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attain unto it; his way is in the sea, and his path in the great waters, and his footsteps are not known.” In all that relates to his own individual salvation, “ the path of the just is as the shining light, which shineth more and more unto the perfect day;" but it is not so when God “increaseth the nations and destroyeth them, when he enlargeth the nations and straiteneth them again." Then he “discovereth deep things out of darkness;" and deeper things than those discovered may yet remain in the darkness, and yet be developed upon earth. “Lo, these are the parts of his ways; but how little a portion is heard of him! The thunder of his power who can understand ?" But what we can do, and what it is our office to do is this. We can instruct the believer, when he takes for his own the language of the Psalmist, “My flesh trembleth for fear of thee, and I am afraid of thy judgments"-we can, I say, instruct the believer how he may find comfort from considering the greatness of God in his works, even when he feels himself most incapable of fathoming the deepness of God in his thoughts; for whatever the mystery of God's thoughts may be, both as to the instruments and the processes by which his inscrutable purposes shall be accomplished, one thing we know assuredly, for we have it from himself, that his thoughts towards his people are thoughts of peace, and not of evil, to give them an expected end. Let, then, the very glancing of the sunbeam by day, the very gleaming of the stars by night, hear witness with our spirits, that “with God is no variableness, neither shadow of turning;” but as “he is faithful who hath promised," so “whatever he hath promised he is able also to perform ;” and let them never distrust bim because of the deepness of his thoughts, until they have found him wanting in the greatness of his works.

But this is not all. Here, if ever, the words of the Apostle John apply—“He that believeth hath the witness in himself.” It is his privilege not only to look, as others, upon the greatness of the work of God without, but upon the greatness of the work of God within. He can look within, at the understanding quickened, at the conscience awakened, at the passions moderated, at the will controlled, at the affections and desires disentangled from things below and elevated to things above. He can look at the consciousness of an invisible presence, the perception of a hidden life, the heart of stone taken away, the heart of flesh formed within him, the body kept under and brought into subjection, self dethroned and Christ exalted; and he can find in this so many proofs, so many pledges, that God hath chosen him for himself, and that, having begun a good work in him, he will perform it unto the day of Jesus Christ, and that in whatever direction his path through life may lead, though it be through much tribulation, it shall bring him into the kingdom of God. Only let the anchor of hope be cast boldly and faithfully into the fathomless ocean of Divine love, and never shall it be shaken from its hold by the rage of the foaming billows or the violence of the winds; nay,

the vigour of its tenacious grasp shall only be made more sted fast by the sunbeams of adversity; never shall that perfect peace be shaken which is stayed on God alone; or, if it be, the time of its wavering shall be short; as in the remembrance of the patriarch Job, we shall see the end of the Lord, that the Lord is very pitiful and of tender mercy;" and we shall be able in God's own time to appropriate to ourselves, come on us what may, the encouraging language of the prophet, “ Lo, this is our God; we have waited for him, and he will save us; this is the Lord; we have waited for him; we will be glad and rejoice in his salvation."

Only let it be observed, in conclusion, that while the text is thus adapted to impart encouragement to the godly, who look for help in time of trouble to their God, when the help of man is in vain, it should also convey a solemn admonition to those who are still temporising, still hesitating, still halting between two opinions, still vibrating like the pendulum between two extremes, unprepared to loose their hold on mammon, though intending to take hold on Christ. Let the text remind them, that the God who is great in his works, and whose thoughts are very deep, is also firm to his promises, fixed in his purposes, true in his threatenings, and inflexible in his judgments. That we cannot understand him is only the necessary consequence of the fact that we are finite and that he is infinite; while that he both understands and will judge us, who that hath ever looked upon his works can doubt? We know that, when the hour of retribution had arrived, the very “stars in their courses fought against Sisera," though till then he had been a hero and a conqueror; and we know too, by parity of reasoning, that were witnesses wanting to the utter folly, the infatuation worse than idiotcy, because fostered by presumption, of those who live without God in the world, those witnessnes will be found in the sun, the moon, and the stars—in every dawn, which admonished them of duty, in every sunset, which ought to have reminded them of the night of the grave. Oh! then, let none go hence to hear a voice of wrath and to discern a token of judgment in every wondrous work of God. None can go forth today, a sinner unwarned, unconvicted, unawakened. Oh! how strange it is, that every man will profess himself to be a sinner, and yet there are so many hundreds, so many thousands, who will do nothing in consequence of that confession, to fly from the wrath to come. But surely those who have withstood the terrors of judgment might be drawn by cords of love; and they shall carry with them the words of that exceeding great and precious promise—“ Let the wicked forsake his way, and the unrighteous man his thoughts; and let him return unto the Lord, for he will have mercy upon him, and to our God, for he will abundantly pardon."



a Sermon




“The blood of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than that of Abel."—Hebrews xii. 24.

