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to the other, and am overcome, when I am alone by myself. He made ample amends afterwards for his fault, and did Cyrus a considerable service, by retreating as a spy to the Assyrians, under the pretext of a pretended discontent.

Cyrus in the mean time prepared to advance into the enemy's country. None of the Medes would quit him, nor return without himn to Cyaxares, whose rage and cruelty they apprehended. The army began their march. The good treatment Cyrus had given the prisoners of war, by sending them all back free into their own country, had spread a general rumour of his clemency. Many of the people submitted to him, and increased the number of his troops. When he drew nigh to Babylon, he sent a challenge to the king of Assyria, offering to decide the quarrel by a single coinbat. But this challenge was not accepted. However, for the security of his allies during his absence, he en. tered into a kind of truce and treaty with him, by which it was agreed on both sides, that the husbandmen should not be disturbed, but have full liberty to till the ground. And thus, after he had taken a view of the country, examined the situation of Babylon, enlarged the number of his friends and allies, he returned towards Media.

When he drew near the frontiers, he sent deputies to Cyaxares, to give him notice of his arrival, and to receive his orders. Cyaxares did not think it advisable to admit so considerable an army into his country, which was besides to be augmented by the addition of forty thousand men, lately arrived from Persia. The next day he set forward on his journey with the horse that remained with him. Cyrus advanced to meet him with his, who were very numerous and in good order. The sight of them awakened the jealousy and discontent of Cyaxares. He gave his nephew a very cold reception, turned aside his face, and declined his kiss, and even let fall some tears Cyrus commanded all that stood by him to withdraw, and reasoned with hin upon the occasion. He spoke with so much mildness,

submission, submission, and force, gave him such strong proofs of his integrity, respect, and inviolable attachment to his person and interests, that he removed in a moment all his suspicions, and was perfectly restored to his good graces. They mutually embraced each other, and shed tears on both sides. The joy of the Medes and Persians was inexpressible, who waited for the issue of this interview with fear and trembling. Cyaxares and Cyrus immediately mounted their horses, and then all the Medes posted themselves behind Cyaxares, pursuant to the signal Cyrus had given them. The Persians followed Cyrus, and the other nations their respective princes. When they were arrived at the camp, they conducted Cyaxares to the tent which had been prepared for him. He was immediately visited by most of the Medes, who came to pay

their respects to him, and make him presents, some of their own accord, and others by the direction of Cyrus. Cyaxares was extremely affected with it, and began to be convinced that Cyrus had not debauched his subjects from him, but that the Medes bore him the same affectionate regard they had done before.


This whole story is full of instruction. We see in Cyrus all the qualifications requisite to form a great man, and in his troops whatever renders an army invincible. This young prince, far superior in his sentiments to those of his rank and age, placed not his glory in magnificent repasts, clothes, and equipages. He was unacquainted with the airs of haughtines and pride, by which young men of quality often imagine they distinguish themselves. He valued riches only for the pleasure of distributing them, and the opportunity they gave hiin of adding to the number of his friends. He [2] was surprisingly a master in the art of gaining the affections of others, and still more by

(z) Artificium benevolentize of Cyrus. Ep. 1. ad Quint. Fracolligendz, says Tully, speaking trem

his obliging deportment and engaging behaviour than his liberality. “As he was perfectly acquainted with the science of war, he abounded in stratagems and expedients; witness the change of arms and establishment of cavalry which he introduced among the Persians. He was sober; vigilant, inured to labour, insensible of the allurements of pleasure; and the contrast between him and Cyaxares very much exalts thc value of his excellent qualities.

At an age, when the passions are usually most violent, and in the very heat of victory, when every thing seems allowable, in the midst of the applauses and praises he received on all sides, he always remained absolute master of himself, and gave a young lord, who was very unlike him, sach lectures of continence and virtue, as are surprising even to us that are Christians, and are so very remote from our manners, that they seem almost incredible. • But what must astonish us still more, is the infinite veneration he paid to the gods, his exactness in forming no enterprise without consulting them, and iinploring their assistance; his religious acknowledgment of their favours, by ascribing all his good success to them; and the open profession of piety and religion he was not ashamed to make at all times and upon all occasions, if I may be allowed to use these terms in the case of a prince, who was ignorant of the true God.

