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116. Quae, referring to Concordia, is the subject of crepitat.

Salutato nido refers to the noise of the birds that had built their nests in the ruins of the temple.

117. Summus honor--i. e., the consul, so men of rank and position.

119. Comites, etc., the rest of us, we poor men who depend on the sportula for the necessaries of life, are naturally reduced to such tricks as those described below.

120. Densissima lectica, crowds of litters. The singular is used collectively. Cf. plurima rosa.

Centum quadrantes, the usual amount of the sportula, about 25 cents.

125. Galla mea est. One man brings his wife, that he may secure a double amount; another brings an empty sedan-chair. If the praeco has his suspicions, the man puts on a bold front and calls out to the supposed occupant to show herself; as she remains invisible, he excuses hier, on the ground that she is probably asleep, and begs the clerk not to disturb her.

126. Quiescet. The future denotes probability, as often in German. 127. Pulchro, ironical, fine.

128. Iuris. The use of the genitive with such adjectives as peritus, is increasingly common in post-Augustan writers. There was a statue of Apollo near the law-courts, hence his supposed skill in law.

130. Nescio quis, some or other.
Arabarches, an Egyptian title, used here in contenipt.
133. Vota, hopes ; so Horace, Iloc erat in votis. Sat. II, 6, 1.

134. Miseris, dative of “ apparent agent.” Really a dative of interest like any other.

136. Rex horum, the patron.

Toris. Torus, properly a cushion placed on the couch, came to be applied to the couch itself. Fig. 8.

137. Orbibus. The collection of round tables made from a single

Fig. 8.-Torus. section of rare wood, was a fashionable folly of the time. Cf. Becker, Gallus II, 302, ff.

139. Nullus iam, etc. The race of parasites, poor but agreeable table companions, is gradually disappearing (and a good thing too), for who could bear, etc. Others take this to be a remark of the rich man : At all events we shall get rid of parasites."

142. Amictus, accusative plural.
145. Nec tristis-i. e., by no means sad.
146. Ducitur funus. One of the many specialized uses of ducere.


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Iratis amicis, because, dying intestate, the rich man had left them no legacics. Another dative of apparent agent.

149. Omne in praecipiti, etc. Vice has reached its climax, subject for satire is ready, one has only to spread one's sails.

153. Simplicitas, boldness, frankness. The following lines are quoted as an example of the boldness of ancient satire.

154. Refert. Note the difference between rēfert and refert - e. g., line 118.

155. Pone Tigellinum, etc., put Tigellinus into your verses—i. e., try such satire in these times—and you will find your punishment ready. The punishment here described is said to bave been inflicted on many of the early Christians. The victim was surrounded with pitch (taeda), his chin supported by a stake (fixo pectore), and he was then burned. The body would be drawn away through the sand of the arena.

157. Deducis must be for the future tense. Others read deducit, supplying quae referring to taeda above as its subject.

158. Qui dedit, etc. Juvenal asks, “ Shall all these crimes go on unrebuked ?"

Vehatur is subjunctive in a deliberative


159. Illino, i.e., from his lectica.

160. Contra = obviam.

161. Accusator, etc. Merely saying, “ That is the man,will cause you to be looked

Fig. 9.–Tomb of Caecilia Metella. on as his accuser.

162. Aenean, You may safely pit Aeneas against Rutulus, or write of Achilles or Hylas, but beware of rousing men's wrath and tears by touching on the sins of the day. We are reminded of a modern clergyman who desired to spare the feelings of his hearers, and so preached on the terrible depravity of cannibalism.

164. Hylas was the favorite of Hercules; going to draw water, he was seized and carried off by the nymphs.

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168. Inde irae et lacrimae. Terence's hinc illae lacrimae (And. I, 126) had become proverbial.

169. Duelli. Duellum is the older form of bellum, as duonus of bonus. Cf. duo and bis.

170. Experiar. Juvenal answers, "I will try then what I may be allowed to say about the dead whose tombs line the highways." The most imposing monuments of the dead were built beside the Appian, Flaminian,

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and Latin roads. The laws of the twelve tables forbade interments within the city. The tomb of Caecilia Metella, on the Appian, is shown in Fig. 9. Fig. 10 is an attempt to reproduce the original appearance of the tombs on the Appian road.

