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of Septuagesima, Sexagesima and Quinquagesima Sundays. 58 vere, and should now be publicly ordained : in which special prayer with fasting are required, according to the example of our Saviour, and his após tles. Luke vi. 12, 13. Acts xiv. 2:3.
Q. Why are they called by the name of Ember ? A. Because lying in embers; or ashes is the usual term in holy scripture for solemn humiliation.; as Job xlii. 6.
Q. Why is the Sunday before Easter called Palm-Sunday?
A. In memory of our Saviour's triumphant, but meek entrance into Jerusalem; when the people strewed the way with palm-branches.
Q. Why is the Sunday after Easter-day called Low-Sunday?
4. The Ancients observed the Octave (that is the eighth day) after their principal feasts; and this being the Octave of the high least of the resurrection, is called Low-Sunday:
Q. What is Maundy-Thursday ?
A. The Thursday before Good-Friday: from the Latin dies mandati, that is the day of charge, or command': on which day it is supposed our Saviour washed his disciples' feet ; and commanded his followers to imitate his humility and charity:
Q. What is Good-Friday !
4. It is the sixth day of the week, so named of Freya, a Saxon deity : but by Christians it hath ever been so called, because on this day our blessed Lord was crucified : He expired about the ninth hour of the day, agreeably to the Jewish manner of computing time ; which answers to our three o'clock in the afternoon : in the thirty-second or third year of his human nature:
Q. What is his passion ? A. His suffering on the cross for our sins, Christ died for the whole world of mankind: He is no particular Saviour : He is the true light, that lighteth every man that cometh into the world. He died to redeem ail men agreeably to the terms of the gospel : therefore all ment are to work out their salvation. Redemption is one thing; and salvation is another. Redemption is what Christ hath done for us without any condition ; and salvation is what we are to do in order that we may be saved in and through a Redeemer. (To be continued.)
OF SEPTUAGESIMA, SEXAGESIMA, AND QUINQUAGESIMA
SUNDAYS. THE "HE first Sunday in Lent being called Quadragesima, that is, being on the
fortieth day from Easter, they denominated the three preceding Sundays from the next round numbers, Quinquagesima, Sexagesima, and Septuagesima, numbering backwards from Easter.
i. The observance of these Sundays, and of the weeks following them, appears to be as antient, as the time of Gregory the Great. Their design is, to call us back from the feasting and joy of Christmas, in order that we may prepare ourselves for the fasting and humiliation, proper for the approaching season of Lent; and to bring us from thinking on the manner of Christ's coming into the world, to reflecting on the cause of it, namely, our own sins, and iniseTies; that so, being convinced of the reasonableness of punishing and monti, fying ourselves for our sins, we may the more strictly and religiously apply purselves to those duties, when the proper time for them coines.
Some more devout Christians used to observe the whole tiñe, from the tirst of these Sundays to. Easter, as a time of hůmiliation and fasting ; but the generality did not begin, their fasts till Ash-Wednesday.
The Collects, Epistles, and Gospels for these days, are all the same as in the antient Litúrgies, excepting only the collect for Quinquagesima Sunday, which was made new in King Edward VI's first prayer book. The epistles for each of these three days, are taken out of St. Paul's epistles to the Corinthi-. ans ; the two first persuade us to acts of mortification, and penance, by proposing to us St. Paul's example ; but because all. bodily exercises, without charity, profit us nothing, therefore the Church, in the epistle for Quinquagesima Sunday, recommends charity to us, as a necessary foundation for all our other acts of religion. The design of the gospels is much the sülic with that of the epistles.
Lecture on the Church Catechism. The Tuesday after Quinquagesima Sunday is generally called Shrooe-Tuesday; a name given it from an old English word, signifying to confess ; it being the usage in the Romish Church to confess their sins on that day, and receive tire haly sacrament, in order to qualify themselves, for'a more religious observance of the holy time of Lent. This gave occasion to invitations and * indulgencies, by way of taking leave of flesh, and other dainties ; these by degrees degenerated into sports, and merriment, which make up the whole bulues of the carnival, in Romish countries.
