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of the richest vein, by an exuberance of picturesque description, poetical allusion, and ornamental expression.'21

In November, 1637, he wrote Lycidas, an elegy occasioned by the death of a young and very accomplished person, Mr. King, who was the friend of Milton, and a great favourite at Cambridge. Milton's Poem was published at the end of a small volume of Elegies, with which the University honoured the memory of their student. Some of the songs of LYCIDAS I have read, for

He knew

Himself to sing, and build the lofty rhyme!' they are, for the most part, complimentary effusions on the birth of the children of Charles the First; but I have discovered nothing that I could extract with advantage.22 The beautiful

21 It has been asked where an illustration must be sought for the expression, ver. 252,

At every fall, smoothing the raven down

Of darkness till it smiled :'

and the entire silence of the commentators has been remarked. I shall, therefore, observe that there can be no doubt, but that Milton had the following passage in Heywood's Love's Mistresse before him. Act. iii. sc. 1.


'Time's eldest daughter, Night, mother of Ease,
Thou gentle nurse, that with sweet lullabies
Care-waking hearts to gentle slumber charm'st!

Thou smooth cheek'd negro, Night, the black eyed Queen.
That rid'st about the world on the soft backs

Of downy Ravens sleeke and sable plumes,
And from thy chariot silent darknesse flings,
In which man, beast, and bird enveloped,
Takes their repose and rest.'

22 Edward King, of Christ's Coll. Camb. son of Sir John King, Secretary for Ireland in the time of Elizabeth, James, and Charles. He was drowned on the passage from Chester

monody of Lycidas shows an intimate acquaintance with the Italian metres, and to one poem, the Alcon 23 of Balth. Castiglione, it is more peculiarly indebted for some of its imagery. It discovers also Milton's familiarity with our elder poets, and supported by the authority of his Master Spenser,' 24 in similar allusions; it has mixed up with its pastoral beauties a stern, and early avowal of his hostility to the church.25

to Ireland. See Birch's Life, p. xvii. for an account of the collection in which Milton's Poems were published. The names of T. Farnaby, H. More, J. Beaumont, Cleaveland, W. Hall, are in the list of contributors. The shipwreck of Mr. King took place on the 10th of Aug. 1637; it appears that he might have escaped with some others in the boat; for an account of his poetry, see Warton's Milton, p. 39, second ed.

23 See Class. Journal, No. lxiii. p. 356, by G. N. Ogle. 24 There is among Spenser's Poems a Pastoral glogue on Sir P. Sydney's death, by L. B. which Milton had read when he wrote Lycidas. v. Todd's Spenser, vol. viii. p. 76.

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25 Mr. Peck thinks that the manner in which Milton has dispersed his rhymes in Lycidas, is an attempt, though secretly, to give a poetical image or draught of the mathematical canon of music: he informs us how to make this out, by drawing a bow line from rhyme to rhyme,' he considers the whole poem as a lesson of music consisting of such a number of bars. The rhymes are the several chords in the bar: the odd dispersion of the rhymes may be compared to the beautiful way of sprinkling the keys of an organ. He says, Dryden imagined the rhymes fell so, because Mister Milton could not help it. I think they lie so, because Mr. Milton designed it. v. New Memoirs, 4to. p. 32. Mr. Peck has favoured us with stage directions for Paradise Lost, as— Enter Adam, with his arms across. Adam pauses. Thunder and Lightning. Eve approaches him. Adam kicks at her. Eve embraces his legs. Eve is ready to faint, &c. He considers Paradise Lost as partly formed out of Gusman d' Alfarache, the Spanish Rogue. He says Mr. Fenton was a good judge when he took time to consider things, p. 83; he has composed an epitaph for Mr. Milton, out of Val. Maximus, P. 101. He says, 'His tip, and whiskers (an essay towards

The short, but exquisitely beautiful poem, called 'the Arcades,' was, as I have previously said, composed about this time; Milton wrote only the poetical part, the remainder probably consisted of prose and machinery.

