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16. Catinensi. Catina was at the foot of Mount Aetna. The Romans used pumice-stone in their elaborate toilets.

17. Traducit, disgraces. For the change of meaning, cf. Eng. traduce. 18. Frangenda imagine. The statues of great criminals were publicly destroyed. Cf. X, 58, Descendunt statuae restemque sequuntur.

19. Cerae; the wax masks of ancestors. Cf. Fig. 34.

20. Atria; the atrium was the principal room in the Roman house. Cf. Figs. 35 and 36.

Sola atque unica, cf. Hor. Epist. I, 6, 1, una solaque.

22. Hos (as illi in the next line) refers to mores.

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23. Te consule-i. e., when your time of power comes. Virgas fasces.

=

24. Mihi debes-i. e., I have a right to demand from you.

Haberi, to be considered, held.

26. Agnosco procerem, (then) I recognize the nobleman-i. e., I acknowledge your nobility.

27 ff. Quocumque, etc.-i. e., wherever you come from, you are a fortunate acquisition, and your rejoicing country may well cry out, "Eureka!" as do the Egyptians when they discover Osiris.

To the Romans Osiris was the same as Apis. When the bull Apis, whose body the god was supposed to inhabit, died, the Egyptians made

great efforts to find the new creature to which the divinity had fled, and when their search was rewarded great rejoicings took place.

31. Et connects indignus and insignis.

32. Nanum, dwarf. As men give names in mockery, be careful lest your conduct be so inconsistent with your great name that men will call you Creticus or Camerinus only in derision.

38. Sic. Macleane has sis, and says, "It does not require much taste to see that Juvenal did not write sic." Sic is the suggestion of Junius, and is adopted by Jahn, Ribbeck, Weidner, and Mayor.

39. Rubelli Blande. C. Rubellius Blandus was descended from the imperial family, through Julia, a granddaughter of Tiberius. Tiberius's brother, as well as his son, was named Drusus.

42. Ut-conciperet.

Subjunctive in a clause of result. The subject of the verb is ea, understood as the antecedent of quae. 43. Conducta, hired. Cf. III, 225, tenebras—conducis. Aggere, the wall of Servius Tullius. Cf. Livy I, 44; Sat.

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153.

46. Cecropides—i. e., a descendent of Cecrops, the (mythical) founder of Athens.

47. Quiritem, the distinctive name of a Roman citizen. Probably used here to emphasize the contrast with Cecropides.

53. Truncoque Hermae. The Hermae were statues in which only the head, and sometimes the bust, was modeled, all the rest being left as a plain block. Cf. Fig. 37.

55. Imago-i. e., your only advantage is that you are a living block head.

58. Facili-i. e., an easy winner.

Palma, hand.

FIG. 37.

59. Fervet, grows warm-i. e., by the exertion of applauding. Hermes. 61. In aequore, on the plain.

62. Venale pecus, (mere) market cattle.

Coryphaei et Hirpini, famous race - horses. The genitives depend on posteritas.

Posteritas is in apposition with pecus.

66. Epiraedia. Probably heavy carts are meant.

67. Cf. Fig. 38.

68. Primum is the reading of the MSS. Privum, a conjecture adopted by several editors =

proprium, your own.

69. Titulis. Cf. note, line 1.

71. Iuvenem. Cf. line 39.

72. Plenumque Nerone propinquo, full of his relative, Nero-i. e., puffed up by his relationship to Nero.

73. Sensus communis, not common sense, but savoir faire, a sense of the

fitness of things.

Cf. Hor. Sat. I, 3, 66, Communi sensu plane caret.

Possibly, as Weidner suggests, the sense of equality in the State.

74. Censeri laude, for the construction, cf. line 2.

75. Pontice. Cf. line 1..

Noluerim; on this use of the perfect subjunctive to express a thing modestly and cautiously, cf. Madvig 350 b; A. and G. 311 b; H. 486, I. Futurae laudis. The use of the " genitive of quality" was gradually more and more extended.