OF THE FORTY DAYS IN LENT. FROM the earliest ages, it was a practice, among Christians, to set apart
some time for mortification, and self-denial, preparatory to the feast of Laster, The Christian Lent, probably, like other Christian observances, is of Jewish origin, corresponding with their preparation to the yearly ex- piation ; their humiliation began forty days before the expiation and ours is forty days before the commemoration of the expiation of the sins of the whale world. It is said, this preparative fasting was, originally, only for forty hours, that is, from 12 o'clock on Friday, the time of our Saviour's fall. ing under the power of death, till Sunday morning, the time of his rising from the dead.' This was afterwards drawn out into more days, and then weeks, till it settled in 40 days; a number very antiently appropriated to repeutance and humiliation. This was the number of days, during which God covered the earth with the deluge ? the number of years, in which the childrea of Israel did penance in the wilderness ; the number of days Moses fasted in the mount, and Elias in the wilderness; the Ninevites had this number of days allowed for their repentancé ; and our Lord, when he was pleased to fast in the wilderness, observed the same length of time. The term 'Lent does nat iupart any thing af fasting, or religious observance, it is a Saxon word, signifying the spring.
The whole season of Lent used to be observed with the niost rigid strictness. "No marriages were allowed; no commeinoration of the Apostles, or martyrs ; but their festivals were, on that account, transferred; from the ordinary weekclays, to Sunday, or to Saturday, which latter, among the eastern Christians, as luas been already observed, was a festival, like Sunday, except on these two days, the eucharist was pot consecrated during Lent, that being an act more suitable to festivals than to fasts on these days, therefore, they consecrated enough to supply the communion of the other days, till Saturday or Sunday returned again. Todividuals abserved the abstinence from food with more or less rigour; but they all agreed in this, to extend the fasting, on every day in Lent, beyond the hour of three in the afternoon, at which time other fasts ended, to the evening,
[To be continued.]
ON THE CHURCH CATECHISM,
LECTURE III, ROMAN'S xviii, 19.-1 know him, says God, that he will command his children and his household after him, and they shall keep the way of the Lord. HE first question proposed in the Catechism, is designed to lead us to the
kuowledge and rewembrance of our baptism ; that solemn form of admission into the Christian Church, ių consequence of which,.,we lay claim to the privileges of the gospel covenant. The naine by which we make answer on this occasion, is called by way of distinction, our Christian name; it being the name by which we are, as it were, enrolled in Christ's service ; signifying thereby that we belong to him, that we are disciples, or scholars of Jesus Christ, those who profess to take Christ for their master, and to believe and kive as be bath laught them. This every one promiseth when he is baptized, or christened, that is, when he is admitted into the Church by baptism, and, therefore, hath his name given him. Now
you observe that every person hath two names, one of which is commouly caited biz sir-nanie, the other, his christian-name: the sir name is that
Lecture on the Church Catechion.
which is derived from our natural parents, that which we have in common with-all who belong to the same family; the christian-name, such as, Hills jam, Thomas, Mary, and the like, is that name which we received from our spiritual parents, when we were brought by them into the Church, and baptized. By, our natural parents, we understand our father and mother. By our spiritual parents, those persons who undertook, at our baptism, to promise for us, that we should lead a life agreeable to God's comniandments. And these persons are called our parents for the same reason that baptism is called our second birth.
This matter need not puzzle us, if we remember that these two birdlis, are. to be taken in two different senses. Our first birth, for instance, is our natura al birth, that is, it is what happens to us according to the common course of nature ; it is that, by which we are born into this world, a child of our father and mother. Our second birth does not happen according to this natural course ; for nature has nothing to do with it; it is to be understood, theretore; in a spiritual sense, as that by which we are born unto God in baptis m ;, and is called our birth, because at that time when we are baptized, we are consiаers ed as entering upon that new and spiritual life which becomes us as members of Christ's Church, children of God, and inheritors of the kingdom of heaven.
These, our spiritual parents, are commonly known by the title of sponsors ; and they are so called, because they are the persons, who at our baptismi present us to God in his Church, and in order that he may regard us as his chiidreng they promise in our names, that we will be dutilul, and obedient to God is all things, that we will believe in him, and love him, and walk in his jaws, all the days of our life.
The Church to which we belong, foreseeing all the possible dangers to which we were subject in this world, frotn the temptations which surround usy hass therefoçe, so far as may be, wisely provided against them. Considering our happiness in the next world, as a matter of too great consequence to be left to chance, she has, therefore, appointed persons, whose office it is to take care of our spiritual concerns ; in other words, to instruct us in all things necessary for us to believe and do, in order that we may go to heaven. These persons promise, in our name, as any one would engage for another in a matter which is manifestly for his advantage, and on supposition, that we shall hereafter see it to be so, that is, they promise, as they take it for granted, we would bare promised had we been able. Upon which idea it is that the Church calis upon us at a time when we may be supposed to understand the subject, to acknowis edge the engagement entered into on our behalf, and to confirm it by our own personal obligation.
