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135. Curtum temone iugum, Curtum is about = carens, hence the use of the ablative. The currus, with the temo (pole) and the bolt, which kept the iugum (yoke) in place, is seen in Fig. 51.

Triremis. Cf. Figs. 52 and 53.

136. Aplustre = apdaotov, the fan-shaped ornament on the stern of a ship. Cf. Fig. 54.

Arcu, triumphal arch, cf. cut, page 23.
137. Maiora—i. e., bona maiora.
138. Graius Graecus.
Induperator, an older form of imperator.

143 f. Laudis titulique depend on cupido ; haesuri agrees with tituli ; saxis is the dative with haesuri ; custodibus is in apposition with saxis.

147. Expende Hannibalem, weigh Hannibal. Cf. Hamlet, Act V, Scene I.

148. Africa, etc.-i.e., Africa, which stretches from the Moorish sea to the Nile, and back to the land of the Ethiopians. Mauro Oceano refers to that part of the At

Fig. 54.—Ship, showing the lantic that washes the west coast of Africa.

aplustre. 151. Hispania. The Carthaginians had many colonies in Spain, and their power there was strengthened by Hannibal. The following lines refer to his campaign in Italy after the fall of Saguntum in 219 B. c.

153. Montem rumpit aceto. Cf. Livy XXI, 37; ardentia saxa infuso aceto putrefaciunt.

155. Poeno milite. Note the absence of a preposition, and cf. the usage in I, 54; mare percussum puei

Portas-i. e., the gates of Rome. 156. Subura. Cf. III, 5; note. 158. Gaetula belua, elephant.

Luscum ; Hannibal lost one of his eyes through disease contracted in the marshes south of the river Po. Cf. Livy XXII, 2.

159. Ergo, then. Cf. I, 3.
Vincitur, by Scipio at Zama, 202 B. C.
161, Mirandus, to be stared at.
Cliens, suppliant.
162. Bithyno tyranno—i. e., Prusias, to whose court Hannibal fled.

Libeat, the subjunctive, because there is an idea of purpose in donec = until.

163. Animae, dative. Quae res humanas miscuit olim, which once threw the world into confusion.

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164–166. Illo—anulus. Hannibal is said to have taken poison from a ring, which is here called the avenger of Cannae. There is probably an allusion to the story that after the battle of Cannae (216 B. c.) a peck of rings was taken from the slain Roman equites.

168. Pellaoo iuveni, Alexander the Great, who “sighed for more worlds to conquer.” He was born at Pella, 356 B. C., and died at Babylon, 323 B. c.

170. Gyari, Seripho. For the former, cf. I, 73; aude aliquid Gyaris dignum. Seriphus was another of the Cyclades.

171. A figulis munitam urbem-i. e., Babylon, built by the brick-makers. 172. Fatetur, discloses, betrays. - 174. Velificatus Athos. Xerxes cut a canal between Mount Athos and the mainland, the remains of which have been discovered in modern times.

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175. Constratum (esse) suppositumque mare is the subject of creditur.

176. Rotis, dative with suppositum. The reference is to the bridge of boats by which the army of Xerxes crossed the Hellespont. Fig. 55 represents the passage of Trajan's army over the Danube by such a bridge.

177. The rivers that the Medes drank dry were probably rivers by courtesy.

178. Madidis alis. There are two explanations: one, that he struggled so hard that the wings of his fancy were wet with sweat; another, that they were made damp and heavy by wine. The latter is preferable. Cf. Ovid Meta. I, 264; Madidis Notus evolat alis.

Sostratus, unknown.
179. Ille—i. e., Xerxes, the man that accomplished all this.

180 f. Xerxes assumed more power over the winds than even their master Aeolus.

181. Hoc, accusative.

132. Ennosigaeum, Homer's name for Poseidon. To punish him for destroying his bridge of boats, Xerxes caused fetters to be thrown into

the sea.

183. With all his assumed control, it is a wonder that he did not punish him even more severely.

184. No wonder the gods rebelled !
188. Another common desire is length of days.
189, Recto vulta-i. e., in health, opposed to pallidus.

192. Dissimilem sui. " After similis Cicero uses the genitive of living objects, and either the genitive or dative of things” (A. and G. 234, d. 2).