Having completed his circle of study in the retirement of the country, Milton became anxious to enjoy the learned society, and the refined amusements of town. Excipit hinc fessum sinuosi pompa Theatri.' He writes to Deodati, I will tell you seriously what I design. To take chambers in one of the inns of court, where I may have the benefit of a pleasant and shady walk, and where with a few associates I may enjoy more comfort, when I choose to stay at home, and have a more elegant society when I choose to go abroad: in my present situation you know in what obscurity I am buried, and to what inconveniences I am exposed.'-His seventh Elegy discovers that these shady 26 and suburban

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a beard), were of a thick, lightish colour, p. 103; that his eyes were black at twenty-six, but blue at sixty. He is satisfied that Milton could take an organ to pieces, and clean it, and put it together without help, p. 111; this he deduces from Par. Lost, 1. 709; he thinks ducks and nods' in Comus a sneer at the country people. He mentions Eve's instituting a religious order of young women, who were to continue virgins, 196; he speaks of Milton's great intimacy with Mrs. Thompson, p. 274. He considers King Charles the First a very proper person for Milton to present a poem to, by order of the House of Commons, p. 284. The Biography of Milton reads very differently through the medium of the laborious Mr. Todd, and the lepid Mister Peck.

26 In the time of Milton's youth, the fashionable places of walking in London were Hyde Park, and Gray's Inn Walks. See Warton's Quotations from Sir A. Cockaine's Poems, p. 470. In his Prolusiones, p. 113, he mentions the pleasures of London; Cum ex eâ urbe, quæ caput urbium est, huc nuper me reciperem, Academici, deliciarum omnium,


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walks were enlivened by forms that made no light impression even on a scholar's heart.

Et modo qua nostri spatiantur in urbe Quirites,
Et modo villarum proxima rura placent;
Turba frequens, facieque simillima turba dearum
Splendida per medias itque reditque vias.
Hæc ego non fugi spectacula grata severus,
Impetus et quo me fert juvenilis agor.
Unam forte aliis super eminuisse notabam,
Principium nostri lux erat illa mali.
Sic Venus optaret mortalibus ipsa videri,
Sic regina deûm conspicienda fuit.
Interea misero, quæ jam mihi sola placebat
Ablata est, oculis non reditura meis.
Ast ego progredior tacite querebundus, et excors,
Et dubius volui sæpe referre pedem.

These plans of life were suddenly changed by his mother's death in 1637,27 and he then obtained his father's permission to go abroad. He left England in 1638, having previously obtained some directions for his travels from Sir Henry Wotton; and as a presiding maxim of prudence, and means of safety, amid civil broils, and spiritual dissensions, he was desired to recollect the following sentence, which that experienced statesman had also impressed on other travellers.-' I pensieri stretti, ed il viso sciolto.'

On his arrival at Paris, by the favour of Lord

quibus is locus supra modum affluit, usque ad saginam, prope dixerim, satur; sperabam mihi iterum aliquando otium illud Literarium, quo ego vitæ genere etiam cœlestes animas gaudere opinor; eratque penitus in animo jam tandem abdere me in Literas et jucundissimæ Philosophiæ perdius et per nox assidere, ita semper assolet laboris et voluptatis vicissitudo amovere satietatis tædium, &c.

27 Mr. Godwin says, 'There is great confusion among all the biographers of Milton, respecting the period of his travels, and this confusion originates with Milton himself.' See his Life of Philips, p. 357.

Scudamore, he was presented to Grotius, then residing at the French court, as ambassador from the celebrated queen of Sweden. Philips says, 'that Grotius took the visit kindly, and gave him entertainment suitable to his worth, and the high commendations he had heard of him.' After a residence of a few days, he proceeded directly to Nice, and embarked for Genoa,* from thence he passed through Leghorn and Pisa in his way to Florence. Milton had studied the language and literature of Italy with peculiar diligence and success; and at Florence he found himself honourably received by the most enlightened persons,28 as well as by the learned academicians.


Rise, Genoa, rise in beauty from the sea,
Old Doria's blood is flowing in thy veins !
Rise, peerless in thy beauty! what remains
Of thy old glory is enough for me.

Flow then, ye emerald waters, bright and free!
And breathe, ye orange groves, along her plains;
Ye fountains, sparkle through her marble fanes :
And hang aloft, thou rich and purple sky,
Hang up thy gorgeous canopy thou Sun!
Shine on her marble palaces that gleam
Like silver in thy never-dying beam :
Think of the years of glory she has won;
She must not sink before her race is run,
Nor her long age of conquest seem a dream.
Genoa, April 1822.

28 See his verses to his friend, Giov. Salsilli, 10.
Hæc ergo alumnus ille Londini Milto
Diebus hisce qui suum linquens nidum,
Venit feraces Itali soli ad glebas
Visum superbâ cognitas urbes famâ
Virosque, doctæque indolem juventutis.

See also his Epit. Damonis, ver. 137.

J. M.

Quin et nostra suas docuerunt nomina fagos
Et Datis, et Francinus, erant et vocibus ambo
Et studiis noti, Lydorum sanguinis ambo.

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