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would be or will be levied, for it is became more independent, or, as some said that it has only once been paid and exasperated employers say, more imputhen by a merchant. Whether that dent. There is a shortage of labor all tale be strictly true or not, it is evident over British Columbia, and Chinamen that laundry-workers and domestic ser- exhibit a strange adaptability in passvants cannot raise so large a sum, nor ing from one employment to another. can they at present demand wages so This has been more remarkable since high as to recoup themselves or their the head-tax was levied. For instance, importers for such an outlay. The tax, in summer in Vancouver it is nearly if it were paid at all, would in the long impossible to get servants because they run have to be paid by the employer, all go off to the canneries; but when and Chinamen, valuable as in many the salmon have all gone down to the ways they are, are not worth that sea the cooks come back to their kitchprice. The tax was meant to be, and ens, and the households of Vancouver is, prohibitive.
run smoothly again. Even so Canada is more lax than the There are some white servants in United States, where Chinamen have Vancouver, though not nearly so many for years past been absolutely prohib- as are wanted; the only place where ited from landing, and the only yellow you never see them is in the same men who gained admission were a few house with Chinamen. All white or who landed at Vancouver and contrived all yellow is the rule in every employto smuggle themselves over the fron- ment, and one is told that no white tier. Canada is also much less drastic man will work beside a yellow man, than Australia, where the federal Par- because he cannot compete with him liament has decided to deport the Kan- and live. The real reason lies a good akas, who are already in the country, deal deeper than the rate of wage. and who for long years have worked Chinamen are often paid highly; as the Queensland sugar plantations, send- cooks, for instance, they earn easily ing them to some of the Solomon Is. £60 and £70 a year; a white woman lands, now standing empty (so it is earns no more. To be sure the Chinasaid), on account of certain cannibal man expects fewer holidays and gets neighbors having eaten their former in- through more work, and he can live habitants. These complicated ques- and thrive on a little fish and rice costtions are troubling all the world, and ing but a few cents a day. But he will all that one can do with certainty is to not live like that if lie can help it. He note the particular stage of the agita- appreciates good fare, and likes to be tion reached in this country or that. a cook because then he has control over
In British Columbia all the Chinese the kitchen; and even for the sake of labor available is that which is already a lighter place he will seldom enter a there, a constantly diminishing quan- household where there is not a good tity. No men in the world know bet- table and plenty of company.
But ter than do the Chinese how to seize a these things are not necessary to him. personal advantage, and the Chinamen llis standard of comfort has been already in the field were first to see trained down for centuries as steadily that whosoever might lose by the ordi- as our European standard has been nance of the Dominion Parliament, trained up; and it must always be a they stood to win. Suddenly they question at what point this continual were lifted above fear of competition. rise in the standard of living must stop, They promptly raised their rate of or ought to stop, for a nation as a wages, and not content with that, they whole, or for the individual considered
separately. We seem to have decided to children; most surprising of all, he that our own standard,--the standard is capable of strong personal attachof the Anglo-Saxon working-man in this ment to his employers. present year of grace—is the lowest we Two Chinese servants will manage ought to recognize, and that any indi- a large house between them, and man. vidual or race that contrives to live be- age it well, and will go on working for low it is necessarily a blot on the land- year after year, with no more than a scape. Nevertheless, it is capable of couple of days' holiday at long argument that the Anglo-Saxon stand- intervals. One does not wish white ard is a wasteful standard; that as men or women to work like that, but good work could be done on less ex- one cannot help suspecting that it is penditure; that somewhere between not their vices but their virtues (virtues China and British Columbia, say, which the British union man has come should be our halting-place. It is capa- to regard as vices) that made the ble of argument, though not of deci- Chinamen unpopular in many sion. It is too much a mere matter of quarters. habit and of training; it must be, But it is not as domestic servants moreover, carefully adjusted to the that the Chinese are most needed in the work a man has to do or can do; but new land. The employers who are the logical halting-place is where added really to be pitied are the farmers and luxury does not produce corresponding fruit-growers, who took land in British excellence in the individual or his Columbia in the reasonable faith that work. More than enough nations and they could hire yellow labor to work it, families have gone to ruin because they and whose crops are now rotting in fixed their standard of living too high. the ground or on the trees because of Now as to the excellence of the work the sheer impossibility of garnering done in Canada by the white man with them single-handed. Often times the his high wages, there are none to ques- land was taken from this same Gor. tion; but the Chinese also do excellent ernment that has shut the labor out. work. One hears it said that they are Meetings have been held, and petitions dirty, immoral, dishonest. No doubt forwarded to Parliament praying that they are-some of them; but let us re- Chinamen may be permitted to come member that these Chinamen who as domestic servants and farm-laborers come over to do the work that our peo- oply, but few even of the petitioners ple disdain are often the lowest of appear to hope for speedy relief. And (oolies, outcasts of the coast provinces. if agriculturists are to get Chinese laCompare them with the lowest of our bor, why should not the canneries or people imported to a strange land with the