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The following works, which have been freely used in the prepa. ration of this manual, will be of service to those who desire to give the subject a more thorough study. Those marked 2, 3, 4, have been used to some extent as text-books in this country.

1. Theorie des lateinischen Stiles, von C. J. GRYSAR. 2d ed. Köln : J. G. Schmitz. 1843.

A very complete and elaborate treatise, the source from which excellent material has been largely drawn by others.

2. Hints towards Latin Prose Composition. By ALEX. W. POTTS. 3d ed. London: Macmillan & Co. 1872.

A brief but admirable essay on the main points of Latin style and expression (without exercises), with a great number of brief illustrations, some of which will be found in the introduction to Part II. of the present manual (pp. 126–129).

3. Parallel Extracts, arranged for translation into English and Latin, with Notes on Idioms. By J. E. Nixon. Part I. Historical and Epistolary. London: Macmillan & Co. 1874.

An excellent working manual, the passages on opposite pages suggesting points of comparison between Latin and English style, and with numerous figured references to the introductory Notes.

4. A Manual of Latin Prose Composition for the use of Schools and Colleges. By the Rev. HENRY MUSGRAVE WILKINS. 3d ed. London: Parker, Son, & Brown. 1861.

Numerous exercises, very fully annotated, a portion being "adapted" (in English) to the Latin idiom. With introductory remarks and a table of idiomatic expressions. A Key is published for the use of teachers.

5. Principia Latina. Part VI. Short Tales and Anecdotes from Ancient History for translation into Latin Prose. By WILLIAM SMITH, D.D. 3d ed. London: John Murray. 1870.



Lesson 1.

The Order of Words.

READ carefully the whole of Chapter VI. (pages 258–262). Learn $$ 343, with c, d ; and 344.

NOTE. — Though the order of words in a Latin sentence seems very arbitrary, yet it will be observed that almost every arrangement produces some effect such as must usually be given in English by emphasis or stress of voice. In the Exercises to follow, the pupil should observe the reason of any change he may make from the normal order, and the effect it has in making prominent some particular word or words. He should also acquire, as early as possible, the habit of regarding his composition as a Latin sentence, and not as an English sentence turned into Latin words. And he will be aided in this by habitually reading over the sentence as Latin after he has written it, to be sure that it has a Latin sound.

1. The normal or regular form of words in a Latin sentence is the following: (a) The Subject, followed by its modifiers; (b) the modifiers of the Predicate, the direct object being usually put last; (c) the Verb, preceded by any word or phrase which directly qualifies its action.

This is the order usually to be followed, where no emphasis is thrown on any particular word, as in simple narrative of fact: thus, Hannibal imperator factus | proximo triennio omnes

gentes Hispaniae | bello subegit. — NEPOS, Hann. 3.

REMARK. – In actual practice, the normal order of words is rarely found. It is continually altered, either for the sake of emphasis, to throw stress on the more important words; or for the sake of euphony, — to make the sentence more agreeable to the ear.

2. Modifiers of Nouns — as adjectives (not predicate), appositives, and oblique cases used as attributes

- usually follow the noun; modifiers of Verbs — including adverbs and adverbial phrases — precede the verb. Genitives may come indifferently before or after the noun which they limit, according to emphasis.

3. In the arrangement of Clauses, the relative clause more often comes first in Latin, and usually contains the antecedent noun; while, in English, the demonstrative clause almost always precedes : as, Quos amisimus cives, eos Martis vis perculit. - Cic.

Marc. 6. (“Those citizens whom,” &c. See examples in $ 200. 6.) 4. In contrasted phrases or clauses, either (1) the same order of words is repeated (anaphora), or (2) the order is reversed (chiasmus): as, 1. Bellum genere necessarium magnitudine periculo

sum. - id. Manil. 10. 2. Non terrore belli, sed consilii celeritate. — (id. 11.)

5. Almost universally the MAIN WORD of the sentence is put first (rarely last). This may be (1) simply the emphatic word, containing the idea most prominent in the writer's mind (emphasis); or it may be (2) contrasted with some other word preceding or following (antithesis). Compare, for example, the following: 1. M. Brutus Ciceronis amicus Caesarem interfecit. 2. Amicus Ciceronis M. Brutus Caesarem interfecit. 3. Caesarem interfecit M. Brutus Ciceronis amicus.

That is, “It was Cæsar,” &c.

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