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353. Notum (est).
354. Et and que are correlative.
Sacellis, shrines.
355. Et connects exta and tomacula.
Tomacula, mince-meat, made of sacrificial pork.
356. This line has become proverbial.
358. Spatium extremum. Cf. lines 188, 275.
Munera, burdens.
362. Et-et-et serve to co-ordinate the ideas.
Venero-cenis-pluma. Ablatives with the comparative potiores.

Sardanapalli, the last king of Assyria. He furnished a typical instance of luxurious living.

365 f. These lines occur also XIV, 315, 316.

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INTRODUCTION.-In this satire, which is written in the form of an invitation to dinner, sent to his friend Persicus, Juvenal shows the folly of those who, with small means, attempt to imitate the luxury of the rich.

People are all talking of Rutilus, who has ruined himself by his extravagant luxury. He is one of many. Such a man cheats his creditors and pawns his silver or his mother's portrait to purchase table delicacies. This conduct arises from ignorance of self, and of individual limitations. The bankrupt's only regret is that his enforced exile deprives him of the pleasures of the circus. Come and dine with me, and I will show you that I practice what I preach. You shall have a simple meal, such a one as in former times would have contented a senator, although in our day it would be despised by a slave. In the early times there was no search for trcasures of art; men used silver in their armor, earthenware on their tables. Then, when Jupiter's statue was of clay, the gods were nearer men. Now the most luxurious furniture is thought necessary, but at my table you will find simplicity in everything. Lay aside the anxieties that belong to modern city life, and seek rest and refreshment with me.

1. Atticus, may refer to Ti. Claudius Atticus, who was a rich man of the time of Nerva, or to T. Pomponius Atticus, the friend of Cicero.

Lautus, fine, elegant.
2. Rutilus, unknown. Some spendthrift noble.

3. Apicius. M. Fabius Apicius lived in the time of Tiberius. He was famous for his luxurious table. 4. Convictus = convivia.

Stationes, clubs, lounging places.

6. Galeae-i. e., for military service.

7. I. e., the tribune had not put him into bankruptcy, and so driven him to this, but he had not interposed to save him.

8. Scripturus (esse), etc.—i. e., to sign the conditions and agree to the "royal" commands of the trainer-i. e., to become a hired gladiator. Cf. III, 158.

10. Macelli, the market. The creditor was sure to find them looking after table delicacies.

12. Egregius, a comparative form, as if from egrex.

13. Et connects miserrimus and casurus.

Perlucente ruina; the metaphor is taken from a building so shattered that the light shines through the cracks.

14. Gustus, abstract for concrete relishes.

15. Animo, fancy.

Interius si attendas, if you look more closely.

17. Perituram, to be squandered.

Arcessere, to raise.

18. Oppositis (pignori), pawned.

19. Condire gulosum fictile, to season a dainty-filled dish—i. e., to load a dish with dainties. The adjective is proleptic.

20. Miscillanea ludi, the messes of the gladiator's school.

21. Paret, subjunctive, indirect question.

22. Est; the subject of est, sumit, and trahit (line 23), is implied in haec eadem paret.

Ventidio, some well-known rich man, perhaps Ventidius Bassus.

23 ff. Ile is properly an object of contempt, who does not see that a safe differs from a purse as much as Atlas from all the mountains of Libya. 25. Hic, strict grammar would require qui.

26. Arca. Cf. I, 90; posita luditur arca.

27. Γνώθι σεαυτόν, "know thyself"; a famous saying used by Socrates. Cf. Xen. Mem. IV, 2, 24.

29. In parte, in the ranks.

30. Thersites knew himself too well to ask for the armor of Achilles. 31. Se traducebat may mean made himself ridiculous, or simply showed himself. The latter seems preferable. The story of the contest between Ajax and Ulysses for the armor of Achilles is told by Homer, Iliad II.

32. Magno discrimine, of great importance. Ablative of characteristic. 33. Adfectas, undertake. The indicative is used because, owing to the parenthesis, neque-Ulixes, the sentence becomes independent.

Consule, imperative.

34. Curtius et Matho. The former is unknown, the latter is mentioned I, 32.

Buccae, puffed-out cheeks, so wind-bags, blowers. 37. Gobio, a small, cheap fish.

38. Deficiente crumina-i. e., your purse growing smaller as your appetite grows larger.

43. Anulus, the badge of the knight or senator. Pollio, unknown.

45. Luxuriae is the dative of apparent agent, with metuenda supplied from the following clause.

46. Conducta pecunia, conducere to borrow, to hire. Cf. III, 225.
47 f. Paulum nescio quid, a little something.
48. Faenoris auctor—i. e., the lender.

49. Qui vertere solum, Literally, those who have changed their soul. The meaning is, they run away from Rome. 50. Cedere foro, to become bankrupt, cf. to go out of the street—i. e.,

Wall Street,

51. To move from one part of the city to another.
53. Anno uno. For the ablative, cf. VII, 235; quot vixerit annis.
Circensibus. Cf. III, 223, avelli circensibus ; VIII, 118; X, 81.
54. Morantur, transitive, seek to detain.
56. What precedes is an introduction to the following invitation.

