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North America comprehends all that part of the western continent which lies north of the Ithmus of Darien, extending north and south from about the 10th degree north latitude to the north pole; and east and west from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, between the -45th and 165th degrees west longitude from London. Beyond the goth degree N. Lat. few discoveries have been made. In July 1779, Capt. Cook proceeded as far as lat. 71', when he came to a solid body of ice extending from continent to continent.

Bays, SOUNDS, STRAITS AND ISLANDS.—Of these (except those in the United States, which we shall describe under that head) we know little more than their names. Baffin's Bay, lying between the 70th and Both degrees N. Lat. is the largest and most northern, that has yet been discovered in North America. It opens into the Atlantic ocean through Baffin's and Davis's Straits, between Cape Chidley, on the Labrador coast, and Cape Farewell. It communicates with Hudson's Bay to the fouth, through a cluster of iflands. In this capacious bay or gulph is James Island, the south point of which is called Cape Bedford; and the smaller islands of Waygate and Disko. Davis's Straits separate Greenland from the American continent, and are between Cape Walfingham, on James Island, and South Bay in Greenland, where they are about 60 leagues broad, and extend from the 67th to the 71st degrees of latitude above Disko illand. The most fouthern point of Greenland is called Cape Farewell.

Hudson's Bay took its name from Henry Hudson, who discovered it in 1610. It lies between 51 and 60 degrees of north latitude. The eastern boundary of the Bay is Terra de Labrador; the northern part has a Araight coaft, facing the bay, guarded with a line of illes innumerable. A vaft bay, called the Archiwinnipy Sea, lies within it, and opens into Hudson's Bay, by means of gulph Hazard, through which the Beluga whales pass in great numbers. The entrance of the bay, from the Atlantic ocean, after leaving, to the north, Cape Farewell and Davis's Straits, is between Resolution illes on the north, and Button's illes, on the Labrador coast, to the south, forming the eastern extremity of Hudfon's Straits,


The coasts are very high, rocky and rugged at top ; in some places precipitous, but sometimes exhibit extensive beaches. The islands of Salisbury, Nottingham, and Digges are very lofty and naked. The depth of water in the middle of the bay is 140 fathoms. From Cape Churchill to the fouth end of the bay are regular foundings; near the shore, shallow, with muddy or sandy bottom. To the northward of Churchill, the soundings are irregular, the bottom rocky, and in some parts the rocks


above the surface at low water. James's Bay lies at the bottom, or most southern part of Hudson's Bay, with which it communicates, and divides New Britain from South Wales. To the northwestward of Hudson's Bay is an extensive chain of lakes, among which is Lake Menichlich, lat. 61°, long. 105o W. North of this is Lake Dobount, to the northward of which lies the extensive country of the northern Indians. Weft of these lakes, between the latitudes of 60 and 66 degrees, after passing a large cluster of unnamed lakes, lies the lake or fea Arathapescow, whose fouthern fhores are inhabited by the Arathapescow Indians. North of this, and near the Arctic circle, is Lake Edlande, around which live the Dog ribbed Indians. Further north is Buffaloe lake, near which, is Copper Mine river, in lat. 72° N. and long. 119° W. of Greenwich. The Copper Mine Indians inhabit this country.

Between Copper Mine river, which, according to Mr. Herne, empties into the Northern sea, where the tide rises 12 or 14 feet, and which in its whole course is encumbered with shoals and falls, and the North-west coast of America, is an extensive tract of unexplored country. As you descend from north to south on the western coast of America, just fouth of the Arctic circle, you come to Cape Prince of Wales, opposite East Cape on the eaftern continent; and here the two continents approach nearest to each other. Proceeding southward you pafs Norton Sound, Cape Stephen's, Shoalness, Bristol Bay, Prince William's Sound, Cook's River, Admiralty Bay, and Port Mulgrave, Nootka Sound, &c. From Nootka Sound proceeding fouth, you pass the unexplored country of New Albion, thence to California, and New Mexico,

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THE vast tract of country, bounded west by the Pacific Ocean, foutfi and east by California, New Mexico, and Louisiana—the United States, Canada and the Atlantic Ocean, and extending as far north as the country is habitable (a few scattered English, French, and some other Europeart fettlements excepted) is inhabited wholly by various nations and tribes of Indians. The Indians alfo pofsefs large tracts of country within the Spanish, American and British dominions. Those parts of North America not inhabited by Indians, belong, if we include Greenland, to Denmark, Great Britain, the American States, and Spain. Spain claims East and West Florida, and all west of the Mississippi, and south of the porthern boundaries of Louisiana, New Mexico and California. Great Britain claims all the country inhabited by Europeans, lying north and caft of the United States, except Greenland, which belongs to Denmark. The remaining part is the territory of the Fifteen United States. The particular Provinces and States, are exhibited in the following table :

T A BL E. Belong Countries, Provinces,

Number of
and States.

Inbabitants. Chief Townse.

