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130. Raptura-i. e., coniunx.

Celaeno, another Celaeno. Celaeno was one of the harpies. 131. Tu licet, you may.

Pico. Picus, a son of Saturnus, was one of the early mythical kings of Italy.

132. Omnem Titanida pugnam, the whole battle array of the Titans. The Titans were sons of Earth; ancestry could hardly be traced further back. Prometheus was one of the Titans, and sometimes represented as the creator of man.

135. Quod si, but if. Praecipitem-i. e., te.

137. Hebetes, blunted, by use.

139. Claramque facem praeferre, to shed a bright

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FIG. 41.-Figure bearing the scutum.

153. He shows no respect for age, but salutes his aged friend with the professional coachman's turn of the whip.

154. This whole passage refers to the vulgarity of men of birth and position becoming mere horse-jockeys and grooms.

155. Lanatas-i. e., oves.

Robum robustum.

156. Iurat, swears by.

157. Eponam. Epona was the goddess of horses.

Facies, etc.-i. e., pictures of Epona and kindred subjects.

Olida, rank.

Praesepia. Cf. I, 59, cui bona donavit praesepibus.

158. Pervigiles. Cf. III, 275, vigiles fenestrae.

Instaurare, to frequent.

159. Syrophoenix, the host.

160. This line is rejected by many editors. Idumaeae portae has received no satisfactory explanation. It may refer to a gate in that quarter of Rome where such taverns were plentiful.

162. Cyanis is the hostess.

Buccincta. Cf. Hor. Sat. II, 6, 107, succinctus cursitat hospes.

168. Thermarum calices, hot drinks of wine and water are probably


Insoriptaque lintea seems to refer to the curtains hanging in front of the taverns, with signs upon them.

170 f. Praestare Neronem securum, to protect the Emperor i. e., his country.

171. Ostia, accusative plural. Ostia was the point of embarkation for foreign service.

Caesar refers to the Emperor.

173. Percussore, cut-throat.

175. Fabros sandapilarum, makers of cheap coffins.

176. Cessantia, silent, no longer in use.

Galli. The Galli or priests of Cybele were not noted for temper


180. A slave that did such things would be sent to work in the Lucanian fields (agros is to be supplied), or put into the Etruscan chain-gang. 181. Troiugenae. Cf. I, 100, ipsos Troiugenas.

182. Cerdoni. Cf. IV, 153, postquam cerdonibus ess timendus coeperat. Volesos. The reference is probably to Volesus Valerius, founder of the Valerian gens.

186. Sipario, the curtain before the stage in the theatre.

Phasma Catulli refers to "The Ghost," a mimus (farce), of Catullus (who should not be confused with the famous lyric poet of that name).

187. Laureolum, the name of one of the mimi, in which the hero, also called Laureolus, was crucified.

189. Frons, shamelessness. Durior, translate greater.

190. Triscurria, tri- intensifies the meaning.

191. Planipedes; the actors in the mimi usually appeared without either the cothurnus of tragedy or the soccus of comedy.

192. Mamercorum alapas, mimic blows received by the Mamerci.

Funera, probably refers to "moral death." Ribbeck reads munera = services.

194. This verse is probably spurious. Celsi must refer to the exalted seat of the praetor at the games.

195. Gladios, death. Gladios and pulpita are the subjects of poni. Others read pone, making pulpita its object.

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Ut sit, a clause of result. Juvenal is almost as severe on the amateur actor as on the amateur horse-jockey.

197. Zelotypus, the jealous husband; stupidi, the clown.

do principe, as Nero was. If the prince plays the lute, the y the clown. For the cithara, cf. Fig. 42.

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Mimus, an actor of this sort is represented in Fig. 43.

199. Ludus-i. e., the gladiatorial games. Even here the degenerate noble (Gracchus) chooses the most disgraceful form of gladiatorial equipment, for he fights not with the arms of the murmillo, nor with the shield, nor with the scimiter, but as a retiarius, armed with a trident and a net, lightly clothed, without a helmet, and thus easily recognized. The murmillo is probably represented upon the sepulchral monument in Fig. 41; for the retiarius and secutor, cf. Fig. 17.

