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have to keep what you have gained! My advice is: Be content with little; if you begin to seek much you will end by wanting more.

1. Fuscine, unknown.

2. Maculam haesuram, a lasting stain. 5. Bullatus. Cf. V, 164 (Fig. 30); XIII, 33.

Arma, implements; cf. armiger, I, 92.
Fritillo, dice-box. Cf. Fig. 76.

7. Radere tubera terrae, to peel truffles.
8. Eodem iure, in the same sauce (as the


9. Mergere, to dip.

Ficedulas, small birds, beccaficoes.

FIG. 76.-Fritillus.

10. Gula, as well as parente (line 9), is ablative absolute with monstrante. 13. Lauto-paratu. The usual word is apparatus; cf. Hor., Odes I, 38, 1, Persicos odi puer apparatus.

15. Aequos, almost = indulgent.

16. Atque connects praecipit and putat; Rutilus is the subject of both. Bücheler's conjecture of utque here and putet in line 17 seems good.

Nostra materia-i. e., of the same material as ours.

17. Putat seems awkward; it must have something of the idea of praecipit.

20. Antiphates, etc.-i. e., the dreaded tyrant of his household. Antiphates was the fierce king of the Laestrygones. Hom., Od. X, so.

22. Thievish slaves were branded on the forehead with the letter F (fur). 24. Quem, its antecedent is the subject of suadet, implied in laetus. Inscripti, branded slaves. The ergastulum is the slaves' prison. 35. Meliore luto, finer clay.

Titan, Prometheus, who was often considered as the creator of man. Cf. IV, 133.

37. Trahit, its object is reliquos.

Orbita means the track made by the wheel, then path, course.

40. Imitandis turpibus ac pravis, ablative of specification.

41 f. Catiline has many imitators, Brutus and Cato none.

42. Quocumque, any.

Axe, sky. Cf. VIII, 116; Gallicus axis.

43. Bruti avunculus, Cato the Younger.

51. Se dederit, shall show himself. For filius in the next line we might

expect filium.

53. Omnia does not modify vestigia.

54. Corripies, "catch up," so blame, reprove.

55. Tabulas mutare, to alter your will.

56. Frontem may be the brow of authority as Mr. Lewis translates it, but I think it means impudence, as usually. Cf. German Stirne. So too forehead, e. g., With what forehead do you speak this to me? Beaumont and Fletcher, Beggars' Bush, I, 2.

57. Vacuum cerebro, empty of brains.

58. Cucurbita, cupping-glass, so called from the likeness of its shape to that of a gourd (cf. Fig. 77). It is called ventosa, from the movement of the air as it is drawn out to form the vacuum. It was (and is) used in diseases of the brain to relieve the pressure of blood.

Quaerat, is looking for—i. e., needs; subject is caput.

59 ff. You are anxious to have your home swept and garnished when guests are expected: have you no care that it should be morally pure in the eyes of your son?

59. Tuorum (servorum).

61. Arida, dry, withered.

Cum, preposition.

Tela, web.

67. Scobis, sawdust.

71. Si facis, if you bring it about.

74. Pullos, her young.

76. Sumptis pinnis-i. e., as soon as they can fly.

FIG. 77.-Cucurbita.

77. Relictis-i. e., having eaten such food, the vulture carries a portion of it back to her young ones. Of course, crucibus refers to the bodies of


79. Quoque, also.

81. Famulae Iovis, the eagle was the bird of Jupiter.

Generosae aves is simply another name for eagles.

82. Cubili, the nest.

86. Aedificator, cf. I, 94; Quis totidem erexit villas? X, 225; Hor. Epist. I, 1, 100.

Cretonius, the orthography of the name is doubtful. Modo-nunc nunc. 87. Caietae (modern Gaeta), on the coast of southern Latium, a favorite place for villas.

Tiburis. Cf. III, 192; proni Tiburis arce.

88. Praenestinis. Cf. III, 190; gelida Praeneste.

89. Graecis marmoribus; instrumental ablative. The principal sources of the supply of Greek marble, largely used by the Romans during the empire, were Hymettus, Pentelicus, and the island of Paros.

Longeque-i. e., from Numidia, Phrygia, and Egypt.

90. Fortunae; there was a famous temple of Fortune at Praeneste.

Herculis. Martial mentions the temple of Hercules at Tibur.

91. Capitolia; for the plural, cf. X, 65; duc in Capitolia.

Posides was a favorite freedman of Claudius.

95. The Roman villas were often very extensive; cf. Fig. 78.

96 ft. So, too, in religious matters; if the father has a leaning toward Jewish superstitions, the son becomes an actual convert.

97. I. e., no statues.

100. This was the chief complaint against the Jews at Rome, that they held themselves bound to obey the Jewish rather than the Roman laws. Some slight similarity may be seen in the alleged recognition by the Roman Catholics in the United States of the Church as a higher authority than the State.


