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5 ff. You have the sympathy of your friends, your wealth is still great, and you have plenty of company in your misfortunes.

6. Crimine, charge.

8. Iacturae. The paradox, “burden of a loss," is probably intentional. 10. Et e medio, etc., taken from the middle of Fortune's heap-i. e., taken at random.

13. Quamvis levium, however slight.

16. There is some doubt as to the subject of stupet. I think it is not Juvenal, but Calvinus.

17. Fonteio. One Fonteius was consul 59 A. D., another 67 A. D.; the latter is probably meant.

20. Sapientia means philosophy as contrasted with experience (vita). 23. Cesset, fail.

25. Pyxide, box, here a box containing poison. The peculiar lid of the pyxis is seen in Fig. 70.

27. Thebarum portae, Boeotian Thebes had seven gates, and the Nile had seven mouths.

28. Nunc aetas. Ovid calls the iron age the fourth; no wonder, then, that no metal could be found base enough to designate the present.

Agitur, is passing. Saecula, the subject of an implied aguntur, is the antecedent of quorum.

31. Fidem; fides means that which may be trusted; we make as much noise about honor and religion

32. Faesidium. Faesidius was a rich lawyer; hence agentem, pleading.

Vocalis sportula-i. e., those persons whose applauding voices had been bought by the sportula.

33. Bulla, worn by children. Cf.

V, 164, note (Fig. 30).

37. Rubenti-i. e., with the blood of victims.

FIG. 70.- Pyxis.

39 f. Saturn fleeing from Jupiter, who had deprived him of his crown, came to Latium and taught the people agriculture.

41. Privatus, a simple citizen, one without office.

Idaeis antris; Jupiter's early boyhood was passed on Mount Ida, in Crete.

42 ff. The simplicity of those early times was found in heaven as well as on earth.

43. Puer Пliacus, Ganymede, who came from the Troad.

Herculis uxor, Hebe.

44. Ad cyathos-i. e., as cup-bearer.

45. Liparaea; Vulcan's forge was sometimes located in Lipara, a volcanic island north of Sicily. Cf. I, 8, note. Fig. 71, from a bas-relief, represents Vulcan in his workshop affixing the handle to a shield.

46. Nec turba deorum. The Roman pantheon became very much crowded

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in later times by the importation of a host of Asiatic and Egyptian divinities, and the deification of emperors, heroes, and abstract ideas.

48. Atlanta. "Poor Atlas" was supposed to support the heavens on his shoulders.

49. Triste profundi imperium, the gloomy empire of the abyss.

50. Aut, the negation continues.

Sicula coniuge, Proserpina, whom Pluto carried off from Enna in Sicily. Cf. Ovid, Met. V, 391 ff.

51. Rota, saxum, and vulturis atri poena refer to Ixion, Sisyphus, and Tityus respectively.

53. Admirabilis, a wonder.

54. Quo (aevo).

57. Notice the incidental reference to the simplicity of living.

59. Lanugo, down.

61. Follem, purse.

62. Tuscis libellis. The Etruscans were famous for their skill in augury. Cf. Livy, I, 34.

64. An honest man in these days is a wonder and a prodigy.

Bimembri seems to mean half-man, half-beast, or it may be two-headed. 68. Uva is often used for a "cluster" of bees.

70. Miris seems tame, but miniis (Porson's conjecture, followed by Ribbeck) is improbable.

71. Decem sestertia, about $400.

73. Arcana intrusted without witnesses or receipt.


74. Quam patulae, etc.-i. e., so large a sum that there was no room for it in his money-chest.

76. Quanta voce, how loudly.

78. Tarpeia fulmina, the thunderbolts of Tarpeian (i. e., Capitoline) Jupiter.

79. Frameam, the Teutonic word for lance. Cf. Tacitus, Germ. VI, and Fig. 72.

Cirrhaei vatis, Apollo. Cf. VII, 64.

80. Venatricis puellae, Diana.

82. Herculeos arcus, the bow that Hercules gave to Philoctetes.

84. Et, too, as well.

Flebile-i. e., deeply as it would pain me. Flebile agrees with sinciput.

85. Que connects elixi and madentis.

88. For nature brings about the changes of day and night, and of the seasons.

93. Isis. The Egyptian goddess Isis was a

FIG. 72.-Figure hurling the


popular divinity at Rome during the empire. Cf. XII, 28, note, and Fig. 73. Sistro. The sistrum was a sort of musical instrument. Cf. Fig. 73.

94. Vel, even.

Abnego, deny-i. e., disclaim knowledge of.

96. Sunt tanti-i. e., are not too much to pay (for wealth).

97. Ladas, a famous runner at the Olympic games.

Anticyra was a town noted for hellebore, which was considered a specific

for madness. Cf. Hor., A. P. 300.

98. Archigene. Archigenes was a specialist in mental disorders.

99. Esuriens, the olive branch brings fame but no food.

Pisaeae, the Olympic games were held near Pisa, in Elis.

100. Ut, although.

107. Ad delubra vocantem―i. e., to hear his oath. So eager is he to take the false oath, that he hurries on before you, and is even ready to insist on your going.

109. Superest, supports.

110. Fiducia is contrasted with audacia.

Mimum. Mimus may mean the play-writer, the play itself, or a single

rôle in the play.

111. Catulli. Cf. VIII, 186.

112. Stentora, the Greek herald whose voice was equal to that of fifty


113. Gradivus Homericus; Mars, as Homer says, shouted as loudly as ten thousand men (Il. V, 859).

116. Carbone tuo-i. e., on thy altar.

Charta soluta refers to the paper parcel in which the incense was brought. 118. Omenta, entrails.

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119. Vagelli, unknown.

120. Hear what a plain man, no philosopher, can say for your comfort. 121. Et qui, even he who.

122. Tunica. The Cynics wore a heavy cloak and no tunic.

125. Your case, however, is simple, and may be intrusted to a mere tyro. Philippi. Probably some physician of little reputation.

132. Vestem diducere summam, to tear (only) the upper part of his gar


135. Fora, courts.

136. If, after their agreements have been read over and over (deciens seems to be used for any large number) by the other side (i. e., by their opponents).

137. They, whom their own signature (littera) and best sardonyx seal (gemma) convict, assert that the writing of the invalid (supervacui) tablet is not binding.

140. O delicias, my dear fellow.

141. Quia tu, etc.; because you, forsooth, are of an exceptional breed! 145. Conductum, hired.

Sulpure atque dolo, one idea.

146. Primos cum, etc., a proof that the house was set on fire.


148. Adorandae robiginis, genitive of characteristic. Robigo rust, and thus antiquity.

152. Bratteolam, one of the leaves or plates of gold with which the statue was overlaid.

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167. Thracum volucres-i. e., cranes; their contests with the pygmies are mentioned by Homer, Il. III, 3 ff. Cf. Fig. 74.

168. The tradition concerning a race of pygmies, like other popular traditions, seems to have had a certain basis in fact. Recent investigations scem to prove the existence in Africa of a race of fully developed human beings whose stature does not exceed four feet. Juvenal's disbelief in the canal at Mount Athos has been shown to have been unfounded (cf. X, 174),

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