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FIG. 79.-Roman standards.

201. Pluris dimidio, at more by half. The genitive pluris is probably used by analogy with such forms as tanti, quanti, which are really locative, but came to be considered as genitive. Cf. Roby, II, lvii ff.

202. Certain trades of a disagreeable sort (e. g., tanning) were relegated to the less thickly settled right bank of the Tiber.

206. Iove poeta. Poeta almost = auctore.

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212 ff. I. e., your son thus taught will outdo you as Ajax and Achilles surpassed their fathers.

Praesto, I warrant.

219. Exigua modifies summa.

220. Elatam, borne out to burial. She is sure to be murdered if her dowry makes it worth while.

223. Illi-i. e., that son of yours.

228. Producit, educates.

229. This line has no grammatical connection with the context, and is doubtless spurious. Weidner reads conduplicandi.

231. Quem refers directly to curriculo, which really represents the son— i. e., the illi of line 223.

232. Metis; the metae were the conical posts set up at each end of the spina or dividing wall in the circus. Cf. Fig. 80.

235. Stultum-i. e., esse eum.

237. Circumscribere, to cheat.

239. Quantus implies tantus.

Deciorum. Cf. VIII, 254; plebeiae Deciorum animae.

240. Si Graecia vera, if Greece tells the truth. Cf. X, 174; Graecia mendar.

Menoeceus is said to have given his life for Thebes.

241. Quorum-i. e., Thebanorum. The Thebans sprang from the dragon's teeth sown by Cadmus. Cf. Ovid, Metaph. III, 104 ff.

247. Alumnus, originally a participle from alo.

248. Mathematicis, dative.

249. Colus, acc. pl. fem.

251. Cervina; the stag, like the crow, was proverbial for long life.

252. Archigenen. Cf. XIII, 97; si non eget Archigene.

Mithridates was said to have compounded a very efficacious antidote to poisons, and to have taken so much of it that when he wanted to poison himself he could not.

253. Aliam decerpere ficum-i. e., to see another autumn.

254. Medicamen-i. e., as preventive antidote.

257. Aequare, compare.

258. Quanto capitis discrimine, what danger of life.

260. Fiscus is here used in a general sense for money.

Ad vigilem Castora.

The temple of Castor was used as a safe-deposit


261. Ex quo, since. The temple of Mars seems to have been either robbed or burned.

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262 f. Florae, Cereris, Cybeles. The games referred to, accompanied by dramatic representations, occurred on the following dates: The Floralia, April 28-May 3; the Cerealia, April 12-19; the Megalesia (cf. XI, 193), April 3-10.

265 ff. Your struggles to gain wealth are as amusing as those of a gymnast.

265. Petauro. The petaurus was probably some sort of a springboard.

266. Rectum funem, tight-rope. Cf. Fig. 14.

267. Corycia. Corycus was a promontory in Cilicia, famous for saffron, which seems to be meant by sacci olentis (line 269).

268. Tollendus, tossed about.

269. Perditus, desperate, reckless.

270. Pingue passum, rich raisin-wine.

271. Municipes Iovis; Jupiter was said to have been born in Crete. According to another legend, he was hidden in a cave on Mount Ida in that island. Cf. XIII, 41; Idaeis Iuppiter untris.

272. Hic, the rope-dancer.

Ancipiti planta, doubtful, hesitating foot.

273. Brumamque famemque are the objects of cavet.

276. Plus hominum, the greater part of mankind.

278. Carpathium. Carpathos was an island between Crete and Rhodes. Gaetula, used for the African coast.

279. Calpe, Gibraltar.

280. Herculeo gurgite-i. e., the Atlantic Ocean, where it was thought the sun sank beneath the waves and hissed as it sank.

281. Tenso folle, with full purse.

282. Aluta, money-bag.

283. Iuvenes marinos-i. e., the mermen.

284 ff. Madness does not always show itself in the same way: Orestes fancies he sees the Eumenides, Ajax thinks he hears Agamemnon and Ulysses; so a man may need a keeper even though he does not tear his clothes.

289. Tabula (cf. XII, 58; dolato ligno) is ablative of instrument; unda ablative of separation.

291. A contemptuous description of money.

294. Fascia nigra, black belt (of clouds).

295. Aestivum tonat; it is only summer thunder.

297. He swims with his right hand and holds his girdle (zonam), con

taining his money, in his left hand and his teeth.