10 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 400

FIG 78.-Ground-plan of the so-called villa suburbana of Diomedes, at Pompeii. 1. Entrance; 2. Peristylium; 3. Tablinum; 4. Gallery; 5. Oecus; 6. Court; 7. Cryptoporticus; 8. Court; 9. Tepidarium; 10. Calidarium; 11. Sleepingroom; 12. Staircase.

103. Monstrare and deducere (line 104) depend on some such word as solent implied in the preceding verbs.

Eadem sacra colenti-i. e., to one of their own sect. The reference is to the esoteric character of the Jewish teaching.

104. Quaesitum fontem-i. e., the fountain of truth.

105. In causa, a rare use, causa (nominative).

Lux ignava, a lazy day.

106. Attigit. Most editors say that the subject is pater; it seems to me that it is septima quaeque lux.

107. Sponte, of their own accord.

108. Quoque, even, modifies inviti.
109 ff. For avarice is called wise economy.
111. Nec dubie, unhesitatingly.
Frugi. Cf. III, 167, note.

114. Hesperidum serpens; the dragon that guarded the golden apples of the Hesperides.

Ponticus (serpens), the dragon that guarded the golden fleece. 117. Cf. Hor., Epist. I, 1, 65:

Rem facias, rem, Si possis, recte, si non quocumque modo rem.' 119. Animi. This seems to be a locative, as in aeger animi, etc. Others read animi felicis.

122. Sectae, sect—i. e., doctrine. 124. Sordes, acts of mean ness. 125. Mox modifies docet.

126. The food of slaves was served out to them by measure; this man uses false measures.

127. Sustinet, bear, endure.
129. Minutal, a minced compound, hash.
130. He saves all the scraps for another meal.
131. Lacerti, a coarse, cheap fish.
132. Signatam, sealed up, prescrved.
Dimidio putrique siluro, a tainted half shad.
133. Fila, shreds or slices.

e., after he has counted them. 134. Aliquis de ponte, any beggar. Cf. IV, 116, dirusque a ponte satelles ; V, 8.

135. Quo = quam ad rem, so VIII, 9. Divitias; supply habes.

137. Egentis vivere fato is the subject of sit. Fato is the ablative of manner, egentis supplying the place of the adjective. 142. Cf. Hor. Sat., II, 6, 8:

"0! si angulus ille Proximus accedat qui nunc denormat agellum.144, Densa oliva, cf, densissima lectica, I, 120.

145. If you can not buy your neighbor's fields, you turn your cattle in among his growing corn.

146. Famelica (from fames), starved.
148. Novalia, standing crops. Novale originally means newly-plowed.
151. Venales fecerit, has forced to be sold.

152. Quam foede bucina famae, some verb, as sonabit, may be understood. Fama = common report.

153 ff. Quid nocet haec, etc. What does that harm me! I don't care a

bean-shell for the applause of the whole county if I must gain it by reaping small harvests.

156. Scilicet, etc., is ironical.

160. Sub Tatio-i. e., in the times of early Rome.

161. Mox, afterward.

Fractis ac passis, indirect objects of dabantur.

162. Gladios Molossos, cf. XII, 108.

163. Tandem, at last.

Iugera bina, a little over an acre.

165. Meritis minor, less than their deserts.

Aut, etc., nor that their country had been ungrateful and broken faith with them.

167. Casae, cottage.

168. Unus vernula. A single slave-child, who played about the house with the master's children.

169. Fratribus; dative.

170. Scrobe, ditch.

180. Marsus (cf. III, 169), Hernicus, Vestinus. These people all belonged to the Sabellian stock, famous for severity and simplicity.

182. Hoc-i. c., such a course.

183. Gratae post munus aristae, etc.-i. e., after the welcome gift of grain, men despised the acorns that had been their former food.

185. Fecisse; for the tense, cf. Hor. Odes, I, 1, 4, collegisse iuvat. 186. Per glaciem, through the winter.

Perone, a rough boot.

187. Inversis-i.

with the hair-side in.

188. Quaecumque est. Purpura = fine clothing, so he adds, of any sort. 189. Minoribus, their children.

191. Ceras, writing tablets, coated with wax. Cf. Fig. 4.

192. Rubras maiorum leges. The title at the head of the law was in red ink; hence the laws themselves were sometimes called rubrica, whence the English word rubric.

193. Vitem posce libello, ask for the vine-staff (of the centurion, cf. VIII, 247) in a petition-i. e., seek a centurion's commission.

194 f. But use your personal influence as well, and be sure that the officer in charge (Laelius) sees what a great rough fellow you are. Buxo-i. e., the comb, made of box-wood.

195. Alas, shoulders.

196. Brigantum; the Brigantes occupied the north of England.

197. Aquilam. The eagle was carried by the first centurion of the first cohort. Various forms of the standard are shown in Fig. 79.

199. Trepidum solvunt ventrem, seems to refer to a certain "gone" feeling sometimes produced by fear.

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