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Trypheri, unknown.

138. Pygargus, a white-backed antelope.

139. Scythicae volucres, pheasants.

Phoenicopterus, flamingo.

140. He says that this very fine supper made of elm is cut up with a dull knife, and the clatter is heard all over the Subura. The carving - teachers seem to have used wooden models.

Oryx, gazelle.
142. Subducere, to steal.

Afrae avis; so Hor., Epod. 2, 53. Probably a Guinea-hen.

143. Noster, my servant.

144. Inbutus, tainted with, i. e., accustomed to.

Ofellae, diminutive of offa = a scrap.

146. A frigore tatus, warmly clad, not dressed in the Eastern fashion.

FIG. 64.-Orbis. 147. Mangone, slave-dealer.

148. Magno—i. e., magno poculo, but the whole passage non-magno is rejected by several editors. Weidner's conjecture mangone

Armenio suits the context very well.

155. Ardens purpura, the dress of the sons of free citizens. 159. Diffusa, drawn off, bottled.

179. In the omitted passage Juvenal has described some of the less reputable forms of amusement.

181. Dubiam palmam-i. e., Vergil's poetry vies with that of Homer.
190. I. e., leave all your cares outside the door.
191. Domum, household.
Illis, for the omission of ab, cf. I, 54, mare percussum puero.

193. Mappae. A napkin or scarf was dropped by the praetor as a signal for the games to begin.

194. Idaeum sollemne. The Megalesia were in honor of Cybele, the Idaean mother. Cf. III, 137, note.

Colunt-i. e., the people at Rome.
Similisque triumpho-i. e., similis triumphanti.
195. Praeda, a victim, because the horses cost him so much.

Pace, by the leave of. It is a bold statement, but under Vespasian the Circus is said to have had seats for 250,000 persons.

198. Eventum, success.

Viridis panni. Cf. note, VII, 114. In republican times there were two parties among the charioteers, the red and the white; later two others came into existence, the blue and the green; Domitian added the gold and the purple. These colors appeared in the tunics of the drivers, and the whole city seems to have divided itself into partisans of the various colors. The drivers consisted for the most part of slaves or freedmen, who were trained in regular schools. The chariots were drawn by two or by four horses, rarely by three. The charioteers frequently became very rich, their profits coming from prizes and from their share of the money wagered in the race. The greatest of Roman jockeys, Diocles, left his son a fortune of about a million and a half. For the charioteer's costume, cf. page 54. The green seems to have been the favorite color at this time.

Quo colligo, whence I gather. 201. Consulibus, L. Aemilius Paulus and C. Terentius Varro, 216 B. C. Audax sponsio, bold betting.

203. I. e., it is better for old people like us to take sun-baths and give up evening dress.

204. Salva fronte, without shame, without violating the proprieties.

Quamquam—sextam, although it be only eleven o'clock. The usual hour was 2 P, M.

208. Commendat, enhances, gives zest to.


INTRODUCTION.—A letter to Corvinus, describing the safe arrival of Juvenal's friend Catullus, with some intentional exaggeration of his dangers and fears. The Satire closes with a statement of the disinterested character of Juvenal's enthusiasm, which leads to a description of the arts of the professional legacy-hunter.

I have made ready a sacrifice to celebrate my friend's safe return. If I were richer, the offering should be costlier. He has passed through great dangers, and was in great terror, so great that he was willing to throw all his possessions overboard ; fancy, in these days, a man who will give up his wealth to save his life! Finally, the mast must be cut away. At last they have arrived at the harbor of Ostia. Make ready, then, for the sacrifice. Does all this joy seem suspicious ? No, it is not mercenary, for Catullus has three children, and is, therefore, not a good subject for legacyhunters. Let a childless rich person have the slightest illness, and men will go to the most extravagant lengths to show their grief and fear , will offer a hundred oxen, would offer an elephant if one were to be found-nay, even a slave or a child! May such men enjoy the reward they deserve, wealth and lack of love!

1. Natali die, (my) birthday. Ablative with the comparative. Birthdays are mentioned as festivals, V, 37 ; XI, 84.

Lux for dies is common.
2. Caespes, turf (altar).
3. Reginae, Juno; dative.
4. Vellus, fleece.

Pugnanti Gorgone Maura. Minerva, who put the head of the Gorgon, killed by Perseus, on her shield. Some traditions placed the Gorgon Medusa in Africa, hence Maura. Pugnanti Gorgone does not mean fighting against the Gorgon, but fighting with the Gorgon-shield.