laundries? Why should not Chinafew or no women. The history of men be allowed to grow fruit and veg. (say) our mining camps, or of our trop- etables for the towns, which surely ical colonies has not been altogether without their skill and patience would spotless as regards dishonesty, immo- have a far worse dietary than at presrality, and dirt; and it is unlikely that ent? This was not a year when there the lowest of our people placed under was a glut of salmon at the canneries: conditions as unfamiliar would find as that happens every four years, and this many employers to give them as good was not the due time; but if there a character. A good Chinaman (and had been, it was said that the fish must there seem to be many such) is hard- have been wasted for want of hands, working, sober, clean, law-abiding, pa- and then tinned salmon would have tient, resourceful, loyal, and very kind risen in price. But scarce labor makes all things increase in price, and the white man in British Columbia does not get the full benefit of his rise of wages; his wife gets even less, for she used to hire a Chinaman to do her heavy work, but now, the Chinamen's wages having risen as well as her husband's, she cannot afford it, even if she can find the Chinamen, for any Chinaman can leave his employer to-day certain of finding another to-morrow, and be is getting fastidious as to the nature of his work. Of course the same may be said of white men, and that is, no doubt, a fault on the right side, for it is better to have employers clamoring for labor than men clamoring for work and bread. Still, wages can only be exchanged for life; they are not life.
The question of color is likely to present itself under another form before long. Under recent treaties with Great Macmillan's Magazine.
Britain the Japanese cannot be excluded from any part of their ally's dominions. There are already many Japanese in British Columbia; they have, for instance, practically monopolized many branches of the salmon-fishing industry. Nobody appears to like Japanese servants quite so well as Chinese, but employers out West are not in a position to choose, and possibly a good many Japanese may find it worth while to come to British Columbia in the next few years. There are, however, as we all know, only forty millions of Japanese as against three hundred millions of Chinese, and the supply can hardly be as regular or as abundant. If it were, the Dominion Parliament is quite capable of taking a line of its own. And the present treaty with Japan runs for no more than ten years.
THE DUKE OF THE ABRUZZI'S CLIMB.
BY SIR MARTIN CONWAY.
Ever since Stanley returned from his the 'ascent, with
or less perEmin Pasha expedition the name of sistence. Ruwenzori has been a familiar one to The trouble with the mountain is its lovers of mountains. The snows of secretive ways. It shrouds itself most the Mountains of the Moon had indeed of the time in impenetrable mist. Now been seen by modern travellers before and again it shows one or more of the Stanley saw them, but it was Stanley peaks of its serrated crest in a way who established the position of the to puzzle observers not habituated to range and showed that the old records mountain reconnoitering. Rarely inof Arab geographers were in this mat- deed is the whole range clear from base ter also true to fact. Stanley was not to crest, and few are they who have a climber; but his companion, Stairs, so beheld it. Thus there were doubts felt that a mountain seen moderately as to which was the highest point and near at hand should at least be at- still greater doubts and varieties of tempted, and he made a bold assault opinion as to the altitudes of the peaks. upon it, with no previous mountaineer- Some maintained that they were 20,000 ing experience and no expert guides feet high, others that the highest peak to help. That he only reached a was not much above 15,000 feet. height of something over 10,000 feet With no books at hand to refer to I was not to his discredit. Since that cannot attempt to make a list of the day various explorers have approached, various travellers who have at difand some have actually attempted ferent times approached the range. The more inexperienced asserted that do nothing. After a fortnight's inae. the climbing was of excessive difficulty tion they were compelled to return. and one party, of military men, if I It was the Freshfield party that rightly remember, roundly asserted the finally settled the fact that June is ascent to be impossible. When, how- practically the only month in the year ever, photographs of the range arrived in which a first ascent could be made. in this country experienced climbers They could not wait from November saw evidently enough that the ascents on for the fine weeks to come round. could scarcely be difficult and that so they had to leave the prize for oththe attainment of the various peaks ers to capture. It was under these could be accomplished readily enough, circumstances and after these prelimiweather and equipment permitting. naries that the Duke of the Abruzzi
It was, in fact, as ultimately turned decided to make the ascent. The rest out, a mere question of weather. You was a mere matter of equipment, orcannot climb high unknown peaks in ganization, and marching. The Duke fog, snow, and gale. You must be has had plenty of experience and is able to see ahead in order to pick out himself an excellent climber. As an your route, and in intricate unknown amateur he ranks along with the best glaciers you must also be able to see and is so recognized in the confratersomething of your way down again. nity of mountaineers, who do not bow As for equipment, the Uganda railway in this before names or titles. He has made transport to within an easy dis- served a long apprenticeship in the tance of the range a simple matter. Alps, especially in that difficult range What climbers asked, therefore, of resi- of craggy peaks that stretches southdents familiar with the region was, ward from the Matterhorn down the "What is the right time of year for west side of the Valpelline. With Mr. an ascent? When is fine weather Mummery, but without guides, he most frequent at high levels?” Το made the ascent of the Matterhorn by these questions they could obtain no the Zmutt arête, which has seldom clear replies, and it was upon the cor- been climbed and is a totally different rectness of the answer that success affair from the relatively easy ordior failure depended.
