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141. Such as the priest of Ceres wishes him to he-i. e., pure and good. 142. Aliena sibi, foreign, of no interest to him; so Terence Haut. 77, humani nil a me alienum puto.

143. Venerabile may mean "reverential" (Macleane), but there seems little authority for the use.

Soli, we (i. e., men) alone.

147. Cuius, its antecedent is sensum.

Prona, etc.-i. e., beasts.

149. Animas-animum.

Anima =

life; animus



152. Proavis, dative of apparent agent.

156. Nutantem, staggering.

157. Defendier, archaic form of the infinitive defendi.

159. But men have less kindliness toward each other than the brutes themselves.

160. Cf. Hor. Epod. VII, 11.

164. Convenit, impersonal.

Ursis, dative.

165. Ferrum letale, death-dealing weapon.

166. Parum est, it is not enough.

Cum, although.

167. Coquere, to forge.

168. Extendere, has about the force of producere above.

171. Crediderint. Weidner says that sed crediderint seems to stand for

sed qui crediderint.

173. Pythagoras was a strict vegetarian.

174. Indulsit, permitted.



INTRODUCTION.-Great are the prizes of the soldier that is born under a lucky star. He may beat his civilian enemy without fear of justice, for, though the centurion may hear the complaint, his fellow-soldiers will see to it that their comrade's accuser is made to smart for his temerity. Then, too, it is easier to find men that will give false witness in a civil court than those that will witness to the truth against a soldier. Civilians must wait the law's delay; the soldier's case is speedily tried. Another of his advantages is that he may dispose of his own property without his father's control, so that a rich soldier may have his own father for a legacy-hunter. His promotion, too, is in accordance with his deserts, for it is the general's interest that the bravest be advanced.

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12. Medico nil promittente-i. e., the physician gives no assurance of recovery.

Relictum modifies oculum.

13. Bardaicus iudex, etc. If a civilian seeks redress against a soldier, he

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FIG. 84.-Plan of Roman fortified camp. A. Porta praetoria; D. Porta decumana; F. Praetorium.


FIG. 85.-Ruins of a Roman camp at Gamzigrad, in Servia.

has a rough centurion for judge. Bardaicus is an adjective, said to be derived from Bardaei, an Illyrian people that used a heavy, coarse boot.

14. Grandes, etc., refers to the size of the centurion.

15. More Camilli. L. Furius Camillus during the siege of Veii (405-396 B. C.) kept the soldiers under arms all the year round. There is no historical account of such a special rule as is here referred to.

17. It is quite just then that centurions should be judges where soldiers are concerned, and doubtless I, as a civilian, shall receive redress; but I shall make enemies of all his fellow-soldiers, and they will see to it that the revenge I obtain brings consequences worse than the original harm. 20. Chors; Weidner says this form is used for cohors, in contempt. 21. Curabilis, needing remedy-i. e., severe.

23. Mulino corde, asinine intellect.

Vagelli, unknown.

24. Cum duo crura habeas, etc. These words are variously explained: With all your injuries you have two sound legs left, don't risk them against so many soldiers' boots; or you have two legs (to run away with); or since you have only two legs, don't try conclusions with so many. I think the last is preferable.

25. Clavorum, Juvenal speaks of the heavy nails in the soldiers' boots, III, 248.

Quis, etc.-i. e., as a witness.

Procul must be ironical, for the Praetorian camp which seems to be. meant was close to the city. Cf. V, 153, note.

26. Pylades. The friendship between Pylades and Orestes was proverbial, like that between Damon and Pythias.

29. Da testem, produce your witness; so III, 137.

31. Dignum, etc.-i. e., phenomenally brave and loyal. The ancient Romans wore beard and hair long; cf. capillato consule, V, 30.

33. Paganum, villager and so civilian.

34. Pudorem, honor, good name.

35 ff. The soldier has another advantage in that his lawsuit is settled quickly, while that of a civilian is drawn out by tedious delays.

36. Sacramentorum almost militum. The sacramentum was the oath of allegiance taken by the soldier.

38. Sacrum saxum, the boundary stone.

39. I. e., where I have sacrificed every year, at the feast of the Terminalia, on the 23d of February.

40. Pergit non reddere, insists upon not returning.

41. Cf. XIII, 137.

42. Qui lites inchoet, which begins the lawsuits of a whole people-i. e., a civilian's suit must wait a whole year before it is even reached on the docket.

44. Subsellia, judicial benches, cf. 1. 14. Tantum sternuntur, are only spread with coverings-i. e., not actually used.

47. Lenta fori harena, the tedious arena

of the court.

48. Balteus, sword-belt. Cf. Fig. 86.

50. Sufflamine, drag-chain. Cf. VIII,

148, rotam astringit sufflamine.

FIG. 86.-Soldier wearing the balteus.

51. The soldier is also free from some forms of the patria potestas—e. g., he may dispose of his own property even during the lifetime of his father. 53. Placuit, it has been decided. Census, property; genitive.

56. Captat, pays court to. Cf. X, 202. Hunc refers to Coranus. Favor. The MSS. all have labor, but it seems inexplicable. Favor is Ruperti's conjecture. Favor aequus is the favor he has earned.

57. Et pulchro, etc., seems to mean, makes his toil sweet by giving it its deserved rewards.

58. Referre (with the genitive), to be advantageous to.

60. Phaleris; phalera seems to have been used for a necklace as well as for a part of the ornamental trappings of the war-horse. Cf. Fig. 61. Torquibus, a gold collar, or neck-chain. Cf. Fig. 41.

The fragment ends abruptly; the last sentence is incomplete.




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