Being then brought into the Church of Christ, and presented to God in baptism, we are thereby, said to be made members of Christ, children of God, and inheritors of the kingdom of heaven. We are made members of Christ by being made members of his Church ; for the Church, or congregation of Christian people is considered in a spiritual sense, as the body of which Chrisk is the head. Every true Christian, therefore, is called a member of that body. In this sense, he is said to be baptized into Christ. Gal. iii. 27. and by one spirit to be baptized into one body. 1 Cor. xii. 13. even into the body; or Church of Christ ; and thus he becomes a member of Christ. By being made children of God, we are to understand, our being adopted, or taken into his family ; and this was done at our baptism, when we are said in a spiritual sense, to be born of water, and of the spirit. In consequence of which spiritual birth, we are permitted to call God our father, and by that name we pray to hin every day, in what is called our Lord's prayer. Having received the spirit of adoption (as the Apostle says) whereby we cry Abba, that is, Fatheri Rom. viii. 15. From whence we are given to understand, that by nature, we do not belong to God's family. To becçme children of God, we must be adopted by God, that is, chosen by him, and taken into his family, in order that we may have a title to the inheritance of God's kingdom.
To make this matter more clear. In the world when a man has no children of his own, and wishes to have an heir to his estate, that is, a person who may succeed him in the lawful possession of it; it is no uncommon thing for him to Dominate, or appoint the child of another inan to be his heir. 1 his is called adoption, a taking a person into the family, and giving him a right to the ina heritance of an estate which he had not by nature.
Lecture on the Church Catechism.. Observe then, the inheritance towards which the thoughts of a Christia, are directed, is that of the kingdoin of heaven; to which, no man is, by nature, entitled ; for, by nature, we are all children of wrath. But God has been graciously pleased to take us out of this state of sin and misery, and by adinitting us into his family, by adoption, and grace, has given us the same kind of title to our pro:nised inheritance, that an adopted heir has to an estate upon earth. Our being children of God, makes us, of course, heirs of the kington of heaven : one being but the consequence of the other. « If children, (says the Apostle) then heits; heirs of God, and joint heirs with Christ." Rom. viii. 17. Gal. iv. 7. In this sense it is, that every true Christian is said to be an inheritor of the kingdom of heaven. The inheritance of this kingdom is settled upon us at our baptism; and hereafter, we shall certainly have the full enjoyment of it, unless we provoke our heavenly father by wicked and unholy life to cast us off and disinherit us. Consider then, that our sponsors brought us, when infants, into the Church, and presented us to God's minister, with the intent that we should become members of Christ, children of God, and inheritors of the kingdom of heaven. You have now heard what these expressions mean; but you must take care that you do not run away with the sound, whilst you leave the meaning behind.' To be members of Christ, we must not only be admitted into his Church by baptisın, but we must also put on Christ--that is, we must become like unto Christ, by having the same spirit in us that Christ had ; for if, “ you have not the spirit of Christ, (the Apostle tells us) you are none of his.” Again, if you are children of Guil, your hearts will be towards God, as the heart of an obedient child is towards a tender father ; and in such case, you will strive to do every thing to please him. And lastly, as inheritors of the kingdom of heaven, it is to be expected that your desire will be towards your heavenly inheritance. You must long to go to heaven, and strive to go there, by doing all you can that will tend to put you forward in your journey thither; for where your treasure is, there will your heart be also.
In this namner parents should endeavour, with God's assistance, to apply the parts of the Catechism to their children, as they go along ; always reinembering that so far as they understand the meaning, and endeavour to bring it home to their own particular case, so far will the learning of their Catechism be of service to thein, and no farther.
It is not to be expected that children can profit much from instruction occa. sionally delivered to them in Church. The same instruction must be repeated to them over, and over again. There must be“ line upon line, and precept upon precept; here a little, and there a little.". And it can only be in consequence of attention, diligence, and perseverance on the part of the teacher, that success can be hoped for, in a business of this nature
In this case ministers can do but little: they may instruct from time to time, but their instruction, when such young persons in particular are concerned, is like a sound that is heard for a moment : but when over, it is, as it were, lost in the air. Now parents have an opportunity of repeating this sound, till such time, in short, as they find their children able to retain its impression ; and this must be done, let it cost what pains it will. In short, every mean is to be tried to bring the natural man under due subjection. And the sooner these means are employed, the more likely are they to be attended with the desired
Let all parents then remember, in one word, that children must be governed, or they will govern ; in consequence of which fatal victory on their side, they must, without a particular interposition of Providence in their favour, which we have no right to expect in this case, become miserable.