Of all substances blood is the most mysterious, and in some senses the most sacred. Scripture teacheth us,- and after all there is very much philosophy in Scripture,—that “the blood is the life thereof,”—that the life lieth in the blood. Blood, therefore, is the mysterious link between matter and spirit. How it is that the soul should in any degree have an alliance with matter through blood, we cannot understand; but certain it is that this is the mysterious link which unites these apparently dissimilar things together, so that the soul can inhabit the body, and the life can rest in the blood. God has attached awtul sacredness to the shedding of blood. Under the Jewish dispensation, even the blood of animals was considered as sacred. Blood might never be eaten by the Jews; it was too sacred a thing to become the food of man. The Jew was scarcely allowed to kill his own food: certainly he must not kill it except he poured out the blood as a sacred offering to Almighty God. Blood was accepted by God as the symbol of the atonement. “Without shedding of blood there is no remission' of sin, because, I take it, blood hath such an affinity with life, that inasmuch as God would accept nought but blood, he signified that there must be a life offered to him, and that his great and glorious Son must surrender his life as a sacrifice for his sheep.

Now, we have in our text "blood” mentioned-two-fold blood. We have the blood of murdered Abel, and the blood of murdered Jesus. We have also two things in the text:-a comparison between the blood of sprinkling, and the blood of Abel; and then a certain condition mentioned. Rather, if we read the whole verse in order to get its meaning, we find that the righteous are spoken of as coming to the blood of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than the blood of Abel; so that the condition which will constitute the second part of our discourse, is coming to that blood of sprinkling for our salvation and glory.

1. Without further preface I shall at once introduce to you the contRAST AND COMPARISON IMPLIED IN THE TEXT. “The blood of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than that of Abel.” I confess I was very much astonished when looking at Dr. Gill and Albert Barnes, and several of the more eminent commentators, while studying this passage, to find that they attach a meaning to this verse which had never occurred to me before. They say that the meaning of the verse is not that the blood of Christ is superior to the blood of murdered Abel, although that is certainly a truth, but that the sacrifice of the blood of Christ is better, and speaketh better things than the sacrifice which Abel offered. Now, although I do not think this is the meaning of the text, and I have my reasons for believing that the blood here contrasted with that of the Saviour, is the blood of the murdered man Abel, yet on looking to the original there is so much to be said on both sides of the question, that I think it fair in explaining the passage to give you both the meanings. They are not conflicting Interpretations; there is indeed a shade of difference between them, but still they amount to the same idea. 1

First, then, we may understand here a comparison between the offerings Abel presented, and the offerings Jesus Christ presented, when he gave his blood to be a ransom for the flock,

Let me describe Abel's offering. I have no doubt Adam had from the very first of his expulsion from the garden of Eden offered a sacrifice to God; and we have some dim hint that this sacrifice was of a beast, for we find that the Lord God made Adam and Eve skins of beasts to be their clothing, and it is probable that those skins were procured by the slaughter of victims offered in sacrifice. However, that is but a dim hint: the first absolute record that we have of an oblatory sacrifice is the record of the sacrifice offered by Abel. Now, it appears that very early there was a distinction among men. Cain was the representative of the seed of the serpent, and Abel was the representative of the seed of the woman. Abel was God's elect, and Cain was one of those who rejected the Most High. However, both Cain and Abel united together in the outward service of God. They both of them brought on a certain high day a sacrifice. Cain took a different view of the matter of sacrifice from that which presented itself to the mind of Abel. Cain was proud and haughty: he said “ I am ready to confess that the mercies which we receive from the soil are the gift of God, but I am not ready to acknowledge that I am a guilty sinner, deserying God's wrath; therefore," said he, “ I will bring nothing but the fruit of the ground.” “Ah, but” said Abel, “I feel that while I ought to be grateful for temporal mercies, at the same time I have sins to confess, I have iniquities to be pardoned, and I know that without shedding of blood there is no remission of sin; therefore," said he, “Cain, I will not be content to bring an offering of the ground, of the ears of corn, or of first ripe fruits, but I will bring of the firstlings of my flock, and I will shed blood upon the altar, because my faith is, that there is to come a great victim who is actually to make atonement for the sins of men, and by the slaughter of this lamb, I express my solemn faith in him.” Not so Cain; he cared nothing for Christ; he was not willing to confess his sin; he had no objection to present a thank-offering, but a sin-offering he would not bring. He did not mind bringing to God that which he thought might be acceptable as a return for favours received, but he would not bring to God an acknowledgment of his guilt, or a confession of his inability to make atonement for it, except by the blood of a substitute. Cain, moreover, when he came to the altar, came entirely without faith. He piled the unhewn stones, as Abel did, he laid his sheaves of corn upon the altar, and there he waited, but it was to him a matter of comparative indifference whether God accepted him or not. He believed there was a God, doubtless, but he had no faith in the promises of that God. God had said that the seed of the woman should bruise the serpent's headthat was the gospel as revealed to our first parents; but Cain had no belief in that gospel-whether it were true or not, he cared not-it was suflicient for him that he acquired enough for his own sustenance from the soil; he had no faith. But holy Abel stood by the side of the altar, and while Cain the infidel perhaps laughed and jeered at his sacrifice, he boldly presented there the bleeding lamb as a testimony to all men, both of that time and all future times, that he believed in the seed of the womanthat he looked for him to come who should destroy the serpent, and restore the ruins of the fall. Do you see holy Abel, standing there, ministering as a priest at God's altar? Do you see the flush of joy which comes over his face, when he sees the heavens opened, and the living fire of God descend upon the victim? Do you note with what a grateful expression of confident faith he lifts to heaven his eye which had been before filled with tears, and cries, “I thank thee O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that thou hast accepted my sacrifice, inasmuch as I presented it through taith in the blood of thy Son, my Saviour, who is to come."

