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My design, secondly, is to instil into youth a veneration for the original source and principle froin whence arose that generous contempt which the great men of antiquity shewed for what the greatest part of mankind now admire and pursue. For it is this principle, this disposition of the mind, which is really estimable. A man may be reserved and modest in the midst of riches and honours, as he


be proud and avaricious in the obscurity of a poor and wretched life.

[0] The emperor Antoninus is judged to be one of the greatest princes that ever reigned. He was held in such reverence by all posterity, [P] that neither the Roman people, nor the soldiers, could suffer any other emperor to be called after his name; and Alexander Severus himself found it too august, to venture upon assuming it. [7] Antoninus, through an equality of mind and greatness of soul, which rendered him independent of all without him, was usually satisfied with what was most plain and moderate. As he affected nothing particular in his food, lodging, bed, domestics or dress, wearing only the common stuffs, and such as were readiest to be met with; so he would make use of the conveniences which offered, without rejecting them through affectation ; equally ready to use every thing with moderation, or lay it aside without uneasiness.

It was this disposition of mind the wife of Tubero, whom I have already spoken of, particularly admired in her husband, according to the judicious observation of Plutarch. “She was not ashamed, [ro] says “ the historian, of her husband's poverty, but ad“ mired in him the virtue which made him consent “to remain poor :" that is, the motive which retained him in his poverty, by disapproving the means of becoming rich, which are usually dishonest and un

[o] Dio, lib 70. Capitol in Vit. lib. 6. c. 23. T. Antonin,

[r] Ουκ αισχυνομήνη την πείαν [] Capitol. in Vit. Macrin. pě a ropós, árad Şavpéluse the Diad. Getæ.Lamprid. in Vit. Alex. ápetny di nis opérns ñv. (7) M. Aur. lib. 1. c. 18. &


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just. For the lawful ways of accumulating wealth were very rare to a noble Roman; as he could not apply himself to business and trade, nor expect any gratification, or pension, or other kind of benefit, which officers usually now receive from the liberality of our princes, by way of recompence for the services he did the state. There was scarce any other way of becoming rich, but by plundering the provinces, as other magistrates and generals did. And it was this greatness of soul, this disinterestedness, this delicacy and love of justice, which made him reject all unworthy means of throwing off his poverty, that this lady so deservedly admired in him. Intinitely above the common sentiments of the world, she discerned through the veils of poverty and simplicity the greatness of soul which occasioned them, and thought herself obliged to respect her husband still more upon that very account, which might perhaps have rendered him contemptible to other Women ; θαυμάζεσα την αρετήν δι' ης σένης ήν.

In my opinion, youth should principally be put upon taking notice of such passages as these, whilst they are reading history, as nothing is more capable of forming their taste and judgment, to which the care of masters ought entirely to tend.

It is of service also to confirm these instructions by examples taken from modern history, and especially of the great men, whose memory is still recent. Who has not heard of M. de Turenne's simplicity and modesty in his retinue and equipage ? " He strives

to conceal himself,” says M. Flechier in his funeral oration, “but his reputation discovers him. He

marches without a train of attendants, whilst every man in his own mind places him upon a triumphal

As he passes by, the enemies he has conquered are reckoned, and not the servants which "follow him. Alone as he is, we imagine him sur" rounded in all places with his virtues and victories. " There is something extremely noble in this elegant simplicity, and the less haughty he is, the more

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"venerable he becomes.” Ilis character was eractly the same in all respects, in his buildings, his furniture and his table. M. de Catinat, the worthy disciple of such a master, imitated him in his simplicity, as well as in his military virtues.

I have heard some officers say, who had served under these two great men, that in the army their tables were well supplied, but with great plainness; that they were plentiful, but military ; that they eat only of common food, and drank only of the wine of the country where the troops lay.

Mareschal de la Ferte, when no longer able to serve, through his great age and infirmities, ordered his son's equipage for the campaign to be got ready. His steward having made ample provision of trutiles

, morilles, and all the other materials that were requisite to make excellent ragoos, by the son's direction, brought in the bill. The mareschal had scarce cast his

eye upon it, before he threw it away in a passion, It is not thus, said he, that we made war. Coarse

meat plainly dressed was all the ragoos we had. Go, tell my son, that I will not put myself for nothing to so foolish an expence, and so unworthy of

a soldier.” This I was told by an officer that was present. And the same gentleman observed, that in the late war the officers, that met at Paris, seldom entertained themselves with any other food, than such as they had caten during the campaign.