171. Notice the singular cinis, where we use the plural; Juvenal has cineres in XI, 44.



INTRODUCTION.—Juvenal tells us that as Umbricius, one of his friends, who has decided to leave Rome and find a home at Cumae, is waiting for the cart that is to carry his goods to his new dwelling-place, they walk together to a spot just outside the walls, and there Umbricius tells him why the great city has become unbearable to him. There is no room for honest men where all success is the reward of wrong-doing. Rome has become the paradise of servile, versatile, conscienceless Greeks, who are ready to assume every rôle, even that of the professional philosopher, and are equally unscrupulous in all. Nor is there room at Rome for a poor man. He is illtreated and despised, and is likely to be driven to dishonesty by the ostentation and display that society forces upon him. The dangers of the city are described, and it is shown that they press most heavily on him who can not purchase safety. The fire that ruins the poor man is a source of gain to the rich; the poor man must be jostled in the crowd and risk his life among the loaded wagons, while the rich man is borne aloft out of reach of danger in his luxurious litter.

The subject is not exhausted, but the wagon has come, the driver calls, and Umbricius bids Juvenal good-by.

1. Confusus, disturbed.
2. Lando, its object is readily supplied from amici.

Cumis. Cumae was an old Greek settlement, whence the Romans derived their alphabet. It was a few miles north of modern Naples, and was at this time almost deserted, vacuis.

3. Destinet. The subjunctive marks the thought as that of Umbricius (1. 21). H. 516, II, or (better) Madvig 357, a.

Sybillae. The cave of the Sybil, which is still shown, was near Cumae. Cf. Verg. Aen. VI, 18; Cumaea Sybilla. It was from her that Tarquin was said to have purchased the Sybilline books.

4. Baiarum. Baiae was a fashionable resort near Cumae.

Amoeni secessus. Appositional genitive. Cf. urbs Romae and, in English, the city of London. H. 396, VI.

5. Prochytam. A rocky desert island (Procida) off the coast between Naples and Cumae.

Suburae. The crowded, noisy part of Rome, between the Viminal and Esquiline Hills. Juvenal speaks as if all Rome were one Subura. For the dative, cf. I, 18, note.

6. Ut non-credas, negative result clause. 7. Lapsus tectorum. Cf. 11. 190–196. The buildings at Rome were often

carried to a great height, owing to the cost of land, and the upper stories were usually of wood. Tectum (tego) means covering, roof, building.

8. Saevae. Cf. iniquae, I. 30.

9. As if such recitations formed the climax of horrors. Cf. VIII, 221. The name of the month was changed from Sextilis in honor of the emperor. 10. Domus-i. e., his family and

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Amicae. Egeria, Liv. I, 21. For the case, cf. note on I, 18.

14. Quorum depends on supellex; cophinus faenumque are in the predicate.

15. I. e., what was formerly a holy place has become a mere source of income. Mercedem pendere = to pay rent.

16. Camenis, the Roman national Muses, Egeria, Carmenta, Antevorta, and Postvorta.

17. Speluncas, grottoes, here artificial.

18. Veris-i. e., speluncis.

20. Ingenuum tofum, the natural stone (tufa).

23. Res, property.

Here, in the time of Augustus heri was the regular form. Cf. vesperi, vespere; mani, mane.

Eadem (res) is the subject of deteret. More usual is res deteritur.

24. Exiguis, neuter plural, the trifling (remnants); it seems to be dative, though best translated from.

25. Exuit alas. Daedalus flew north from Crete and alighted at Cumae. Verg. Aen. VI, 14 ff. Exuo is the regular word for taking off garments, the opposite is induo.

27. Lachesi. The individual duties of the Fates were not always clearly defined. Properly Lachesis decided the length of each human life. Clotho spun the thread, and Atropos cut it off.

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