Abel's sacrifice, being the first on record, and being offered in the teeth of opposition, has very much in it which puts it ahead of many other of the sacrifices of the Jews. Abel is to be greatly honoured for his confidence and faith in the coming Messiah. But compare for a moment the sacrifice of Christ with the sacrifice of Abel, and the sacrifice of Abel shrinks into insignificance. What did Abel bring? He brought a sacrifice which showed the necessity of biood-shedding, but Christ brought the blood-shedding itself. Abel taught the world by his sacrifice that he looked for a victim, but Christ brought the actual victim. 'Abel

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bronght but the type and the figure, the Lamb which was but a picture of the Lamb of God which taketh away the sins of the world; but Christ was that Lamb. He was the substance of the shadow, the reality of the type. Abel's sacrifice had no merit in it apart from the faith in the Messiah with which he presented it; but Christ's sacrifice had merit of itself; it was in itself meritorious. What was the blood of Abel's lamb? It was nothing but the blood of a common lamb that might have been shed anywhere; except that he had faith in Christ the blood of the lamb was but as water, a contemptible thing; but the blood of Christ was a sacrifice indeed, richer far than all the blood of beasts that ever were offered upon the altar of Abel, or the altar of all the Jewish high priests. We may say of all the sacrifices that were ever offered, however costly they might be, and however acceptable to God, though they were rivers of oil and tens of thousands of fat beasts, yet they were less than nothing, and contemptible, in comparison with the one sacrifice which our high priest hath offered once for all, whereby he hath eternally perfected them that are sanctified.

We have thus found it very easy to set forth the difference between the blood of Christ's sprinkling and the blood which Abel sprinkled. But now I take it that there is a deeper meaning than this, despite what some commentators have said. I believe that the allusion here is to the blood of murdered Abel. Cain smote Abel, and doubtless his hands and the altar were stained with the blood of him who had acted as a priest. “Now," says our apostle, “ that blood of Abel spoke.” We have evidence that it did, for God said to Cain, “The voice of thy brother's blood crieth unto me from the ground;" and the apostle's comment upon that in another place is—"By faith Abel offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain, by which he obtained witness that he was righteous, God testifying of his gifts, and by it he being dead yet speaketh;” speaketh through his blood, his blood crying unto God from the ground. Now, Christ's blood speaks too. What is the difference between the two voices?--for we are told in the text that it "speaketh better things than that of Abel."

Abel's blood spoke in a threefold manner. It spoke in heaven; it spoke to the sons of men; it spoke to the conscience of Cain. The blood of Christ speaks in a like threefold manner, and it speaks better things.

First, the blood of Abel spoke in heaven. Abel was a holy man, and all that Cain could bring against him was, “ His own works were evil, and his brother's were righteous." You see the brothers going to the sacrifice together. You mark the black scowl upon the brow of Cain, when Abel's sacrifice is accepted, while his remains untouched by the sacred fire. You'note how they begin to talk together-how quietly Abel argues the question, and how ferociously Cain denounces him. You note again how God speaks to Cain, and warns him of the evil which he knew was in his heart; and you see Cain, as he goes from the presence chamber of the Most High, warned and forewarned, but yet with the dreadful thought in his heart that he will imbrue his hands in his brother's blood. He meets his brother ; he talks friendly with him ; he gives liim, as it were, the kiss of Judas; he entices him into the field where he is alone ; he takes him unawares ; he smites him, and smites him yet again, till there lies the murdered bleeding corpse of his brother. O earth I earth I earth ! cover not his blood. : This is the first murder thou hast ever seen, the first blood of man that ever stained thy soil. Hark! there is a cry heard in heaven; the angels are astonished ; they rise up from their golden seats, and they enquire, " What is that cry ?” God looketh upon them, and he saith, “It is the cry of blood ; a man hath been slain by his fellow ; a brother by him who came from the bowels of the self-same mother has been murdered in cold blood, through malice. One of my saints has been murdered, and here he comes, And Abel entered into heaven, blood-red, the first of God's elect who had entered Paradise, and the first of God's children who had worn the blood-red crown of martyrdom. And then the cry was heard, loud and clear and strong; and thus it spake" Revenge ! revenge ! revenge !” And God himself, upstarting from his throne, summoned the culprit to his presence; questioned him, condemned him out of his own mouth, and made him henceforth a fugitive and a vagabond, to wander over the surface of the earth, which was to be sterile henceforth to his plough.

And now, beloved, just contrast with this the blood of Christ. That is Jogus Christ, the Incarnate Son of God; he hangs upon a tree ; le is murdered murdered by his own brethren. “Hc came unto his own, and his own received

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