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at the head of the army, brought them on full speed. The enemy was unable to sustain so rough a charge, and were put to the rout. Abradates having pierced them, tell upon the battalions of the Egyptians; but his chariot being unfortunately overturned, he was slain with his men, after having given extraordinary proofs of his valour. The battle was fierce on that side, and the Persians were forced to fall back as far as their machines. There the Egyptians found themselves much incommoded by the arrows that were cast from those rolling towers, and the battalions of the rear-guard of the Persians advancing sword in hand, hindered the archers from passing farther, and obliged them to return to their post. There was then nought else to be seen but rivers of blood streaming on every side. In the mean time Cyrus came up, after having put to fight whatever had opposed him. He was grieved to see the Persians had given way, and judging the Egyptians would still go on to gain ground, he resolved to attack them in the rear; and in an instant having thrown himself with his troops behind their battalions, he charged them rudely. The horse at the same time advanced, and attacked the enemy briskly. The Egyptians, thus encompassed on every side, faced about on all sides, and defended themselves with wonderful courage. Cyrus at last admiring their valour, and being unwilling to suffer so many brave men to be cut in pieces, offered them honourable conditions, representing to them that all their allies had forsaken them. These conditions were accepted, and they afterwards served in his troops with inviolable fidelity.
After the loss of the battle, Crosus fled with great diligence to Sardis with his troops, whither Cyrus pursued him the next day, and made himself master of the city without any resistance.
From thence he marched directly to Babylon, conquering by the way the greater Phrygia and Cappadocia. When he was come before the town, and had carefully examined its situation, walls, and fortifica: tions, every one judged it was absolutely iinpossible to take it by force. He seemed therefore resolved upon the design of carrying it by famine. To this end he caused very large and deep ditches to be dug quite round the town, to prevent, as he said, any thing from entering in or going out. The people of the city could not help ridiculing his design to besiege them; and as the town was furnished with more than twenty years provisions, they made a jest of all the trouble he was at. When his works were finished, Cyrus was advised that a great festival was soon to be solemnized, whereon all the Babylonians spent the night in drinking and revelling. Upon the night of the festival, which came on early, he caused the mouth of the trenches to be opened which pointed towards the rivers, when the water rushed impetuously into this new channel, and leaving its former bed dry, opened Cyrus a free passage into the city. His troops therefore entered without any resistance. They marched forward till they came to the palace, where the king was slain. At break of day the citadel surrendered upon the news that the town was taken, and the king dead. Cyrus caused proclamation to be made in all quarters, that whoever would escape with their lives, should tarry in their houses, and send him their arins; which was done immediately. And this was all the trouble this prince had in conquering the richest and strongest city then in the world.
Cyrus began with returning thanks to the gods for the good success they had granted him; he assembled the principal officers, publicly commended their courage, wisdom, zeal, and fidelity, and distributed rewards to the whole army. He then reinonstrated to them, that the only way to preserve what they had acquired, was to persevere in their ancient virtue; that the fruits of a victory did not consist in abandoning themselves to ease and idleness ; that after they had conquered the enemy by force of arms, it would be shameful to let themselves be conquered by the allurements of pleasure; that lastly, if they would retain their ancientglory, they must maintain the same discipline at Babylon amongst the Persians, as was observed in their own country, and to this end employ their chief care in the good education of their children. By this means, says he, we shall daily grow more virtvous ourselves, by striving to set them good examples; and they cannot easily be corrupted, whilst they neither see nor hear any thing from us, but what has a tendency to virtue, and are continually employed in the practice of honest and commendable exercises.
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Cyrus assigned the different parts and cares of the government to different persons, according to the talents he knew them to be masters of; but he reserved to himself alone the office of forming generals, governors of provinces, ministers and embassadors, as judging this to be properly the duty and business of a king, and that whereon his glory, the success of all his affairs, and the quiet and happiness of the empire absolutely depended. Matters relating to the war, the finances, and the civil government, he disposed in a surprising order.
He had persons of known probity dispersed through all the provinces, who gave
him an account of all that passed; and these were called the eyes and ears of the prince. He was careful to reward and honour all persons distinguished by their merit, and exceiling in any particular whatsoever. He set a far greater value upon clemency than courage, as the last was often the cause of the ruin and desolation of a people, whereas the other was always beneficial and salutary. The laws he judged were of adinirable service in contributing to a due regulation of manners; but in his opinion, the prince was to be a living law by his example ; and he thought him - unworthy to command others, who had not more understanding and virtue than his subjects. Liberality scemed to him a virtue truly royal ; but he did not think it comparable to goodness, affability, and humanity, virtues proper to gain the hearts and win the : affections of the people ; which is properly to reign : besides, that to be fond of giving more than others when one is infinitely richer than they, has nothing, so extraordinary in it, as to descend in a manner from the throne, to make himself equal with his subjects. But the greatest preference he gave to the worship of the gods, and a reverence for religion ; as being fully persuaded, that whoever was religious and feared God, was at the same time a good and faithful servant to kings, and firmly attached to their persons and the good of the state.
When Cyrus thought he had given sufficient orders concerning the affairs of Babylon, he resolved upon a journey into Persia. He passed through Media to visit Cyaxares, to whom he made considerable presents, and let him know that he would find a magnificent, palace prepared for him at Babylon, whenever he pleased to go thither, and that he should look upon that city as properly his own. Cyaxares, who had no male issue, offered him his daughter in marriage, and Media for her portion. He was very sensible the proposal was to his advantage, but he could not accept
it till he had obtained the consent of his father and mother ; leaving to all after-ages a rare example of the respectful submission and entire dependance that all children ought to show to their parents upon such an occasion, of what age soever they be, or to what degree of power and greatness soever they are arrived. Cyrus then espoused this princess at his return from Persia, and carried her with himn to Babylon, where he had fixed the seat of his empire.
There he asseinbled his troops. It is said, they consisted of sixscore thousand horse, two thousand chariots armed with scythes, and six hundred thousand foot.
With this numerous army he took the field, and subdued all the nations from Syria to the Indian.sea. After which he turned his arms against Egypt, and brought that country in like manner under his subjection...
He took up his residence in the midst of all these countries, passing usually seven months at Babylon during the winter, because of the warmth of the cli
mate; three months at Susa in the spring; and two months at Ecbatana, during the great heats of the summer.
After many years spent in this manner, Cyrus returned into Persia for the seventh time since the establishment of his monarchy. Cambyses and Mandane had been long dead, and hinself was grown very old. Finding his end to draw near, he called together his sons and the great men of the empire, and when he had thanked the gods for all the favours they had bestowed upon him during his life, and begged a like protection of them for his children, his friends, and his country, he declared his eldest son Cambyses his successor, and left the other several considerable
governments. He gave them both excellent advice, by informing them that picty to the gods, a good understanding between brethren, and the care of acquiring and preserving faithful friends, was the firmnest support of the throne. He died lamented equally by all his people.
I shall make two upon this subject; the one concerning the character and personal qualities of Cyrus; and the other upon the truth of his history, as written by Xenophon.
The first Reftection. We may look upon Cyrus as the wisest conqueror and most accomplished hero mentioned in Profane History. He wanted none of the qualities that form a great man; he had wisdom, moderation, courage, greatness of soul, noble sentiments, a wonderful dexterity in directing the will, and conciliating aftection; a profound knowledge in all the branches of the art of war, and an extensive understanding, supported by a prudent resolution, in forming and executing great projects.