78. Palmes, etc. Vines were trained on elm-trees.

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Viduas. Cf. Horace's use of caelebs with platanus. Odes II, 15, 4. 79. Tutor, guardian.

81. Phalaris. The tyrant of Agrigentum and his brazen bull had become proverbial. Cf. Grote, History of Greece, V, 274.

Licet, although.

82. Falsus has two meanings: active, deceitful, and passive, deceived; cf. caecus= blind and dark. Blind itself has also a passive sense, as in the phrase a blind alley; cf. Milton, In the blind mazes of this tangled wood.

83. Pudori, honor.

85. Dignus morte perit-i. e., the man that deserves to die is, to all intents and purposes, dead. Perit is the perfect tense.

86. Gaurana. Mount Gaurus was near the Lucrine Lake. Cf. IV, 141.

Cosmi. Cosmus was a famous perfumer at Rome. Aheno is the copper (kettle) in which he prepared his perfumes.

88. Irae, dative.

90. Vacuis medullis, ablative of quality.

91. Respice, consider. Cf. III, 268, Respice ..

pericula.

Curia, the Roman Senate.

92. Maneant, await.

93. Et Capito et Numitor.

of Cilicia in 56 A. D.

Capito was governor
Numitor is unknown.

94. Piratae, in apposition with Capito and Numitor.

Sed quid damnatio confert ?-i. e., what good does it do the plundered provincials? Cf. I, 47 ff.

95. "Look up an auctioneer for your rags, Chaerippus." Chaerippus represents the inhabitants of the province.

96. Pansa-Natta. Fictitious (?) names for provincial governors.

97. Keep quiet and make the best of it; don't spend what little you have left in paying your passage money (naulon) to Rome, to bring suit against your despoiler.

99. Damnorum, losses.

101. Chlamys, a loose garment, shown in FIG. 39.-Statue of Pho

Fig. 39.

Conchylia Coa. The purple stuffs of Cos were

especially fine.

kion wearing the chlamys.

102. Parrhasii. A famous Greek painter, who lived about 400 B. C. Myronis. The celebrated sculptor, born about 500 B. C.

103. Phidiacum. Phidias (about 490-430 B. c.), the greatest sculptor of Greece. Among his works were the sculptures of the Parthenon (cf. Fig. 40), the ivory and gold statue of Jupiter, at Olympia, and that of Athena in the Parthenon.

Polycliti. Cf. III, 217.

104. Labor. Cf. Eng. work.

Rarae, etc. Mentor was the most famous silversmith of antiquity. For the use of the artist's name instead of his work, cf. "a Raphael."

105. Dolabella. Province-plundering seems to have been the business of the family. Three of them were accused of such extortions.

Antonius. Two members of this family had unenviable reputations; C. Antonius, who plundered Macedonia 59 B. c., and his brother, who did the same for Sicily.

106. Verres. The infamous governor of Sicily (73-70 B. c.), whom Cicero prosecuted.

107. Plures, etc.-i. e., they gained more by stealing in time of peace than by capture in time of war.

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112. Nam sunt haec maxima. In olden times the provinces were rich, and the Romans stole from them valuable works of art, etc.; now they take whatever they can find.

Despicias tu, etc. You may well despise the effeminate Greeks, but look out for Spain and Gaul.

114. Resinata. Resin was used for smoothing the skin.

116. Axis, sky, region, land.

117. Latus, coast.

118. Saturant, furnish corn to, "provision." He means the Africans. Cf. V, 118, note.

Circo scaenaeque, dative with vacantem.

Vacans means having leisure

for, then given up to, devoted to. For the thought, cf. III, 223, potes avelli circensibus.

120. Discinxerit, stripped, stole their very girdles.

123. The scutum was a large oblong shield, while the clipeus (buckler) was round. The former is seen in Fig. 41.

125. Sententia, opinion.

128. Acersecomes, a long-haired, young favorite.

129. Conventus. Each province was divided into judicial districts, in each of which some town was selected where the governor held court. Both the districts and the meetings were called conventus.

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