6. Coruscat, about the same as vibrat. 10. Affectibus amori ; post-classical. Adf- is more common in Juvenal. 11. Hispulla, noted for size and weight. 13. Clitumni, in Umbria. Sanguis-i. e., a blooded beast.

14. A grandi ferienda ministro. This is quoted as one of the rare instances of a and the ablative to express the agent with the gerundive. I am inclined to think that wherever real agent, without any notion of " person interested” is expressed, the ablative with the preposition is used, otherwise the dative.

16. I. e., surprised to find himself still alive. 17. Et = etiam. 19. Nube una-i. e., there were no breaks; the whole sky was dark. Antemnas, the yard-arms. Probably “St. Elmo's fire” is referred to. 21. Conferri, to be compared to.

22. Omnia fiunt, etc. It was a real poet's shipwreck, with no harrowing detail omitted.

24. Discriminis, danger.
25. Cetera-i, e., what follows.
27. Quam, its antecedent is pars.

28. Ab Iside. The Egyptian goddess Isis was, in inıperial times, the favorite divinity of traders ; votive tablets to her were a source of income to the painters. Cf. Hor. Odes I, 5, 13; A. P. 20. She is represented in Fig. 72.

30. Medius alveus, the middle of the hold.
31. Alternum latus, first one side and then the other.

32. Arbori incertae, the reading is doubtful. The MSS. have arboris ; arbori is Lachmann's conjecture.

33. Decidere is a law-term meaning to compound, to compromise. Iactu, by throwing overboard. Cf. III, 125.

34. Coepit, its subject is implied in rectoris.
39. Teneris— Maecenatibus, an effeminate Maecenas. Cf. I, 66, note.

40. Quarum depends on pecus (= wool), which is the object of infecit (= tinged).

41. Sed et, but also.
42. Baeticus. The Baetis was the modern Guadalquiver.
43. Lances, dishes, plate.
44. Parthenio, unknown.
Urnae, used here of a measure.
45. Pholo. Pholus was one of the centaurs.
Coniuge Fusci, unknown.

46. Bascandas, a Keltic word, from which Eng. basket is derived; probably vessels covered with wicker-work are meant.

Escaria, from esca, so dishes of some sort.
Multum caelati, much chased ware. Caelati is partitive genitive.

47. Emptor Olynthi, Philip of Macedon, who gained possession of Olynthus by bribing two of its citizens.

48 f. What other man (than Catullus), what man in what part of the world, would dare to prefer his safety to his silver, his weal to his wealth ?

50 f. These verses are often considered as an interpolation, apparently on the principle that whatever in Juvenal savors of the commonplace is spurious. I see no reason for rejecting them.

51. Vitio, avarice.
53. Damna, sacrifices.
Illuo reccidit, he was reduced to this.
55. Angustum ; cf." in a strait."

Quando, etc.—i. e., when we throw away part of the ship to save the rest.

57. Dolato, rough-hewn.
59. Taeda, plank.
60. Ventre lagonae ; cf. Montani venter, IV, 107.
61. Sumendas, to be used.
63. Vectoris, the traveler.
64. Meliora-pensa, kindlier threads, a happier lot.
65. Staminis albi, white threads were favorable.
67. Miserabilis modifies prora (line 69).

69. Velo suo-i. e., the sail that belonged to the prow, the dolon, or foresail.

71. Atque connects gratus and sublimis.

Novercali—praelata Lavino, preferred (by him) to his step-mother's Lavinium. Iulus leaving Lavinium was guided to the site of Alba Longa by a white sow with thirty pigs. Cf. Verg., Aen. III, 390.

Lavino, the usual form is Lavinio.

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73. Phrygibus—i. e., the, Trojans with Iulus. 74. Clara, refers to scrofa.

75. The artificial harbor formed at Ostia by Claudius, 42 A. D. 65, a restoration by Canina.

Cf. Fig.

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76. Tyrrhenamque pharon—i. e., a lighthouse like that on the island of Pharos, near Alexandria. Cf. Fig. 66, which is from a medal of the Emperor Commodus.

Porrectaque bracchia rursum, the breakwaters ran out into the sea and then curved inward, as seen in Fig. 65, upper left-hand corner.

78. Italiam-i. e. the shore.
79. I. e., more wonderful than any natural harbor.

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