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fitness of things. Cf. Hor. Sat. I, 3, 66, Communi sensu plane caret. Possibly, as Weidner suggests, the sense of equality in the State.

74. Censeri laude, for the construction, cf. line 2. 75. Pontice. Cf. line 1..

Noluerim; on this use of the perfect subjunctive to express a thing modestly and cautiously, cf. Madvig 350 b; A. and G. 311 b; 'H. 486, I.

Futurae laudis. The use of the " genitive of quality" was gradually more and more extended.

78. Palmos, etc. Vines were trained on elm-trees.

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Viduas. Cf. Horace's use of caelebs with platanus. Odes II, 15, 4. 79. Tutor, guardian.

81. Phalaris. The tyrant of Agrigentum and his brazen bull had become proverbial. Cf. Grote, History of Greece, V, 274.

Licet, although.

82. Falsus has two meanings : active, deceitful, and passive, deceived ; cf. caecus = blind and dark. Blind itself has also a passive sense, as in the phrase a blind alley ; cf. Milton, In the blind mazes of this tangled wood.

83. Pudori, honor.

85. Dignus morte perit—i. e., the man that deserves to die is, to all intents and purposes, dead. Perit is the perfect tense.

86. Gaurana. Mount Gaurus was near the Lucrine Lake. Cf. IV, 141.

Cosmi, Cosmus was a famous perfumer at Rome. Aheno is the copper (kettle) in which he prepared his perfumes.

88. Irae, dative.
90. Vacuis medullis, ablative of quality.

91. Respice, consider. Cf. III, 268, Respice ... pericula.

Curia, the Roman Senate. 92. Maneant, await.

93. Et Capito et Numitor. Capito was governor of Cilicia in 56 A. D. Numitor is unknown.

94. Piratae, in apposition with Capito and Numitor.

Sed quid damnatio confert ?—i. e., what good does it do the plundered provincials ? Cf. I, 47 ff.

95. “ Look up an auctioneer for your rags, Chaerippus." Chaerippus represents the inhabitants of the province.

96. Pansa-Natta. Fictitious (?) names for provincial governors.

97. Keep quiet and make the best of it; don't spend what little you have left in paying your passage - money (naulon) to Rome, to bring suit against your despoiler.

99. Damnorum, losses.

101. Chlamys, a loose garment, shown in Fig. 39.—Statue of PhoFig. 39.

kion wearing the

chlamys. Conchylia Coa. The purple stuffs of Cos were especially fine.

102. Parrhasii. A famous Greek painter, wbo lived about 400 B. C. Myronis. The celebrated sculptor, born about 500 B. C.

103. Phidiacum. Phidias (about 490-430 B. c.), the greatest sculptor of Greece. Among his works were the sculptures of the Parthenon (cf. Fig. 40), the ivory and gold statue of Jupiter, at Olympia, and that of Athena in the Parthenon.

Polycliti. Cf. III, 217.
104. Labor. Cf. Eng. work.

Rarae, etc. Mentor was the most famous silversmith of antiquity. For the use of the artist's name instead of his work, cf. a Raphael.

105. Dolabella Province-plundering seems to have been the business of the family. Three of them were accused of such extortions.

Antonius. Two members of this family had unenviable reputations; C. Antonius, who plundered Macedonia 59 B. C., and his brother, who did the same for Sicily.

106. Verres. The infamous governor of Sicily (73-70 B. c.), whom Cicero prosecuted.

107. Plures, etc.-i. e., they gained more by stealing in time of peace than by capture in time of war.

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112. Nam sunt haec maxima. In olden times the provinces were rich, and the Romans stole from them valuable works of art, etc.; now they take whatever they can find.

Despicias tu, etc. You may well despise the effeminate Greeks, but look out for Spain and Gaul.

114. Resinata. Resin was used for smoothing the skin.
116. Axis, sky, region, land.
117. Latus, coast.

118. Saturant, furnish corn to, provision.” He means the Africans. Cf. V, 118, note.

Circo scaenaeque, dative with vacantem. Vacans means having leisure for, then given up to, devoted to. For the thought, cf. III, 223, si potes avelli circensibus.

