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vehement in his discourse; and it is observed, that he never spoke in public without praying to the gods, nor to let an expression fall from him, which was not proper to his subject. Eupolis said of him, that the goddess of persuasion sat upon his lips ; and as [u] Thucydides, his adversary and rival, was one day asked, who wrestled best, he or Pericles? When Í have got him down, says he, upon the ground, he maintains the contrary with so much force, that he persuades the standers-by to disbelieve their own eyes, and think that he did not fall.

[.2] Such was the adversary, with whom Cimon was often obliged to contend, when he returned from his glorious campaigns. But as Pericles, from his obliging manner and the force of his eloquence, had made himself master of the affections of the people, he easily got the better of Cimon, and occasioned his being banished by ostracism. However, within five years he was recalled upon the ill state of the affairs of Athens in regard to the Lacedæmonians; and Pericles sacrificing his jealousy to the good of the public, was not ashamed to write and carry the decree himself, by which his adversary was recalled. As soon as he returned, he restored peace, and reconciled the two powers. And to remove from the Athenians, who were puffed up with the good success of so many victories, all farther inclination or opportunity to fall upon their neighbours and allies, he judged it necessary to lead them against the common enemy, that by this honourable method he might at the same time exercise and enrich his fellow-citizens. He therefore fitted out a fleet of two hundred sail. Sixty of these he sent against Egypt, and carried the rest against the isle of Cyprus. He beat the enemies fleet, and whilst he was laying a scheme for the entire destruction of the Persian empire, he received a wound at the siege of a city in Cyprus, of which he died. He prudently advised the Athenians to retreat in good order and any thing

fu] This was not the historian.

[x] Plut. in Vit. Cimon.


conceal his death. This direction was observed, and they safely returned home under the conduct and protection of Cimon, though dead above thirty days before. From that time the Greeks never did considerable against the Barbarians; they fell into divisions amongst themselves, gave the common enemy time to retrieve their affairs, and ruined themselves with their own forces.

Cimon was generally lamented, and the consequence shewed how great a loss Greece sustained in his person. He was rich and opulent; but [y] says Plutarch, quoting the express words of Gorgias, he was possessed of a great estate only to use it, and used it only to make himself beloved and honoured. [3] History relates such things of his liberality, as seein incredible to us, they are so different from the practice of our own times. His gardens and orchards were always open to the citizens, to take what fruit they liked best. He had every day a table frugally served, but with provision for abundance of people

, and all the poor in the city had admittance to it. He had constantly several servants behind him, with orders to slip privately some pieces of money into the hands of the poor they should meet, and to give clothes to such as wanted them. He frequently took care to burysuch as had not left enough to defray the expences of a funeral. And all this was not done to gain the affections and votes of the populace; for we have already observed that he declared in favour of the opposite faction, the rich and the noble. It is by no means surprising that a man of his character should be so much honoured during his life, and lamented after his death.

From that time, and especially after Thucydides the father-in-law of Cimon was banished by östracism, there being no body left to balance the authority of Pericles, he had an absolute power at Athens, dis

(]Φησί τον Κίμωνα τα χρήματα [x] Corn. Nep. & Plut. in Vit. κλάσθαι μεν ως χρωτο, χρήθαι δε ως Cimon. τιμώτο. .

posing of the finances, troops, and fleet, and managing all public affairs at his sole discretion. He then began to change his conduct, not complying as before with the caprice and fancies of the people, but substituting instead of his former complaisance and indulgence, a more firm and independant manner of government, , without, however, departing in any thing from right reason, and the love of the public good. He often engaged the people by remonstrances and arguments to submit voluntarily to what he proposed; but sometimes also by a salutary constraint he obliged them to consent to their own advantage; herein imitating the conduct of a wise physician, who in the course of a long illness complies sometimes with the patient's humour, but frequently orders such medicines, as make him sick and torment him, whilst they cure him. Finding himself therefore at the head of a haughty people, as he had a wonderful dexterity in managing their dispositions, he would, according to different conjunctures, sometimes employ terror to correct the pride occasioned by their good successes, and sometimes hope to re-animate their courage when depressed by adversity; shewing that rhetoric, as Plato observes, is only the art of inclining and captivating the hearts and understandings of others, and that the surest way to succeed in it, is to know how to make a proper use of the passions, which seldom or never fail of success.

