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that time cannot extinguish, as though they were animated with immortal youth, and a soul exempt from age was diffused quite through them.

Phidias, the famous sculptor, was overseer of the works. It was he in particular, who made the famous golden statue of Minerva, so much esteemed by the connoisseurs of antiquity. There was an incredible ardour and emulation among the workmen. Every one strove who should most excel, and immortalize their names by the excellency of their work.

What occasioned the admiration of the whole world, raised a jealousy against Pericles. His enemies were incessantly crying out in the public assemblies, that it was a dishonour to the people to apply to their own use the wealth of Greece, which he had caused to be brought from Delos, where it was deposited, that the allies could not look upon such an attempt but as manifest tyranny, whilst they saw the inoney they had been compelled to raise for the war, employed by the Athenians, in gilding and adorning their city, in mak• ing fine statues, and erecting temples at the expence of millions

Pericles, on the other hand, remonstrated to the Athenians, that they were not obliged to give an ac-. count to their allies of the money they had received; that it was enough that they defended them, and kept the Barbarians at a distance, whilst on their side they furnished neither soldiers, nor horses, nor ships, and were excused for certain sums of money, which as soon as paid in, were no longer theirs who paid them, but the property of those that received them, provided they performed the conditions for which they were given. He added, that the city being sufficiently provided with all stores necessary for war, it was proper to employ the rest of their wealth in such works, as when finished would procure immortal glory; and whilst they were in hand, would diffuse universal plenty, and subsist a great number of citizens. One day, as the complaints ran high against him, he offered to take the whole charges upon himself, pro

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vided the public inscriptions might declare that all
was done at his expence. At these words the people,
either through admiration of his magnanimity, or un-
willing through emulation to grant him that glory,
cried out, that he might make use of the treasury, to
supply all the necessary expences, as freely as he

The enemies of Pericles, not venturing any more
to fall directly upon him, accused before the people
the persons that were most firmly attached to him,
Phidias, Aspasia, and Anaxagoras. Pericles, who
was thoroughly acquainted with the lightness and in-
constancy of the Athenians, fearing he should at last
be obliged to sink under the machinations and in-
trigues of his invidious adversaries, to divert the
storm, kindled the Peloponnesian war which had been
so long preparing; assured that he should thereby put
a stop to the complaints that were raised against him,
and appease envy; because in so pressing a danger,
the city would not fail to put the public affairs into
his hands, and submit to his conduct, upon the ac-
count of his great power and reputation.

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I shall make three; the first upon the character of the

persons spoken of in this piece of history; the se. cond upon ostracism; and the third upon the emulation which reigned in Greece, and especially at Athens, with reference to the politer arts.

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We ought not, in my opinion, to pass over this piece of history, without asking the pupils which of these four great men they like best, and which of their good or ill qualities affect them most; and without pointing out to them the particular lineaments that distinguish their several characters.



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There is something in Themistocles which strikes exceedingly; and the single battle of Salamis, of which he had all the honour, gives him a right to dispute glory with the greatest. He there shewed invincible courage, a perfect knowledge in the art of war, an extraordinary greatness of soul, joined to a wisdom and moderation, which very much exalt their merit; especially in the instances of his prevailing with the Athenians to resign the general command of the feet to the Lacedæmonians, and his bearing the injurious treatment of Eurybiades, with a patience and temper beyond his years.

But what is most admirable in the character of Themistocles is, that penetration and presence of mind, which let nothing escape him. After a short and hasty deliberation, hecould immediately point out the best measures that were to be taken; and was extremely destrous in discerning what was most suitable to the present occasion; and could foretel by almost infallible conjectures the events of things. The design he laid and executed of making the Athenians strong at sea, shewed he had a superior genius, capable of the greatest views, of looking into futurity, and laying hold of the decisive point in affairs. As they possessed but a barren territory of sınall extent, he saw they had no other means of increasing their riches and power, of making themselves necessary to their allies, and formidable to their enemies Now this project may be justly considered as the source and cause of all the great events, which afterwards rendered the republic of Athens so flourishing

But it must be owned, the black and perfidious design [d] Themistocles proposed, of burning the Grecian feet in a time of peace, to increase the Athenian power, must take off

' infinitely from the good opinion we should otherwise have of him; for, as we have often observed, it is the heart, i, e. probity and integrity, which constitute and determine real inerit. And so the people of Athens judged. I question whether [4] Cornel. Nepos. & Plut.

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in all history we have a fact more deserving our admiration than this. We have not here a body of philosophers, who can easily lay down excellent maxims in their schools, and teach sublime rules of morality, to shew that the useful ought not to take place. But here an entire people, interested in the proposal made to them, and admitting it very advantageous to the state, without a moment's hesitation, reject it unanimously for this only reason, because it is unjust.

The great talents of Themistocles were also very much sullied, by an excessive desire of glory, and an unbounded ambition, that he could never keep within just hounds, which led him to oppose the merit of all such as could dispute glory with him, and occasioned the banishment of Aristides, and made him end his days in a dishonourable manner in a foreign land, and amongst the enemies of his

country Pericles, when he undertook the management of public affairs, found the city in the most flourishing condition of power and greatness to which it had ever attained; whereas his predecessors had rendered it so. And if it be any diminution of his glory to say, that his business was only to support it in the condition, to which others had raised it; we may observe on the other hand, that this was rather a circunstance to his advantage, as it must have been very difficult to rule, and keep within the bounds of their duty, a body of haughty citizens, that were become almost untractable through prosperity.

He supported himself at the head of affairs, and with an alinost absolute power, not for a few days, or a small compass of time, butduring forty years, though he had a great many illustrious adversaries 10 contend with; which is almost unexampled. And this circumstance alone is enough to convince us of the extent, superiority, and force of his genius, the solidity of his virtue, and the variety of his accomplishments, especially, if we consider, he had to do with a democracy, very jealous, very seditious, and abounding in persons of merit. Plutarch seems to point out VOL. II.



the cause, and gives us his character in a few words, when he says, that Pericles, like Fabius, made himself very useful to his country, by his mildness, his justice, and the resolution and patience with which he bore the imprudent and unjust behaviour of his colleagues and fellow-citizens. His enemies, who during his life took offence at the excessive credit he had acquired, were obliged to own after his death, [e] that never man knew better how to temper authority with moderation, nor to exalt mildness and humanity with a majestic gravity than he ; and his power, which had raised their envy against him, and was called by the odious name of tyranny, seemed then to have been the surest defence and strongest bulwark of the state; so much wickedness and corruption crept afterwards into the government, which durst not shew themselves during his administration, but were ever kept under restraint, and never suffered to grow up to an excess without remedy, through licentiousness and impunity.

Pericles, by the force of his eloquence, and the asscendant he had gaired over the minds of the people, several times disconcerted the projects of a war, by which means he did a signal service to his country, and would have saved it abundance of misfortunes, if he had continued the same conduct to the end. He had honest views in ruling, but would rule alone; and this led him into banishing the best subjects of the republic, and such as were most capable of serving it, because they were a counterbalance to his authority. And lastly, being apprehensive of the like treatment himself, and finding his credit daily decline, for his own security he kindled a war, which was attended with very fatal consequences to his country.

The magnificent works, wherewith he adorned Athens, are highly extolled; but I fear not altogether justly. For was it reasonable to employ [f] such im

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[c] 'Ανωμόλογεν το μετριώτερον εν I) They amounted to abore όγκων και σεμνότερον έν πραότητι, μή ten millions. φύναι τρόπον, .


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