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34. Coepit, its subject is implied in rectoris.

39. Teneris-Maecenatibus, an effeminate Maecenas. Cf. I, 66, note.

40. Quarum depends on pecus (= wool), which is the object of infecit (= tinged).

41. Sed et, but also.

42. Baeticus. The Baetis was the modern Guadalquiver.

43. Lances, dishes, plate.

44. Parthenio, unknown.

Urnae, used here of a measure.

45. Pholo. Pholus was one of the centaurs.

Coniuge Fusci, unknown.

46. Bascaudas, a Keltic word, from which Eng. basket is derived; probably vessels covered with wicker-work are meant.

Escaria, from esca, so dishes of some sort.
Multum caelati, much chased ware.

Caelati is partitive genitive.

47. Emptor Olynthi, Philip of Macedon, who gained possession of Olynthus by bribing two of its citizens.

48 f. What other man (than Catullus), what man in what part of the world, would dare to prefer his safety to his silver, his weal to his wealth? 50 f. These verses are often considered as an interpolation, apparently on the principle that whatever in Juvenal savors of the commonplace is spurious. I see no reason for rejecting them.


51. Vitio, avarice.

53. Damna, sacrifices.

Illuc reccidit, he was reduced to this.

55. Angustum; cf. "in a strait."

Quando, etc.—i. e., when we throw away part of the ship to save the

57. Dolato, rough-hewn.

59. Taeda, plank.

60. Ventre lagonae; cf. Montani venter, IV, 107.

61. Sumendas, to be used.

63. Vectoris, the traveler.

64. Meliora-pensa, kindlier threads, a happier lot.

65. Staminis albi, white threads were favorable.

67. Miserabilis modifies prora (line 69).

69. Velo suo-i. e., the sail that belonged to the prow, the dolon, or foresail.

71. Atque connects gratus and sublimis.

Novercali-praelata Lavino, preferred (by him) to his step-mother's Lavinium. Iulus leaving Lavinium was guided to the site of Alba Longa by a white sow with thirty pigs. Cf. Verg., Aen. III, 390.

Lavino, the usual form is Lavinio.

73. Phrygibus-i. e., the Trojans with Iulus.

74. Clara, refers to scrofa.

75. The artificial harbor formed at Ostia by Claudius, 42 A. D. Cf. Fig. 65, a restoration by Canina.


76. Tyrrhenamque pharon-i. e., a lighthouse like that on the island of Pharos, near Alexandria. Cf. Fig. 66, which is from a medal of the Emperor Commodus.

Porrectaque bracchia rursum, the breakwaters ran out into the sea and then curved inward, as seen in Fig. 65, upper left-hand corner.

78. Italiam-i. e., the shore.

79. I. e., more wonderful than any natural harbor.

80. Interiora, the inner harbor built by Trajan. Fig. 67, from a coin struck in 103 A. D., shows the warehouses surrounding this inner harbor.

Pervia, navigable.

Cumbae, dative with pervia.

81. Tuti stagna sinus, the quiet waters of a safe bay.

Vertice raso.


Men cut off their hair as a votive

Cf. III, 186.

83. Linguis animisque faventes-i. e., with a strict religious silence. Cf. Hor., Odes III, 1, 2.

84. Serta, garlands.

Farra-i. e., the sacrificial meal with which the knives were sprinkled.

85. Mollis focos, the turf altars.

90. I. e., violets of every color.

91. Longos, etc; cf. pone domi laurus, X, 65.

92. Matutinis-i. e., lighted before day break. Operatur =operam dat, celebrates.

Festa (ianua).

FIG. 66.-Pharos.

93 ff. This sounds like legacy-hunting, but Catullus has three children, so you see my devotion is disinterested.

95. Libet expectare, I should like to see.

96. Claudentem oculos, blind.

98. Pro patre-i. e., for a man that is a father.

Sentire calorem-i. e., to feel the approach of fever. We might say to have a chill.

99. Coepit, singular because each subject is thought of separately. 100. Legitime, in due form.

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FIG. 67.-Inner harbor at Ostia.

106. Caesaris armentum. Herds of elephants were kept by the emperors

for use in the public shows.

107. Siquidem almost = for.

Tyrio Hannibali. Carthage was a colony from Tyre.

108. Nostris ducibus-e. g., Scipio.

Regique Molosso, Pyrrhus, King of Epirus.

110. Partem aliquam belli, an important part of the war.

111. Novius and Hister Pacuvius (legacy-hunters) would not hesitate to offer up elephants at the shrines of their patrons.

115. Alter, the latter, as shown by the use of his name again in line 125. 119. Iphigenia, etc.-i. e., he would be as ready to sacrifice his own daughter as was Agamemnon, even without the hope that a deer would be furnished at the last moment to take the maiden's place, as the tragedians represented in the case of Iphigenia. Cf. Fig. 68.

121. Civem, fellow-citizen.

Nec comparo, etc.-i. e., how much better to sacrifice one's daughter for

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a legacy than for a thousand ships; referring, of course, to the Greek fleet in the story of Iphigenia.

122. Libitinam, the goddess of funerals, so death; cf. Hor., Odes III, 30, 6, multa pars mei vitabit Libitinam.

123. Inclusus carcere nassae, imprisoned in the net. The nassa was a sort of lobster-pot, as seen in Fig. 69.

127. Iugulata Mycenis-i. e., the sacrifice of his "Iphigenia."

128. Nestora totum, a sort of cognate accusative; for the sense, cf. X, 246.

FIG: 69.-Nassa.


INTRODUCTION.—Juvenal writes to his friend Calvinus, who is much distressed by the loss of a small sum of money through breach of trust. The strength of the Satire lies in its ethical teaching, and its vigorous description of the terrors of a guilty conscience.

Crime is its own punishment; then, too, you are rich enough to bear this loss with equanimity. Why are you so overwhelmed by a misfortune which in these evil days is so common? In the golden age, when there were fewer gods, there was more virtue; now an honest man is a rarity. Men break their oaths without hesitation, some believe in no gods, others hope to escape divine vengeance. Consider how many suffer more serious losses than yours; look at the criminal courts. No one wonders at that which is common, why wonder at dishonesty in Rome? Do you seek revenge? That is unphilosophical, the mark of a petty mind. Leave your enemy to the punishment of his own conscience; it will give him no peace, will torture him under all circumstances, but it will not deter him from further crimes, and you will some day have the satisfaction of seeing him the victim of his own ill-doing.

1. Exemplo malo, ablative of characteristic.

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2. Se iudice, etc. Each iudex (juryman) was furnished with three tablets marked respectively A. (absolvo), C. (condemno), and N. L. (non liquet: not proven), one of which he cast into the urn, whence they were taken and counted by the praetor.

3. Inproba gratia, corrupt influence.

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