202. This line is rejected by several editors. 203. Galea. The form of helmet used by the gladiators is seen in Fig. 44.

205. Effudit. cast. The retiarius gathered the net in his hand and attempted to throw it so as to entangle his opponent.

FIG. 43.-Mimus.

This was the costume

207 f. Credamus tunicae, etc., we must believe his tunic when, gold-embroidered, it stretches out from his neck and the gold cord flutters from his tall cap. of the Salii, priests of Mars. For the galerus, cf. Fig. 45. 212. Seneca, the philosopher, was Nero's tutor, and was murdered by

the order of his former pupil.

213. Supplicio, dative with parari.

214. Simia-serpens-culleus.

A parricide was punished by being put

into a sack with a dog, a snake, a cock, and an ape, and then cast into

the sea.

218. Aut. The negative idea is carried over from nec.

Spartani coniugii. Orestes married Hermione, daughter of Menelaus and Helen.

220. Nero's worst crimes were his artistic ones. anti-climax, cf. III, 7-9.

221. Troica. Nero wrote verses on the Trojan war.

For the intentional

Quid enim, etc. For what that Nero did was more deserving of punishment at the hands of his enemies?

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Verginius (Rufus) took up arms against Nero in Germany, (Julius) Vindex in Gaul, and (Servius) Galba in Spain.

223. Cruda, brutal.

224. Generosi, nobly-born.

225. Peregrina ad pulpita. Suetonius says that Nero appeared as a contestant in the games in Greece.

226. Prostitui. The Latin passive sometimes has the force of the Greek middle.

FIG. 45.-Galerus.

Apium, parsley.

227. Let him lay all these trophies of his disgraceful victories at the fect of the statues of his ancestors.

228 f. Domiti. Nero was the son of Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus.

Thyestes, Antigone, and Melanippa were tragic parts played by Nero. 229. Syrma, the trailing robe worn by actors in tragedy.

231. Cf. line 237, note.

234. Ut, as if you were. Bracatorum Gallorum.

235. Tunica molesta. Cf. I, 155, note.

237. Novus Arpinas, Cicero, the novus homo, who saved the State, is contrasted with the men of old family, who sought to destroy it.

240 f. Tantum-nominis, such glory.

241. Leucade refers to the battle of Actium as Thessaliae campis to the battle of Philippi.

242. Abstulit, bore off, gained. 243. Caedibus depends on udo. Gladio is ablative of instrument. Sed-libera-i. e., Rome was free when she gave the title to Cicero.

245. Arpinas alius, C. Marius.

FIG. 46.-Dolabra.

247. Frangebat vertice vitem, he broke with his head the centurion's rod, which seems to have been freely used to punish the common soldiers-i. e., he served as a soldier, and had the rod broken over his head if he was slow at his work.

248. The dolabra is shown in Fig. 46.

252. Qui. Its antecedent is corvi, the subject of volabant.

253. Nobilis collega, Catulus.

254. Deciorum. P. Decius Mus gave his life for his country in the battle against the Latins, 340 B. c.; cf. Livy VIII, 9; his son, of the same name, followed his example in the battle of Sentinum. Cf. Livy X, 28.

258. Pluris, of more value-i. e., to the gods; so their sacrifice of their lives saved the State.

259. Ancilla natus-i. e., Servius Tullius. Cf. VII, 199, note.

Trabeam, the royal robe, a toga ornamented with horizontal purple stripes.

Diadema. Fig. 47 shows the form of the diadema. 261. Prodita claustra-i. e., the bolts that they had betrayed.

Laxabant, imperfect of "attempted action."

262. Iuvenes-i. e., the sons of Brutus, who aided in the recall of the Tarquins.


FIG. 47.-Diadema.

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