Lewis XIV. in the military code he has left behind him, which contains divers regulations for the soldiery, besides what relates to plate, cquipage, and dress, [s] particularly recommends plainness and tru

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gality [s] Sa majesté voulant par toutes qui non seulement incommode les voies ôter les moyens aux officiers plus riches, mais ruine entièrement généraux de ses armées de se con- les inoins accommodés, qui à leur stituer en des dépenses inutiles & exemple PAR UNE FAUSSE REsuperfues, comme celles qui se font PUTATION, croient être obligés en leurs tables, s'étant introduit de les imiter. .. Défend sa ma. une méchante coutume de faire dans jesté aux lieutenans généraux, &c. les armées des repas plus magnifi- qui tiendront table, d'y faire servir ques & somptueux qu'ils ne sont autre chose que des potages & du ordinairement en leurs maisons : ce rôti, avec des entrées & entremets



gality in eating; and to this end enters into a very particular detail, and forbids an expensive and sumptuous table under severe penalties. Thus a prince, who knows how to govern, easily comprehends how important it is to the state to banish all luxury and magnificence from the camp; [t] to suppress the senseless ambition of such as strive to distinguish {u} themselves by a false politeness, and the study of what softens and enervates mankind; and to cover with shame such profusions as consume in a few months what might serve for several years, or be so much more nobly applied in relieving the distresses, and promoting the happiness of mankind.

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Posts of preferment, and the marks of respect annexed to them, may tlatter the ambition and vanity of mankind, but in themselves include no real Glory or solid Greatness, as they are foreign to them, as they are not always the proof and reward of merit, as they add nothing to the good qualities either of body or mind, as they correct none of our faults but often on the contrary serve to multiply and make them more remarkable, by making them conspicuous, and exhibiting them in a stronger light. Those who judge best, without suffering themselves to be dazzled by empty shew, have always held dignities as burthen's which they were loaded with, rather than honoured by; and the higher they have been raised, the heavier and more dreadful the weight has appeared. There is nothing so splendid in the eyes of mankind, as royalty and sovereign power, and nothing at the same tiine so laborious and oppressive. The glory which

qui ne seront que de grosses viandes, belli, lucrantur. Tacit. Hist. lib. sans qu'il puisse y avoir aucunes as

1. cap. 88. siettes volantes ni hors d'euvre, &c. [u] Paulatim discessum ad deliniRéglemens du 24. Mars 1672, & menta vitiorum, balnea & convividu premier Avril 1705;

orum elegantiam : idque apud im[i] Ambitione stolidâ luxuriosos peritos humanitas vocatur. Tacit. apparatus conviviorum, & irrita- in Vit. Agric. cap. 21. menta libidinum, ut instrumenta


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surrounds it, makes us with reason admire such persons as have had the courage to refuse it; and the labour and pains which are inseparable from it, make us still more admire such as rightly discharge all the duties of it.

The young Sidonians, who refused the sceptre which was offered them, well understood, as Hephæstion tells them, that it was far more glorious to despise, than to accept royalty [.2] Primi intellexistis, quanto majus esset regnum fustidire, quàm accipere

. And the answer of Abdalonymus, whom they had raised from the dust to a throne, sufficiently explains his opinion of it. Alexander asking him how he had borne his condition of poverty and misery; “Would

to God, says he, I could bear royalty with as much

courage and resolution !" Utinam, inquit, eodem animo regnum pati possim! The phrase, regnum pati, “to bear royalty,” is very expressive, and plainly shews that he thought it a heavier and more dangerous burden than poverty.

We shall see hereafter in what manner the Romans were forced to offer violence to Numa Pompilius, the second king of Rome, before he would accept of an authority, which seemed to him the more formidable, as it gave him an almost unlimited power, and, under the specious title of king and master, made him the actual servant and slave of all his subjects.

[y] Tacitus and Probus, who did so much honour to the royal dignity, were both advanced to the enpire against their will

. The first urged his great age and weakness, which made him incapable of marching at the head of an ariny; [z] but the whole senate answered, that the empire was entrusted to his understanding and prudence, that it was his merit they chose and not his body. And a letter which Probus wrote to one of the principal officers of the empire, fully explains his real sentiments. “I never desired,

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[*] Q. Curt. lib. 4. n. 1. tem facimus. Tu jube, milites D'} Vopisc.lin Vit.Probi & Tacit. pugnent; animum tuum, non cor

[x] Quis melius quàm senex im- pus, eligimus. perat ? Imperatorem te, non milie


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