Let all join then, in the endeavour to put, as it were, a new face on our Church ; by making use of the means best calculated to make the rising gencration, more pious, more regular, more sober; in one word, better Christians than the present. This by God's grace upon our endeavours, may be done. Watch over your children, instruct them; point out the way in which they should walk, and the path they should avoid: do this heartily, sincerely, and constantly; and it will be well with you, and with your children after you. Ir this case, God's blessing will not fail to follow you in all your ways; and you will with pleasure, “behold your children's children, and peace upon Israel."
(To be continued.]
of the elegance and dignity of the sacred Scriptures.
Si OF THE ELECANCE AND DIGNITY OF THE SACRED
SCRIPTURES. BAHEN God becomes an author, his writings, like himself, must be per
fect. His works of creation, and his word of revelation, are counterparts to one another, elegance and dignity pervade the whole, ('an we then so much admire the works of God without taking delight in contemplating his holy word"? This earth with all its glories shall vanish like the baseless tabric of a vision ;). but the word of the Lord shall abide forever.”
Would we see history in all its simplicity and force, beautifully easy, but irresistibly striking ? See her, or rather feel her energy touching the nicest movements of the soul, and triumphing over all our passions, in the inimitable narrative of Joseph's life. The representation of Esau's bitter distress; the. conversation-pieces of Jonathan and his gallant friend ; the memorable journal of the disciples going to Emmaus, are finished models of the impassioned and affecting Here is nothing studied, no flights of fancy, no embellishments of orătorys Yęt how.inferior are the most applauded episodes of leathen romance, though worked up by the most masterly hands, to the undissembled artless fervency of these sacred sketches. were we pleased with the elevation and dignity of an heroic poem, or the tenderness and perplexity of a dramatic performance ? In the book of Job they are both'united, and both stand uðrivalled. Conformably to the exactest rules of art, aš, the action advances, the incidents are more alarming, and the images more bagnificent. The language glows, and the pathos swells, till at last the DEITY bimself makes his entrance. He speaks from the whirlwind, and commands the creation, the heaveris and all their shining host ;, the elements, and their most wonderful productions, to evidence the power of his hand and the wisdom of his providential dispensations. His word strikes terfor, and flashes conviction ; decides the momentous controversy and closes the august drama with all possible solemnity and grandeur.
If we sometimes choose a plaintive strain, such as soorhes the mind and induces an agreeable melancholy -- Are any of the antient tragedies superior in the eloquence of inourning, to David's pathetic elegy on his beloved Jonathan; to his vost passionate and inconsolable moan over his lovely but uuhappy Absalom, or to that melodious woe, which warbles and bleeds in every line of Jeremiah's lamentations ? . Are you entertained avith the daring sublimity of Homer, or the correct majesty of Virgil: With the expressive delicacy of Horace, or the rapid excursions of Pindar ?-Behold them united ; behold them excelled in the odes of Moses, and the eucharistic hymn of Deborati; in the exalted devotion of the psalms, and the glorious enthusiasm of the prophets. With this difference, that the former are vă tuneful triflers," and amuse the fancy with empty fiction ; the latter arę teachers sent from God, and make the soul » wise unto salvaKión.” Are we admirers of antiquity'? In the sacred volume we are led back, beyond the uniyersal deluge, to æras prior to the date of any other annals:We are 'introduced to the earliest inhabitants of the earth ; inade acquainted With the original parents of the human race; we behold mankind in thei: přímitive plainness, and when the days of their life yere but little short of a thousand years. In fine, we are made acquainted with the origin of nations, the creation of the world, and the commencement of time itself.
Are we delighted with vast achievements Where can be found in heatheit story. any thing comparable to the miracles in Egypt, and the wonders in the field of Zoan; to the memoirs of the Israelites, passing on dry ground through the depths of the sea, sojourning in the inhospitable deserts, and conquering elie kingdonis of Canaan :- Where shall we meet with instances of martial bravery equal to the prodigious exploits of the Judges; or the adventurous deeds of" Jesse's valiant son, and his matchless band of worthies ?--Here we behold the fundamental laws of the universe at one time suspended, at another reversed, not only the current of Jordan, but the course of nature controuled, Whenever we enter the field of scripture, we tread on enchanted-shall I say? rather on consecrated ground, where astonishment and awe are awakened at every step we take, and where all the marrellous of romance is connected with all the precision and sanctity of truth.