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TIG. 48.-Roman Forum. (The plan is intended to give an idea of the Forum no such ridiculous 66 pomp and circumstance"; suppose Democritus had seen the praetor at the games or a consular triumph!

during the early empire.) A, Forum proper; B, Temple of Castor and Pollux ; C, Basilica Iulia ; D, Temple of Saturn; E, Porticus of the Dei Consentes ; F, Temple of Vespasian ; G, Tabularium ; H, Temple of Concord ; I, Mamertine rison ; K, Arch of Septimius Severus (203 A. D.); L, Basilica Porcia ; M, Curia Hostilia (burned 55 b. c.); N, Curia Iulia ; O. Basilica Aemilia ; P, Temple of Antoninus and Faustina ; Q, Temple of Vesta ; R, Comitium of the Republic ; S, Capitoline Hill ; T, Palatine Hill; U, Terrace (Rostra ?); V, Rostra vetera (?); W, Rostra Iulia.

38. Tunica Iovis—i. e., the triumphal tunic, which was embroidered with gold and bordered with purple. It was kept in the temple of Jupiter.

39. Aulaea, properly curtains, used here of the heavy folds of the triumphal toga.

Magnae coronae tantum orbem, such a great encircling crown. 40. Quanto, dative.

41. The crown was so heavy that it was not worn, but carried by a public slave, who took his place beside the official in the chariot, and, according to the common tradition, reminded the triumphator that he was but mortal, after all.

43. Da, picture to yourself. Cf. III, 137, da testem.
Volucrem—i. e., the eagle.
44. Praecedentia, etc., = longum agmen praecedentium officiosorum.
45. Niveos, white-robed. The white toga was the festal garb.

46. In loculos—i. e., he has gained their friendship by the “pensions” that they have stowed away in their coffers.

Sportula. Cf. I, 95.
47. Tum quoque, even in those times.
49. Exempla, object of daturos.

50. Vervecum, blockheads. Abdera, like Boeotia, was famous for the alleged stupidity of its inhabitants.

53. Mandaret laqueum, to commend the gallows to fortune, means, of course, to express scorn of her.

Mediumque ostenderet unguem. The middle finger was used in gestures of contempt.

54. Vel, if the reading be right, must mean even. The MSS. omit vel, which has been conjectured in order to avoid the hiatus.

55. Incerare. Petitions written on waxen tablets were laid on the knees of the statues of the gods.

57. Invidiae, dative.

Honorum pagina. The Scholiast says that this refers to a bronze tablet containing a list of titles.

58 ff. Their statues are pulled down and dragged through the streets, and even the marble representations of their horses and chariots are broken in pieces.

59. Inpacta securis, nom. sing.

61. Here follows a picture of the fate of the bronze statue of Sejanus, the ambitious favorite of Tiberius, who is selected as a striking example of the disasters incident to potentia.He is the subject of a tragedy by Ben Jonson, entitled “ Sejanus.'

Strident, so stridere, V, 160.

66

84. Sartago, pan. - 65. It is an occasion of general rejoicing.

66. Cretatum = candidum, or refers to a custom of rubbing creta, white clay, on those portions of the sacrificial victim that were other than pure white.

67. What do the people, who made an idol of Sejanus, do when he falls ? Listen.

69. Crimine, accusation. 70. Delator, accuser. Teste, witness.

72. Capreis, the modern Capri, where Tiberius retired from Rome 26 A. D., leaving the active conduct of the State to Sejanus.

Bene habet = all right.Cf. bene est ; bene agitur.

73. Turba Remi. Remus is often used by poets for Romulus for the sake of the metre.

74. Nortia. An Etruscan goddess, worshiped especially at Vulsinii, the birthplace of Sejanus.

Tusco—i. e., Sejanus; dative.

75. Secura, from meaning safe from anxiety, comes to mean careless. The whole means, if the old emperor had been caught napping.

76. Diceret, would be calling. The subject is turba Remi.

77 f. Long ago, as soon as we lost the sale of our votes, we (i. e., turba Remi) threw off the cares of state. The irony in “ex quo suffragia nulli vendimus," for since the elections were transferred from the people to the senate, is bitter indeed.

