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46. Gregibus. An intentionally undignified word, almost =

" gangs.48. Infamia. Either general = disgrace, or special = åtimia, loss of civil rights.

49. Ab octava-i. e., he began his feasting at the unseemly hour of two o'clock in the afternoon.

Marius (Priscus) was accused for his extortion in Africa, by Pliny and Tacitus, in 100 A. D. He was condemned, but had stolen enough to pay his fine and live in luxury besides. The province gained its case, but very little else. 61. Venusina lucerna. Horace was born at Venusia, 65 B. O. Cf. Hor. Sat. II, 1, 34. Lucerna, perhaps, as most editors think, ineans “midnight oil”; it

may, however, as the Scholiast suggests, refer to the light shed by the lamp of genius.

52. Agitem, drive at, pursue.
Heracleas (fabulas). The plural makes it general.
53. Labyrinthi mugitam-i. e., the Minotaur.

54. Puero, Icarus. The preposition is not used, because the unfortunate boy was not an active agent in the matter.

Fabrum, Daedalus. 68. Curam, charge, control.

69. Caret follows the perfect donavit naturally, since it denotes a present state resulting from past action.

60. Pervolat, flies along.

61. Flaminiam (viam). The great north road leading from Rome over the pons Mulvius to Ariminum.

Automedon, the charioteer of Achilles. The young man drives his own chariot. So in the modern tally-bo.

62. Lacernatae, in a man's cloak.
Se iactaret. Se iactare to brag, boast, show off.

63. Ceras. The Romans often took notes for temporary use on wax-coated tablets, writing with a pointed ivory stylus. Cf. Figs. 3 and 4.

64. Iam sexta cervice. He already has six slaves to bear bis litter, soon he may have eight.

Fig. 3. 65. Hino atque inde = hinc atque hinc, on this side and that. Stylus.

Nuda, open.

66. Referens, recalling.

Maecenate supino. Maecenas, the friend and patron of Horace, had a reputation for effeminacy, which is referred to in the adjective supino.

67. Falso. Signator retains sufficient verbal force to admit the use of the adverb.

68. Uda, to prevent it from clinging to the wax.
69. Calenum (vinum), wine from Cales in Campania.

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70. Sitiente is probably ablative absolute with eo understood, while viro is dative. The explanation seems harsh but unavoidable. Note that the quantity of the i in viro prevents it from being mistaken for a form of virus.

71. Lucusta was a famous professional poisoner who killed Claudius to please Agrippina, and Britannicus to please Nero.

Propinquas, neighbors.

72. Per famam et populum, through (and so in defiance of) the talk of the people.

Nigros, from the effect of the poison.

Efferre has the special sense, to carry out the bodies of the dead. Cf. Nepos. Arist. 3, 2.

73. Gyaris, a small desolate island near Andros, one of the Cyclades, to which criminals were transported.

75. Criminibus, usually accusations, here probably crimes.

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o in such words shows

a gradual tendency to become short.

80. Cluvienus is un

known, probably some

FIG. 5.-Bronze jugs.

poor poet of the time, with whom Juvenal, with assumed modesty, com

pares himselt.

81. Deucalion.

For an account of the flood from which Deucalion and

Pyrrha alone were saved, cf. Ov. Met. I, 260.

Nimbis-i. e., the rains.

83. The legend was that, after the destruction of the inhabitants of the earth by the flood, a new race was created from the stones upon the mountain-side.

86. Discursus, restless running to and fro.

Farrago, medley, literally mixed fodder given to cattle. Cf. far and farina. 88. Sinus. The fold of the toga, used as a pocket, was called sinus. Cf. Fig. 6. This is probably what is meant here. Others take sinus to mean sail, others gulf; of these the former seems less well suited to the meaning of patuit; the latter is inapplicable; avarice does not throw things into an abyss, but draws them into its own keeping.

Alea, supply habuit. Such omissions are common in conversational style. Translate when was gambling so bold?

89. Neque, nec is much more usual in post-Augustan poets. Juvenal has it 160 times, neque only 7.

Itur, "on va, they go."

91. Dispensatore. In the battles of the gaming-table the steward took charge of the sinews of war-i. e., furnished the money.

92. Sestertia centum, about $4,000. H. 647, III.

93. Reddere: = to give back, then to give what is due, so here. It does not mean that the master gambles

away all his property and then pledges his slave's clothing, but that his losses are so great that he can not properly clothe his ser


94. Quis totidem, etc. Avarice, recklessness, and luxury all go together. The rich men of the day dined on seven courses, but alone. What a contrast to the frugal meals of the ancients, where the patron was surrounded by his clients, whose relation to him was one of honorable dependence! 95. Sportula. early times the clients dined with their patron (cena recta); later a basket of food,


a "dole," was given

FIG. 6.-Toga with sinus.

to each client at the door; finally, a sum of money was substituted.

96. Turbae togatae. There is a certain irony in the combination of these

two words, 66 a dress-coat mob."

97. Ille. Like our emphatic he, the master.

99. A praecone. A regular list of those to whom the sportula was due was kept to avoid repeaters and substitutes.

100. Troiugenas, members of the oldest Roman families. Many gentes traced their origin from Trojan heroes; so the Julian gens from lulus.

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Et ipsi, they too, even they.

101, Da praetori, etc. There seem to have been two classes of these respectable beggars, the impoverished aristocrats and the wealthy upstarts. The praetor and the tribunus belong to the former, the libertinus to the latter.

104. Quod refers to the statement concerning his birthplace.

Fenestrae. Holes for ear-rings, marking his Eastern origin.

105. Licet, although. Tabernae, shops. Cf.

III Fig. 7, a bas-relief representation of a cutler's shop.

106. Quadringenta (sestertia). The census equester was 400,000 sesterces.

Quid confert, etc., what does equestrian rank amount to, if a member of one of the old families like Corvinus has to hire

FIG. 7.-Taberna. himself out as a shepherd?

107. Laurenti. Laurentum was near the coast of Latium, between Ostia and Lavinium. Cf. Livy I, 1.

108. Conductas. Conducere is used in two senses : conducere rem utendam means to pay for the use of a thing, conducere rem faciendam means to receive pay for taking care of a thing.

109. Pallante et Licinis. For the plural, cf. line 52. Pallas and Licinus were freedmen proverbial for their wealth. The former was a favorite of the Emperor Claudius and a brother of the Felix mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles. The latter was one of Augustus's favorites.

110. Sacro honori, the tribuneship, which was a sacred office, in that the incumbent was secure from arrest.

111. Pedibus albis. This is usually explained by reference to some supposed custom of marking the feet of slaves with chalk. May it not mean barefooted ?

113. Etsi, etc. It is a wonder that, among the host of temples erected to all sorts of divinities, we have not dedicated one to the real god of our idolatry, the “almighty dollar.”

114. Habitat, used intransitively.



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