Pulcherrima dictu, fine to talk about ; so Livy says speciosa dictu. What case is dictu ?

58. Occultus ganeo, a glutton in secret.
59. Dictem. Dictare for the classical imperare.

60 f. Habebis Evandrum, etc.—i. e., I shall be as simple a host to you as Evander was to Hercules ( Tirynthius) or to Aeneas, who, though inferior to Hercules, was also of divine descent.

69. Posito fuso, laying aside her spindle.
70. Tortoque calentia faeno, warm (fresh) from the nest.

72. Parte anni, through half the year. For the ablative, cf. VII, 235; XI, 53.

73. Signinum Syriumque pirum. Signium was a town in Latium. Syrian pears grew at Tarentum.

74. Aemula Picenis mala. The apples of Picenum are mentioned by Horace, Sat. II, 3, 272, and 4, 70; Picenis cedunt pomis Tiburtia.

76. Autumnum-i. e., the crudeness that they had in autumn.

77. Iam luxuriosa-i. e., after it had gone beyond the still simpler fare of Curius.

78. Curius (Dentatus) conquered the Samnites.

79 ff. Quae nunc, etc. In these days even the slave in chains despises such fare, remembering the delicacies of the cookshop.

82. Suis, genitive singular of sus. Rara crate, wide-barred rack. Horace uses rarus of a net (Epodes II, 33).

84. Natalicium, translate on birthdays. 85. Si quam dabat hostia-i. e., if there had been a recent sacrifice.

88. Solito maturius, earlier than usual, because it was a festal day.

89. Erectum-i. e., on his shoulder.

90. Tremerent, the subject is general, they. The verb has tran


sitive force.

Fabios, etc. The

names here used belong to representatives of the severe

simplicity of early Rome.

93. Habendam


94. Qualis-nataret, indirect question.

95. Troiugenis.

Cf. I, 100; note.

Fulcrum is prob

ably the head-piece of a couch; here it may be used for the couch itself. Cf. Fig. 60.

96. Nudo latere and parvis lectis may be taken as ablatives of characteristic modifying frons aerea, which, as the important idea, is made the subject; or lectis modified by parvis and by nudo latere may be considered as the ablative of place without the preposition.

97. Vile, cheap, common, roughly fashioned.

Coronati. The head of an ass, an animal sacred to Bacchus, was often crowned with vine leaves, when used as an ornament.

98. Which the rude country boys laughed at. 103 ff. Ut cassis-ostenderet is a clause of purpose depending on frangebat. Simulacra, Quirinos, and effigiem are the objects of ostenderet (line 107).

Phaleris. Cf. Fig. 61.

104. Mansuescere, intransitive.

105. Imperii fato-i. e., by the fate that watched over the future of the Roman Empire.

Quirinos. Romulus and Remus are called Quirini, as Castor and Pollux are called Castores.

106. Clipeo et hasta, ablatives of accompani


Fig. 62.

The clipeus was a round shield, as seen in

107. Pendentis, hanging, hovering in the air between heaven and earth.

108. Tusco catino, much of the earthen table ware used at Rome came from Etruria.

Farrata-i. e., food made from meal.

FIG. 61.-Horse adorned with phalerae.

111. Praesentior. Cf. III, 18; quanto praesentius esset numen.

112. Cf. Livy V, 32: Eodem anno M. Caedicius de plebe nuntiavit tribunis, se in nova via, ubi nunc sacellum est supra aedem Vestae, vocem noctis silentio audisse clariorem humana, quae magistratibus dici iuberet, Gallos adventare. 114. His-i. e., by such means.

116. Violatus. Cf. III, 20.

118. Hos agrees with usus. Others read hoc. 120 ff. It became the fashion in Rome to collect rare and costly tables. Two specimens are shown in Figs. 63 and 64. Juvenal here has in mind one of the orbes (round tables, the tops of which were of a single section of expensive foreign wood or marble), supported on a single shaft (hence called monopodia), consisting of an ivory leopard, rampant. Cf. I, 137; de tot pulchris et latis orbibus.

124. Porta Syenes. Syene was a town on the

Nile, on the border between Egypt and Ethio- FIG. 62.-Figure bearing the pia.


125. Mauro obscurior Indus, the Indian duskier than the Moor.

126. Deposuit, shed. Juvenal's natural history is at fault.

Nabataeo saltu. Probably Napata, the capital of Ethiopia, is meant. 127. Orexis, appetite.

128 f. I. e., a silver table-leg is

to them no more than an iron fingerring, such as were worn by the common people.

131. Adeo nulla, so far am I from

having. Cf. III, 84.

133. Quin, nay even.

136. Structor. Cf. V, 120. 137. Pergula, (carving) school. Cf. V, 122.

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