81. Panem et circenses. Cf. III, 223, si potes avelli circensibus ; VIII, 118. This phrase has become proverbial.

83. Bruttidius meus, my friend Bruttidius. Bruttidius Niger was a famous orator of the time; perhaps he is meant.

84. Aiax—i. e., Tiberius, who, like Ajax conquered in his struggle with Ulysses, may rage against the supposed friends who seem to have deserted him.

87. A side blow at the power possessed by slaves, and the ease with which their testimony might ruin their masters.

90. Salutari refers to the morning reception. 91 f. Ili- illum, one-another.

Curules—i. e., curule offices, consulships, praetorships. Sejanus practically controlled such offices after Tiberius's retirement to Capri.

94. Grege Chaldaeo. The Chaldaeans were famous astrologers, and Tiberius was much given to that sort of superstition.

Certe, at least.
95. Castra domestica-i. e., the Praetorian cohorts.
96. Et qui, even those who.

97. Tanti. Cf. III, 54; tanti non sit omnis harena.
98. Ut, on condition that.
99. Qui trabitur. Cf. line 66, ducitur unco.
100. Fidenarum Gabiorumque. These were small towns in Latium.
101. Weights and measures were under the control of the aediles.
102, Ulubris. Another small town in Latium.
103. Quid optandum foret. Indirect question, object of ignorasse.

105. I. e., he was piling story on story, only that his fall might be the greater.

106. Unde = ut inde.
107. Praeceps is used as a noun. Cf. I, 149; in praecipiti.
Immane is the predicate.

108. Crassos, Pompeios—i. e., such men as Crassus and Pompey. Crassus was a member of the so-called first triumvirate, and was killed in an expedition against the Parthians 53 B. o. Pompey was defeated at Pharsalos 48 B. C.

Illum. Julius Caesar.
109. Flagra. Cf. Eng., brought them under his lash.
110. Nulla non, every. Non nulla would mean some.
111. Malignis, because granting wishes that were really harmful.
112. Generum Cereris—i. e, Pluto.

114 ff. Look at another form of ambition. See the rewards of great cloquence.

115. Totis quinquatribus. The festival of Minerva (March 19-23) was a school holiday.

116 f. I. e., every little boy that goes to school. 117. Vernula. Cf. I, 26; verna Canopi

PALIKANVS Crispinus.

120. Ingenio, etc. Genius lost head and hands. After Cicero's murder, his head and hands were cut off by the order of Antony and fixed upon the rostra.

121. Causidici, pettifoggers. Cf. I, 32 ; causidici Mathonis.

Rostra. Cf. Fig. 49.
122. A line written by Cicero. Dryden

FIG. 49.-Rostra. imitates it in

“Fortune foretuned the dying notes of Rome

Till I thy consul sole consoled thy doom." 123. Juvenal says that if Cicero had never been more eloquent than in the line quoted, he might have been quite safe from Antony. Cf. Cicero's words in the second Philippic, “Contempsi Catilinae gladios, non pertimescam tuos.

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124. Ridenda, etc.-i. e., I would rather write such poor poetry and save my life, than write the famous second Philippic at the expense of my head. Cicero's attacks on Antony in the Philippic orations were the immediate cause of his murder.

126. Volveris a prima quae proxima, unrolled next to the first.
Illum, Demosthenes.
128. Torrentem, so we speak of a torrent of eloquence.
Moderantem frena-i. e., curbing, guiding, the passions of the people.

Fig. 50.- Tropaeum.

Fig. 51.-Currus, showing the temo.

130. This description of the father of Demosthenes as a blacksmith is a rhetorical exaggeration. He was the proprietor of a sword factory.

131. Gladios, object of parante. 133. Truncis tropaeis. A tropaeum in early times consisted of the armor

FIG. 53. - Position of rowers in a trireme.

Fig. 52.-Trireme, showing the three banks

of oars.

of the conquered warrior arranged on a block of wood, or part of a treetrunk. Cf. Fig. 50.

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