85,539 Windsor, Rutland
New Hampshire

141,885 Portsmouth, Concord Massachusetts


387,787 Boston, Salem, Newbury Post District of Maine

96,540 Portland, Hallowell Rhode Ifland

68,825 Newport, Providence Connecticut

237,946 New Haven, Hartford New York

340,120 New York, Albany

184,139 Trenton, Burlington, Brunswick Peonlylvania

434,373 Philadelphia, Lancaster Delaware

59,094 Dover, Wilmington, Newcastle Maryland

319,728 Annapolis, Baltimore Virginia

747,610 Richmond, Petersburgh, Norfok Kentucky

73,677 Lexington North Carolina

393,751 Newbern, Edenton, Halifax South Caroina

249,073 · Charleston, Columbia Georgia

82,548 Savannah, Augusta Territory S. of Ohio

35,691 Abingdon
Territory N. W. of Ohio

New Britain

Upper Canada

20,000 Kingston, Detroit, Niagara Lower Canada ?

130,000 Quebec, Montreal Cape Breton I. 3

1,000 Sidney, Louisburgh New Brunswick


Nova Scotia

S. John's JA. S in 1783 5,000 Charlottetown
Newfoundland Ifand

7,000 Placentia, St. John's

ing to.

New Jersey

United States of America,

Denm. Span. Provin. British Provinces.

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Degrees. Length 1250 1 Between

[ 31° and 469 North Latitude. Breadth 1040)

8° E. and 240 W. Long, froin Philadelphia. 1 64° and 96''w. Longitude from London.

BOUNDARIES. Bounded north and east by British America, or the provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, and New Brunswick ; southeast, by the Atlantic Ocean; south, by East and West Forida; west, by the river Miffifippi.

In the treaty of peace, concluded in 1783, the limits of the American United States are more particularly defined in the words following: “And that all disputes which might arise in future on the subject of the boundaries of the said United States may be prevented, it is hereby agreed and declared, that the following are and shall be their boundaries, viz. From the north-west angle of Nova Scotia, viz. That angle which is formed by a line drawn due north from the source of St. Croix River to the Higlia lands, along the said Highlands, which divide those rivers that empty therselves into the river St. Lawrence, from those which fall into the Atlantic Ocean, to the north-westernmost head of Connecticut river; thence down along the middle of that river to the forty-fifth degree of north

from thence by a line due west on the said latitude, until it frikes the river Iroquois or Cataraquy; thence along the middle of the faid river into Lake Ontario, through the middle of the said Lake, until it strikes the communication by water between that lake and Lake Erie; thence along the middle of the , said communication into Lake Erie, through the middle of the faid lake, until it arrives at the water communication between that lake and Lake Huron; thence through the middle of the said lake to the water communication between that lake and Lake Superior; thence through Lake Superior northward of the Isles Royal and Philipeaux to the Long Lake; thence through the middle of the said Long Lake, and the water communication between it and the Lake of the Woods to the said Lake of the Woods; thence through the said lake to the most northwestern point thereof, and from thence, on a due west course, to the River Mifilippi ; thence by a line to be drawn along the middle of the faid River Miliffippi, until it shall intersect the northernmoft part of the thirty-first degree of north latitude. South, by a line to be drawn due cait from the determination of the line laft mentioned, in the latitude of


latitude ;

thirty-one degrees north of the equator, to the middle of the River Apalachicola, or Catahouche; thence along the middle thereof to its junction with the Flint River; thence strait to the head of St. Mary's River; and thence down along the middle of St. Mary's River to the Atlantic Ocean; east, by a line to be drawn along the middle of the River St. Croix, from its mouth in the Bay of Fundy, to its fource; and from its fource directly north, to the aforesaid Highlands, which divide the rivers that fall into the Atlantic Ocean, from those which fall into the River St. Lawrence, comprehending all islands within twenty leagues of any part of the shores of the United States, and lying between lines to be drawn due east from the points where the aforesaid boundaries between Nova-Scotia on the one part, and East-Florida on the other, shall respectively touch the Bay of Fundy and the Atlantic Ocean, excepting such islands as now are, or heretofore have been, within the limits of the said province of Nova Scotia."

The following calculations were made from actual measurement of the beli

maps, by Thomas HUTCHINS, geographer to the United States.

The territory of the United States contains by computation a million of square miles, in which are

640,000,000 of acres Deduct for water


Acres of land in the United States,



part of the United States comprehended between the west boundary line of Pennsylvania on the east, the boundary line between GreatBritain and the United States, extending from the river St. Croix to the north-west extremity of the Lake of the woods on the north, the river Miflissippi, to the mouth of the Ohio on the west, and the river Ohio on the fouth to the aforementioned bounds of Pennsylvania, contains by computation about four hundred and eleven thousand square miles, in which are

263,040,000 acres Deduct for water


To , }

when purchased of the Indians.

220,000,000 of acres.

The whole of this immense extent of unappropriated western territory, containing as above stated, 220,000,000 of acres, and several large tracts fouth of the Ohio *, have been, by the ceflion of some of the

* Ceded by North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia, with certain reservation for the Indians and other purposes, as will be mentioned hereafter.


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