298. Modo, just now-i. e., a few hours ago. Suffecerat; notice the tense.

299. Tagus. Cf. III, 55; omnis harena Tagi.

Pactolus, in Lydia; like the Tagus, it was supposed to have gold in the sand of its bed.

300. Sufficient; ei is understood as indirect object, the subject is panni. 302. Picta tempestate. Ct. XII, 27, note. A rude picture of the shipwreck was carried about to excite pity.

305. Amis, fire-buckets.

306. Licinus. Cf. I, 109; possideo plus Pallante et Licinis. Attonitus, anxious.

307. Electro, amber.

308. Testudine. Cf. XI, 94; qualis testudo nataret.

Dolia, jars (made of clay). They were sometimes very large, having a capacity of several barrels. Fragments three inches thick have been found at Antium. Diogenes, the Cynic, is said to have used a dolium as a house. When Alexander the Great saw him he pitied his poverty and told him to express some wish that he might grant it. Diogenes asked only that the great ruler would stand out of his light.

Nudi; perhaps because the Cynics did not wear the tunic. Cf. XIII, 122; a Cynicis tunica distantia.

310. Plumbo commissa, patched up with lead.

311. Illa refers, as often, to something well known.

315. This line occurs X, 365.

318. In quantum; for the usual prose construction quantum; cf. English, to ask a reward, and to ask for a reward.

319. Epicurus is said to have gathered his scholars about him in his garden; the Epicurean school of philosophy is sometimes called "the Garden," as the Stoic is called "the Porch." Cf. XIII, 120 ff.

320. Ante, temporal adverb. Socrates died 399 B. C., Epicurus 270 B. C. 321. Nature and true philosophy always teach the same lesson.

322. Te cludere, to hem you in.

323. Effice, procure.

324. Bis septem ordinibus-i. e., for the knights, who occupied the first fourteen rows of seats in the theatre, in accordance with the law of Otho, passed 65 B. C. Cf. Hor. Epist. 1, 1, 67.

Dignatur, thinks fitting.

325. If you frown and pout at this.

326. Duos equites-i. e., two equestrian fortunes.

329. Narcissi. The favorite freedman of Claudius. His wealth was proverbial. He gained such control of his imperial master, that Claudius had Messalina put to death at his bidding.



INTRODUCTION.-The superstitions of the Egyptians are well known; they revere certain animals and abstain from certain vegetables, but they eat human flesh. When Ulysses told his stories of cannibals, they were thought incredible, but I have such a tale of recent times. Ombi and Tentyra were waging a religious war. The Ombites were attacked in the midst of a festival by their enemies; first their fists were their weapons, then they hurled such stones as the weak muscles of the present race of men can lift, then swords and arrows are used. One man as he falls in flight is seized and his flesh devoured. True, the Vascones ate human flesh when a long siege had brought famine, but that was before the philosophy of Zeno had taught men that some things are worse than even death. Other peoples of whom like tales are told had excuse, but this Egyptian tribe had none. Nature teaches men mercy and pity, thus they are distinguished from the beasts. This common sympathy holds peoples together, but now it seems that men may be more cruel than the beasts themselves. What would Pythagoras have said to such a tale?

1. Volusi, unknown.

2. Crocodilon. Cicero, de Nat. Deor. I, 36, mentions the crocodile among the objects of Egyptian animal-worship; he says of the ibis, "Ibes maximam vim serpentium conficiunt."

4. Cercopitheci, long-tailed ape.

5. Dimidio Memnone. The Greeks related that music proceeded from the colossal statue of Memnon at sunrise. For dimidio, cf. VIII, 4.

6. Thebe, nom. sing. The usual form is Thebae.

Centum portis; ablative of characteristic.

7. Aeluros, cats. I have not ventured to change the text, but am strongly inclined to think that the reading of the MSS. caeruleos (= sea-fish) [P. has aeruleos] is correct.

9. Caepe, onion.

15. Alcinoo. When Ulysses was telling his adventures at the court of Alcinous, king of the l'hacacians, and described the cannibal Laestrygones and Cyclopes, some of his hearers declared they were ready to believe all his other adventures more readily than these.

16. Moverat-i. e., had roused, even while he was speaking.

Aretalogus, used of a degenerate, parasitic philosopher, it came to mean boaster, babbler.

19. Concurrentia, clashing.

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