What gave Pericles such great credit among the people, was not only the irresistible force of his eloquence, but the high opinion they had of his merit, his prudence, his ability in the affairs of the public, and above all, his disinterestedness; [a] for he was judged incapable of being corrupted by presents, or governed by avarice. In short, though he was long sole master of the republic, had raised the grandeur of Athens to the highest point to which it was capable, and heaped up immense treasures in the city, he did not increase the estate his father left him one single drachma. He always managed his patrimony indeed (a) 'Ardporáte tipopaws gevopéve, rej Zemuátor xgévrlovos.

with economy, took an exact account of the laying out of his revenue, and retrenched all extravagant and superfluous expences, to the great displeasure of his wife and children, who affected show and magnificence: but to all this vain and frivolous glory he preferred the [b] solid satisfaction of assisting a great number of distressed citizens.

He was no less excellent as a general than as a statesman. The troops had an entire confidence in him, and followed him with equal assurance. His great maxim in war was not to hazard a battle, till he was almost secure of success, and to spare the blood of the citizens. He used to say, that was it in his power, they should be immortal; that trees cut down and destroyed might grow up again in time, but men that were dead were gone for ever. A victory obtained by a successful temerity, in his opinion, did not deserve any commendation, though often much admired. He was so firmly attached to this maxim, that nothing could ever divert him from it, as was evidently seen at the time the Lacedæmonians made an irruption into Attica.

Like a pilot, says Plutarch, who after he has given necessary orders in a storm to all around him, despises the prayers and tears of his companions; so Pericles, having taken wise measures for the security of his country, and resolving not to march out of the city against the enemy, [c] continued firm and unshaken in his resolution, though solicited by the most pressing entreaties of several of his friends, menaced and accused by his enemies, made the subject of ballads and lampoons, and censured as a man of no colirage, and a traitor to his country. This constancy and greatness of soul is a very necessary qualification in the administration of public affairs.

Thus all the military expeditions of Pericles, which were many in number, constantly succeeded to his wishes, and justly acquired him the reputation of a general consummate in the art of war.

[+] Βοηθών πολλούς των πενήτων. βραχία φροντίζων των καταβοώνων και [c] "Εχρηλο του αυτο λογισμούς, ουχιραινόνων.


He did not suffer himself to be flushed by fortune, nor followed the blind ardour of the people, who, elate from so many instances of good success, and haughty from a power which was daily increasing, meditated new conquests, projected vast schemes, and dreamed of nothing but attacking Egypt again, and subduing the maritime provinces of the Persian empire. Many even then began to cast their eyes upon Sicily, and indulge the unhappy and fatal thoughts of sending a fleet against it; thoughts which Alcibiades soon after revived, to the entire ruin of Athens. Pericles employed his whole credit and abilities to suppress these unruly sallies and restless dispositions. He rather chose to preserve and secure the old conquests, judging it sufficient to confine the Lacedæmonians within due bounds, who looked upon the



grandeur of Athens with a jealous eye.

This grandeur was not only splendid abroad by victories acquired over the enemy, but still more so at home from the magnificence of the buildings and works wherewith Pericles had adorned and embellished the city, which threw strangers into admiration and rapture, and gave

them a great

idea of the Athe

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It is surprising to see in how little time so many different works of architecture, sculpture, engraving, and painting, were finished and yet carried to the highest pitch of perfection. For works, finished with so much ease and haste, have not generally a solid and lasting grace, nor the regular exactness of perfect beauty. Nothing but length of time and assiduity of labour can give them force to preserve and inake them triumph over ages. And it is this makes the works of Pericles the more admirable, which were finished with so much rapidity, and notwithstanding lasted solong. For every one of them, as soon as erected, had the beautiful air of antiquity; and even now, says Plutarch, above five hundred years after, they have a certajn air of youth and freshness, as if but just come from the hands of the workman; they still retain a grace and newness,


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