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94. Quis totidem, etc. Avarice, recklessness, and luxury all go together. The rich men of the day dined on seven courses, but alone. What a contrast to the frugal meals of the ancients, where the patron was surrounded by his clients, whose relation to him was one of honorable dependence! 95. Sportula. early times the clients dined with their patron (cena recta); later a basket of food,


a "dole," was given

FIG. 6. Toga with sinus.

to each client at the door; finally, a sum of money was substituted.

96. Turbae togatae. There is a certain irony in the combination of these two words, "a dress-coat mob."

97. Ille. Like our emphatic he, the master.

99. A praecone. A regular list of those to whom the sportula was due was kept to avoid repeaters and substitutes.

100. Troiugenas, members of the oldest Roman families. Many gentes traced their origin from Trojan heroes; so the Julian gens from lulus.

Et ipsi, they too, even they.

101. Da praetori, etc.

There seem to have been two classes of these

respectable beggars, the impoverished aristocrats and the wealthy upstarts. The praetor and the tribunus belong to the former, the libertinus to the latter.

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106. Quadringenta (sestertia). The census equester was 400,000 sesterces.

Quid confert, etc., what does equestrian rank amount to, if a member of one of the old families like Corvinus has to hire himself out as a shepherd?

FIG. 7.-Taberna.

107. Laurenti. Laurentum was near the coast of Latium, between Ostia and Lavinium. Cf. Livy I, 1.

108. Conductas. Conducere is used in two senses: conducere rem utendam means to pay for the use of a thing, conducere rem faciendam means to receive pay for taking care of a thing.

109. Pallante et Licinis. For the plural, cf. line 52. Pallas and Licinus were freedmen proverbial for their wealth. The former was a favorite of the Emperor Claudius and a brother of the Felix mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles. The latter was one of Augustus's favorites.

110. Sacro honori, the tribuneship, which was a sacred office, in that the incurabent was secure from arrest.

111. Pedibus albis. This is usually explained by reference to some supposed custom of marking the feet of slaves with chalk. May it not mean barefooted?

113. Etsi, etc. It is a wonder that, among the host of temples erected to all sorts of divinities, we have not dedicated one to the real god of our idolatry, the "almighty dollar."

114. Habitat, used intransitively.

116. Quae, referring to Concordia, is the subject of crepitat.

Salutato nido refers to the noise of the birds that had built their nests in the ruins of the temple.

117. Summus honor--i. e., the consul, so men of rank and position.

119. Comites, etc., the rest of us, we poor men who depend on the sportula for the necessaries of life, are naturally reduced to such tricks as those described below.

120. Densissima lectica, crowds of litters. lectively. Cf. plurima rosa.

The singular is used col

Centum quadrantes, the usual amount of the sportula, about 25 cents. 125. Galla mea est. One man brings his wife, that he may secure a double amount; another brings an empty sedan-chair. If the praeco has his suspicions, the man puts on a bold front and calls out to the supposed occupant to show herself; as she remains invisible, he excuses her, on the ground that she is probably asleep, and begs the clerk not to disturb her.

126. Quiescet. The future denotes probability, as often in German. 127. Pulchro, ironical, fine.

128. Iuris. The use of the genitive with such adjectives as peritus, is increasingly common in post-Augustan writers. There was a statue of Apollo near the law-courts, hence his supposed skill in law.

130. Nescio quis, some or other.

Arabarches, an Egyptian title, used here in contempt.

133. Vota, hopes; so Horace, Hoc erat in votis. Sat. II, 6, 1. 134. Miseris, dative of "apparent

agent." Really a dative of interest

like any other.

136. Rex horum, the patron.

Toris. Torus, properly a cushion placed on the couch, came to be applied to the couch itself. Cf. Fig. 8.

137. Orbibus. The collection of round tables made from a single section of rare wood, was a fashion

FIG. 8.-Torus.

able folly of the time. Cf. Becker, Gallus II, 302, ff.

139. Nullus iam, etc. The race of parasites, poor but agreeable table companions, is gradually disappearing (and a good thing too), for who could bear, etc. Others take this to be a remark of the rich man :

events we shall get rid of parasites."

142. Amictus, accusative plural.

145. Nec tristis-i. e., by no means sad.

146. Ducitur funus. One of the many specialized uses of ducere.

"At all

Iratis amicis, because, dying intestate, the rich man had left them no legacies. Another dative of apparent agent.

149. Omne in praecipiti, etc. Vice has reached its climax, subject for satire is ready, one has only to spread one's sails.

153. Simplicitas, boldness, frankness. The following lines are quoted as an example of the boldness of ancient satire.

154. Refert. Note the difference between refert and refert-e. g.,

line 118.

155. Pone Tigellinum, etc., put Tigellinus into your verses-i. e., try such satire in these times-and you will find your punishment ready. The punishment here described is said to have been inflicted on many of the early Christians. The victim was surrounded with pitch (taeda), his chin supported by a stake (fixo pectore), and he was then burned. The body would be drawn away through the sand of the arena.

157. Deducis must be for the future tense. Others read deducit, supplying quae referring to taeda above as its subject.

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162. Aenean. You may safely pit Aeneas against Rutulus, or write of Achilles or Hylas, but beware of rousing men's wrath and tears by touching on the sins of the day. We are reminded of a modern clergyman who desired to spare the feelings of his hearers, and so preached on the terrible depravity of cannibalism.

164. Hylas was the favorite of Hercules; going to draw water, he was seized and carried off by the nymphs.

168. Inde irae et lacrimae. Terence's hinc illae lacrimae (And. I, 126) had become proverbial.

169. Duelli. Duellum is the older form of bellum, as duonus of bonus. Cf. duo and bis.

170. Experiar. Juvenal answers, "I will try then what I may be allowed to say about the dead whose tombs line the highways." The most imposing monuments of the dead were built beside the Appian, Flaminian,

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and Latin roads. The laws of the twelve tables forbade interments within the city. The tomb of Caecilia Metella, on the Appian, is shown in Fig. 9. Fig. 10 is an attempt to reproduce the original appearance of the tombs on the Appian road.

171. Notice the singular cinis, where we use the plural; Juvenal has cineres in XI, 44.

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