nary way. Thus it happened that that experi- As an organizer of expeditions he enced mountain traveller, Mr. D. W. had had experience in Alaska, where Freshfield, accompanied by an able he made the first successful ascent of climber, Mr. A. L. Mumm, and by good Mount St. Elias, and again in the AreAlpine guides, were sent a wild-goose tic regions in his Franz Josef Land chase into the recesses of Ruwenzori polar expedition. by false accounts of the seasons. They For him the Ruwenzori expedition were told that the autumn was the was really a simple affair. He had time, and in the autumn they duly ar- command of the necessary funds and rived, on their way back from the influence, he could lay his hand with British Association meeting in South certainty on the best companions, and Africa. Without difficulty they reached he possessed in himself the requisite the edge of the glaciers and obtained a physical powers and skill. That he momentary glimpse of the peaks, but would succeed was not doubted for a climbing was utterly out of the ques- moment. He not merely climbed the tion. Rains descended with little in- highest but all the important peaks of termission; fog hung heavily on the the range.
He took with him the best They cou'1 see nothing and mountain photographer in the world, expert men of science, and expert sur- and King Edward and the Royal Geoveyors. His choice of men, which graphical Society rightly received him was his own, seems to have been ex- with honor. The lecture he delivered cellent. He has brought home splen- last Saturday at the Queen's Hall was did photographs, an admirable map, interesting and was instructive. When important scientific collections, and all in due course the book appears that the results that any expedition could will contain a full account of the jourhave accomplished in the time. His ney it will be read nowhere with more countrymen are justly proud of him, appreciation than in this country. The Academy.
GERMANY AT THE CROSS-ROADS.
A close examination will discount a time when much had conspired to but will not attempt to deny the great raise doubts and foster disaffection. ness of the Kaiser's victory.
The Kaiser's foreign policy had of himself the supreme issue before the late appeared more pyrotechnical than German electorate. The system of sound. A feeling had been deepenwhich he is so brilliant an exponent, ing that Germany's international posithe policies that have owed their initia- tion, so far as it has advanced at all tive and prosecution to him, and the since Bismarck's dismissal, has done whole conception of government which so through the mere negative accident he typifies, were all alike on trial; and of Russia's collapse, and so far as it the result of his appeal to the judg- has lost ground, has done so through ment of the nation is an endorsement the Kaiser's own insistence upon hasty not less striking and personal than Jr. and provocative adventure. A coloRoosevelt won from his countrymen in nial war and some colonial scandals 1904.
Nor will any one in England had deepened the distrust of a personal either grudge or seek to belittle so em- régime that seemed to be pursuing an phatic a tribute. The Kaiser is a re- Imperialist policy at vast expense and markable man and an inspiring ruler. with little success. The meat famine The Hohenzollern idea has found in had embittered every workingman him a champion whose virility of mind against the selfish ascendency of the and character, whose self-discipline, Agrarians. The contagion of demoenergy, and sense of duty, have for cratic unrest in Russia and Austriatwenty unsparing years helped and Hungary bad filled millions of Gerguided the German Empire to great- mans with a desire to make party gorness and success.
ernment a reality by making Ministers A national vote of confidence in responsible to the Reichstag instead of such a monarch would hardly have to the Crown. All these and many been looked upon at any other other factors joined forces in an attime more than the just recog- tack upon the absolutism which the nition of personal worth. But under German form of Constitutional governthe peculiar circumstances of the mo- ment veils but does not conceal. And ment it comes with far wider implica- the Kaiser, calling to his assistance tions than that. It puts the stamp of every appeal to patriotic sentiment popular approval not only upon the that his nimble electioneering mind ruler but upon the Constitution he di- could suggest, has wrestled with and rects, and the pronouncement is all the has overthrown them all. more significant for being delivered at Or so at least the official organs in