120. Discinxerit, stripped, stole their very girdles.

123. The scutum was a large oblong shield, while the clipeus (buckler) was round. The former is seen in Fig. 41.

125. Sententia, opinion.
128. Acersecomes, a long-haired, young favorite.

129. Conventus. Each province was divided into judicial districts, in each of which some town was selected where the governor held court. Both the districts and the meetings were called conventus.

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130. Raptura-i. e., coniunx.
Celaeno, another Celaeno. Celaeno was one of the harpies.
131. Tu licet, you may.

Pico. Picus, a son of Saturnus, was one of the early mythical kings of Italy.

132. Omnem Titanida pugnam, the whole battle array of the Titans. The Titans were sons of Earth ; ancestry could hardly be traced further back. Prometheus was one of the Titans, and sometimes represented as the creator of man.

135. Quod si, but if.
Praecipitem-i. e., te.
137. Hebetes, blunted, by use.

139. Claramque facem praeferre, to shed a bright light upon.

141. Habetur, is held, considered.
142. Quo mihi te-i. e., iactas.
143. Quae fecit avus, which your ancestor built.

145. Santonico. The Santones were a Gallic tribe noted for their woolen manufactures.

146. Praeter, etc.-i. e., on the roads lined with tombs leading out of Rome. Ct. I, 171.

147. Lateranus. A Lateranus was consul 94 A. D.
148. Sufiamine, drag-chain.
149. Testes, nominative.

Fig. 41.–Figure bearing 151. Clara luce, in broad daylight.

the scutum. 152. Trepidabit, shun.

153. He shows no respect for age, but salutes his aged friend with the professional coachman's turn of the whip.

154. This whole passage refers to the vulgarity of men of birth and position becoming mere horse-jockeys and grooms.

155. Lanatas-i. e., oves.
Robum = rohustum.
156. Iurat, swears by.
157. Eponam. Epona was the goddess of horses.
Facies, etc.-i. e., pictures of Epona and kindred subjects.
Olida, rank.
Praesepia. Cf. I, 59, cui bona donavit praesepibus.
158. Pervigiles. Cf. III, 275, vigiles fenestrae.
Instaurare, to frequent.
159. Syrophoenix, the host.

160. This line is rejected by many editors. Idumaeae portae has received no satisfactory explanation. It may refer to a gate in that quarter of Rome where such taverns were plentiful.

162. Cyanis is the hostess.
Succincta. Cf. Hor. Sat. II, 6, 107, succinctus cursitat hospes.

168. Thermarum calices, hot drinks of wine and water are probably meant.

Inscriptaque lintea seems to refer to the curtains hanging in front of the taverns, with signs upon them.

170 f. Praestare Neronem securum, to protect the Emperor -- i. e., his country.

171. Ostia, accusative plural. Ostia was the point of embarkation for foreign service.

Caesar refers to the Emperor. 173. Percussore, cut-throat. 175. Fabros sandapilarum, makers of cheap cofins. 176. Cessantia, silent, no longer in use. Galli. The Galli or priests of Cybele were not noted for temper


180. A slave that did such things would be sent to work in the Lucanian fields (agros is to be supplied), or put into the Etruscan chain-gang.

181. Troiugenae. Cf. I, 100, ipsos Troiugenas. 182, Cerdoni. Cf. IV, 153, postquam cerdonibus ess: timendus coeperat.

Volesos. The reference is probably to Volesus Valerius, founder of the Valerian gens.

186. Sipario, the curtain before the stage in the theatre.

Phasma Catulli refers to The Ghost," a mimus (farce), of Catullus (who should not be confused with the famous lyric poet of that name).

187. Laureolum, the name of one of the mimi, in which the hero, also called Laureolus, was crucified.

189. Frons, shamelessness.
Durior, translate greater.
190. Triscurria, tri- intensifies the meaning.

191. Planipedes; the actors in the mimi usually appeared without either the cothurnus of tragedy or the soccus of comedy.

192. Mamercorum alapas, inimic blows received by the Mamerci.

Funera, probably refers to “moral death.” Ribbeck reads munera = services.

194. This verse is probably spurious. Celsi must refer to the exalted seat of the praetor at the games.

195. Gladios, death, Gladios and pulpita are the subjects of poni. Others read pone, making pulpita its object. 196. Quid

utrum. Ut sit, a clause of result. Juvenal is almost us severe on the amateur actor as on the amateur horse-jockey. 197. Zelotypus, the jealous husband; stupidi, the clown.

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