Cutis is a man's skin, pellis is a beast's hide.

194. Thabraca, a town in Numidia; the surrounding forests were full of monkeys.

199. Lēve, bald.
200. Misero, dative of apparent agent.
Gingiva inermi, toothless gums.

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FIG. 56.-Ground-plan ne theatre

rod at hens. A, Orchestra ; B, Cavea ; C, Pulpitum (stage); D, D, Parodoi ; I, One of the three entrances through the stage-walì (scaena). The exact use of the various rooms adjoining the stage is not known.

202. Such a disgusting object that even Cossus, who would be likely to stand a great deal for the sake of an expected legacy, is driven from the field. This may be the Cossus mentioned in III, 184.

209 f. Partis alterius, the other sense—i. e., hearing.

210 f. Cantante citharoedo, ablative absolute. Cantare is used of both vocal and instrumental music.

211. Seleuco. Seleucus is unknown.

212, Aurata lacerna, for the elegance of theatrical dress, cf. Hor. A. P. 215.

213. Theatri. Cf. Fig. 56.

214. The cornu (a large curved horn) is seen in Fig. 55; the tuba or straight horn, in the representation of a sacrifice, in Fig. 57.

216. Dicat, subjunctive in "an indirect question.

Quot horas, what time. Cf. Quota hora est = what time is it? Time-pieces were not in common use, and it was the duty of a slave to announce the hour from a public sun- Fig. 57.–A sacrificial scene, showing the tuba. dial or water-clock.

218. Agmine facto. The same phrase III, 162, also in Vergil.
226. This line occurs also I, 25.
233. Damno, ablative of separation with the comparative.

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237. Suos—i. e., his natural heirs. Suos is the subject of esse, heredes the predicate.

240. Ut, although.
Ducenda. Cf. I, 146; ducitur funus.
241. Rogus. Cf. Fig. 58, which represents the funeral pyre of Patroclus.

242. Urmae-i. e., aspiciendae sunt. For the form of the um, cf. Fig. 59.

243. Haec data poena; here data has its usual force; this penalty is assigned. For the technical use of poenas dare, cf. III, 279.

244. Domus, genitive.

246. Rex Pylius—i. e., Nestor, who was said to have lived to see three generations of men.

247. A cornice secundae, next to the crow. 248. Qui, in that he.

249. Dextra. Units and tens were counted on the left hand, hundreds on the right.

253. Antilochi barbam ardentem-i. e., the funeral pyre of Antilochus. The cut on page 61 represents the friends of Antilochus lifting his body into a chariot.

257. Alius, Laertes, the father of Ulysses, of Ithaca.
Cui fas, whose fate it was.
258. Incolumi Troia, ablative absolute.

Venisset is the conclusion of the condition expressed in si foret exstinctus, line 263,

259. Assaraci, the great-uncle of Priam. 260. Cervicibus, ablative absolute with portantibus implied. 261 f. Ut—inciperet, result clause, imperfect for vividness. 264. Aedificare carinas; notice the loss of original meaning in aedi-fico. 265. Dies meaning time is usually feminine. 267. Miles tremulus-i. e., Priam.

270. Ab ingrato aratro. The plow is personified, hence the use of the preposition.

271. Yet Priam's death was that of a human being, while Hecuba, who outlived him, was changed into a cur, and died a beast's death.

273. Regem Ponti, Mithridates, King of Pontus, 130-63 B. C.

274 f. Croesum. The ory of Croesus, King of Lydia, 560-548 B. C., and Solon is told by Herodotus I, 29 ff.

276-282. Marius is referred to.
278. Illo cive, ablative with beatius.

282. De Teutonico curru, Marius defeated the Teutons 102 B. C., and the Cimbri in the following year. Cf. VIII, 249.

Vellet. Cf. čueadev, was about to. 283. Provida, foreseeing, wise. Pompey was ill of a fever at Naples, 50

Public prayers were offered for his safety. 286. Victo-i. e., after his defeat by Caesar. Dative with abstulit.

287. Lentulus, Cethegus, and Catilina, who died in comparative youth, escaped this ignominy.

347. Permittes, the future has the same force as in optabunt above. Expendere, to weigh out, so to decide.

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B. C.

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