This is what youth must study in Cyrus; and it may not bé amiss to observe to them, that one of the greatest commanders in the Roman republic was formed upon this model, l' mean the second Scipio Africanus, who had the admirable books of the Cyropædia continually in his hands!! [a] Quos quidem libros non sine causâ noster ille Scipio Africanus de manibus poneri non solebat.

Nullum est enim prætermissum in his officium diligentis & moderati imperii.

[a] Cic. Ep. 1. ad Quint. Fratr.

III. The



DEATH OF CYRUS. Cyrop. lib. 6. &c.

In the council, which was held in the presence of Cyaxares, it was resolved to continue the war. They made preparations for it with indefatigable ardour. The enemy's army were still more in number than they had been the preceding campaign, and Egypt alone furnished above sixscore thousand men. They met at Thymbræa, a city of Lydia. Cyrus, after taking all necessary precautions for supplying his army with every thing it might want, in which he was surprisingly particular, as Xenophon relates at large, determined to begin his march. Cyaxares did not follow him, but tarried behind with a third part of the Medes only, that he might not leave liis country entirely without troops.

As Abradates, king of Susiąna, was preparing to put on his armour, his wife Panthea brought him an helmet, with bracelets and lockets of massey gold, a coat of arms fit for him plaited to the bottom, and a large plume of feathers of a purple colour. She had wrought the most part of them with her own hands unknown to her husband, that she might have the pleasure of surprising him with the present. And tho' passionately fond of hin, she exhorted hiņ rather to die with his arms in his hand, than not signalize himself by some action worthy their birth, and the character she had given of him to Cyrus. We, says she, are under the highest obligations to him. When I was his prisoner, and as such designed for him, I was not treated as a slave by him, nor restored to liberty upon shameful conditions. He took as much care of me, as if I had been the wife of his own brother; and I promised him that you should be grateful for such a favour. Be not therefore unmindful of it. O Jupiter ! cries Abradates, lifting up his eyes to heaven, grant that I may this day shew myself a husband worthy of Panthea, and a friend that deserves so generous a benefactor. When he had said this, he mounted his chariot. Panthea who could hold him no longer in her arms, kissed the chariot, and following it for some time on foot, at length retired.


When the armies were come within view of each other, they prepared for battle. Atier public and

ges neral prayers, Cyrus offered libations in particular, and again besought the god of his father to espouse his cause, and guide him with his assistance. . And hearing a clap of thunder, he cried out, [6] We follow thee, 0 Jupiter supreme; and instantly advanced towards the enemy." As the front of their battle far exceeded that of the Persians, they in the center stood still, whilst the two wings advanced, inclining to the right and left, with a design to surround the army of Cyrus, and charged him at the same time in several places. This was what he expected, and was not at all surprised at. He ran through all the ranks, to encourage his troops, and though upon other occasions he behaved with so much modesty, and was so remote from all appearance of vanity, when he was upon the point to engage, he cried out with a resolute and decisive voice, Follow to certain victory; the gods are on our side. After giving all necessary orders, and causing the usual hymn to be sung through all the army, he gave the signal.

Cyrus began with attacking the wing of the enemy, which had advanced upon the right flank of his army, and having charged it also in flank, put it into disorder. The same was done on the other side, where they made the squadron of camels advance first. The enemy's cavalry did not wait their coming up; but as soon as the horses saw them at a distance, they fell back upon one another, and some of them prancing and flinging, threw their riders to the ground. The chariots armed with scythes finished what was wanting to complete the confusion. In the mean time dbradates, who commanded the chariots that were placed

[6] God indeed was actually his guide, but a very different God from Jupiter.




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