " It is rather remarkable, that the

showed his virtue as an individual, so first forerunners and coadjutors should

it was peculiarly honourable to him as have been nien in power.

a public man, and ought to operate as “ So early as in the year 1503 a few

a lesson to other statesmen, how they udo slaves had been sent from the Portu

mit any thing new 'umong political reguguese settlements in Africa into the Spa

lutions and establishments, which is connish colonies in America, In 1511,

nected in the smallest degree with injusFerdinand the fifth, king of Spain per

tice. For evil, when once sanctioned mitted them to be carried in great num

by governments, spreads in a tenfold bers. Ferdinand, however, must have

degree, . and may, unless seasonably been ignorant in these early times of

checked, become so ramified, as to af the piratical manner in which the Por

fect the reputation of a country, and to tugese had procured them. He could

render its own removal scarcely possible have known nothing of their treatment

without detriment to the political con. when in bondage, por could be have

cerns of the state. In no instance has viewed the few uncertain adventurous

this been verified more than in the case transportations of them into his domi

of the slave trade. Never was our nanions in the western world, in the light

tional character more tarnished, and our of a regular trade. After his death,

prosperity more clouded by guilt. Never however, a proposal was made by Bar

was there a monster more difficult to tholomew de las Casas, the bishop of

subdue. Eveil they, who heard as it Chiapa, to Cardinal Ximenes, «ho held

were the shrieks of oppression, and the reins of the government of Spain

wished to assist the sufferers, were feartill Charles the Fifth came to the throne,

ful of joinmg in their behalf. While for the establishment of a regular sys

they acknowledged the necessity of retem of conimerce in the persons of the

moving one evil, they were terrified by native Africans. The object of Bartho

the prospect of introducing another; and lomew de las Casas was undoubtedly to

were therefore only able to relieve their save the American Indians, whose cruel

feelings, by lamenting in the bitterness treatment and almost extirpation he had

of their bearts, that this traffic had ever witnessed during his residence among

been begun at all. them, and in whose behalf he had un

“ After the death of cardinal Ximenes, dertaken a voyage to the court of Spain.

the emperor Charles the Fifth, who had It is difficult to reconcile this proposal

come into power, encouraged the slave with the humane and charitable spirit

trade. In 1517 he granted a patent to

one of his Flemish favourites, containing of the bishop of Chiapa. But it is probable he believed that a code of laws

an exclusive right of importing four would soon be established in favour both

thousand Africans into America. But of Africans and of the natives in the

he lived long enough to repent of what Spanish settlements, and that he flat

he bad thus inconsiderately done. Per tered himself that, being about to return

in the year 1542 he made a code of and to live in the country of their sla

laws for the better protection of the un very, he could look to the execution of

fortunate Indians in his foreign domia it. The cardinal, however, with a fore

dions; and he stopped the progress of sight, a benevolence, and a justice,

African slavery by an order, tbat all which will always do honour to his me

siaves in his Anierican islands should be

made free. This order was executed confessed that it would have been strange by Pedro de la Gasca. Manumission if Leo, in his situation as pontiff, had took place as well in Hispaniola as on made a different reply. He could never the Continent. But on the return of have denied that God was no respecter Gasca to Spain, and the retirement of of persons. He must have acknowledged Charles into a monastery, slavery was that men were bound to love each other revived,

as brethren. And, if he admitted the It is impossible to pass over this in- doctrine, that all men were accountable stance of the abolition of slavery by for their actions hereafter, he could Charles in all his foreign dominions, never have prevented the deduction, without some cominents. It shows him, that it was necessary they should be first, to have been a friend both to the free. Nor could be, as a man of high Indians and the Africans, as a part of attainments, living early in the sixteenth the human race. It shows he was igno- century, have been ignorant of what rant of what he was doing when he gave had taken place in the twelfth ; or that, his sanction to this cruel trade. It shows by the latter end of this latter century, when legislators give one set of men an christianity had obtained the undispir ondue power over another, how quickly ted honourof having extirpated slavery they abuse it, or he never would have from the western part of the European found hiinself obliged in the short space world. of twenty-five years to undo that which * From Spain and Italy I come to he had countenanced as a great state- England. The first importation of slaves measure. And, while it confirms the froni Africa by our countrymen was in former lesson to statesmen, nf watching the reign of Elizabeth, in the year 1562. the beginnings or principles of things in This great princess seems on the very their political movements, it should commencement of the trade to have teach them never to persist in the sup- questioned its lawfulness. She seems port of evils, through the false shame to have entertained a religious scruple of being obliged to confess that they concerning it, and, indeed, to have rehad once given them their sanction, nor volted at the very thought of it. She to delay the cure of them because, po seems to bave been aware of the evils Litically speaking, neither this nor that to which its continuance might lead, or is the proper season ; but to do them that, if it were sanctioned, the most unaway instantly, as there can only be justifiable means might be made use of one fit or proper time in the pye of re- to procure the persons of the natives of ligion, namely, on the conviction of Africa. And in what light she would their existence,

have viewed any acts of this kind, had “ From the opinions of cardinal Xi-. they taken place, we may conjecture menes and of the Emperor Charles the from this fact, that when captain (afFifth, I hasten to that which was ex- terwards Sir John) Hawkins returned pressed much about the same time, in from his first voyage to Africa and Hisa public capacity, by pope Leo the paniola, whither he had carried slaves, Tenth. The Dominicans in Spanish she sent for him, and, as we learn from America, witnessing the cruel treatment Hill's Naval History, expressed her conwhich the slaves underwent there, con cern lest agy of the Africans should be sidered slavery,as utterly repugnant to carried off without their free consent, the principles of the gospel, and recom- declaring that' It would be detestable, mended the abolition of it. The Fran- and call down the vengeance of Heuven ciscans did not favour the former in this upon the undertakers.' Captain Hawtheir scheme of benevolence; and the kins promised to comply with the injuncconsequence was, that a controversy on tions of Elizabeth in this respect. But this subject sprung up between them, he did not keep his word; for when he which was carried to this pope for his went to Africa again, he seized many decision. Lee exerted himself, much to of the inbabitants and carried them off his honour, in behalf of the poor suffer- as slaves, which occasioned Hill, in the ers, and declared, “That nog only the account he gives of his second voyage, christian religion, but that nature her to use these remarkable words: Here self cried out against a state of slavery. began the horrid practice of forcing the This answer was certainly worthy of one, Africans into slavery, au injustice and who was deemed the head of the chris- barbarity, which, so sure as there is tian church. It inust, however, be vengeance in heaven for the worst of

vol. IX.

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