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A succinct history of Baptisni. yet syfficiently testifies the Church's practice. Though, in his private opím ion, he was för deferring the baptisni of infants till they came to years of dis èretion, yet, he argues so for this, to shew that the practice of the Church was otherwise.
Origen lived in the beginning of the third century, and nothing can be plain: er than the testimonies alledged from him. “It inay.be enquired (says he) what is the reason why the Baptism of the Church which is given for the remission of sins, is, by the custom of the Churclr, given to infants also Whereas, if there were nothing in infants that wanted remission, and indul gence, the grace of Baptism might seem useless to them." In another place, he says, “ Infants are baptized for the remission of sins; "--which he explains to be the pollution of our birth, and derives the custom front an order of the Apostles,
In the middle of this age lived St. Cyprian, in whose time there was a question moved ;"Op what day infants ought to be baptazed.”-To which Cyprian and a council of sixty-six Bishops answered-bat, “ Whereas some hold, that the rule of circumcision should be obseryed in Baptism, all in, that council were of a contrary opinion. It was theic whamimous resolution and judgment, that the mercy and grace of God was to be denied to none as soon as he was born ; for it the greatest offenders have forgiveness of sios when they come to believe, and no person is kept off from Baptism and grace, how much less reason is there to prohibit an infant, who, being newly borr, bas na other sin but original sin, which is not his own, and inay therefore be more easily forgiven him?"
The writers of the fourth century are explicit and full to the same purpose ; which is sufficient to shrew that infant baptism was not owing to any new doctrime begun in the third century, as some assert, but was derived from more antient priciples, and handed down through the two first agès, by apostolical practice.
It will be proper here to observe several things relating to the Baptism of infants. Some in the African Church contined Baptism to the eigthth day, pretending that an infant during the first seven days after its birth is unclean, and that the eighth day was observed in the Jewish circumcision. To the first of these Cyprian aliswers, that this could be no reason to hinder the giving to an iitfant the heavenly grace : and to the other he replies, that the spiritual circumcision ought not to be restrained by the circumcision that was according to the flesh; but that all are to be admitted to the grace of Christ : forasmuch aş Peter says in the Acts of the Apostles, The Lord hati shewed me that no person is to be called common or unclean.-This is the only place, where we ever readthat this question was made and after the resolution here given, we find not that it was again proposed.So that the circumstance of time seems never to have prevailed in the Christian Church.
In some Churches, it was customary to defer the baptism of infants as well ás adults when there was no apparent danger of death, to some of the superiot festivals, which were more peculiarly designed aml set apart for baptism. Thus, in Thessaly, they baptized only at Easter. Upon which account a great many died without baptism in those parts, as Socrates says, book v, chap. 22.-He does not say expressly that this was the case with children ; but there are reasons to induce us to think that it was for there are canons, both in the French and Spanish councils which order the baptism of children, except in case of absolute necessity, to be celebrated on Easter Sunday~whence Palm Sunday, or the Sunday before Easter, had the name of Octavæ Infantunı-The Octave of Infants. In consequence of these canons, St. Austin and St. Ambruse speak of so great numbers of infants being brought to Church at Easter to be baptized. There is abundant proof that Easter was the stated time in many countries for the celebration of Baptism, though in cases of necessity, children, as well as adults, might receive baptism at any time.
Before we close this sauject of Infant Baptism, it may not be improper to answer certain cases and questions which aay be put concerning it, so far as they are to be resolved by the practice of the Church, or the judgment of antient writers.
1st. “Thether children, having only one parent Christian, were capable of baptismi
Remarks on private Baptism.
189 şd. Whether children of parents under excommunication, and the Church's pensures, might be baptized -St: Austin gives his opinion that they might, as in the case between Auxilius, a young bishop, and quie Classicianus, whom he had taid under an anathema, together with his whole family.
3d. Whether children, who were either exposed or redeemed from the barbarians, and whose parents were unknown, and consequently it was uncertain whether they had been baptized or not;~-- were to be baptized ?"--The lifth Council of Carthage deereed, " that they were to be baptized, lest an hesitation in that case should deprive them of the benefits of that sacrament."
"This resolution was made at the instance of the legates of the Churches of Mauritania, who informed the Council that many such children were redeemed from the barbarians ; in which caşe it was not certain whether their parents were heathens or Christians.
4th. Whether infunts, whose parents were known to be Jews or Pagans, falling into the hands of Christians, were to be admitted to baptism ?"-St. Augustine affirms in express terms, -This grace (says he) is sometimes voucliSafed to the children of Infidels, that they are baplized, when, by some means, through the secret Providence of God, they happen to come into the hands of pious Christians.".
When such children were either bought or redeemed with money, made fawful captives in war, or taken up by any Christian persons, having been exposed by thieir parents ; in all such cases, either the faith and promises of the sponBors, or the faith of the Church in general, who was their common mother, was sufficient to give them a title to Christian baptism.
The holy Virgin of the Church did frequently, in such exigences, become their suretjes, and take care of their education. And hence it was that many children were brought to baptism, when they were neglected by their nearest relations."
5th. Whether children miglit be baptized, wño were born whilst their parents were heathens -0f this there can be no doubt; for as soon as the parents themselves were baptized, they were obliged to have their families baptized also ;---and by a law of the emperor Justinian (about the year 540918 sewere penalty was laid upon such parents as neglected to get their children baptized.-Photius, Patriarch of Constantinople (about the year 840) repeats this law in his Nono-canon, and adds another to it, concerning the Samaritans, that though they themselves might not be baptized till they had been catechumens two years, yet their little ones, who were not capable of instruction, might be admitted to baptism, without any such delay or prolongation
[To be continued.]
TO THE EDITORS OF THE CHURCHMAN'S MAGAZINE,
der and decorum in religious matters, and believing that your sentiments concur with mine, with regard to.the impropriety of administring the Sacrament of Baptism in private houses, instead of requiring the children to be brought to Church ; I am desirous of offering to the consideration of yoúr readers my thoughts on that subject.
I am of opinion, gentlemen, that this evil originates from a variety of causes ; 1st, in affection of grandeur ; 2diy, from sell-interest on the part of those, who paid for dispensing with Tubrics and canons; and, 3dly, from that general indifference to the offices of religion ; to which I may add the unreasonable plea of tenderness for the child, to whom it is supposed it would be fatal to be taken to Church, even in the inonth of June.
If the clergy should attempt to vindicate themselves by saying, they comply with what they do not approve, for fear of giving orience ; I would only wish them to consider, whether they do not rather lower their character by such an improper compliance, than conciliate the favour and esteem of their parishioners.
Men of sense canriot but know, that when they ask a clergyman to perform this duty, they call upon him to act contrary to the directions of the rubric and they do not esteem him the more, but the less, for his indifference to pro
On Duelling.in priety, and his undue regard to his own advantage. I am persuaded, that every clergyman, who, with civility and respect, would decline any proposal of this kind, urging as an objection, the impropriety of the thing, and its be ing contrary to the rule of his conduct, would rise higher in the estination of his parishioners; than by any improper self-regard, or any undue compliance with their humour, 'their indolence, or iņdifference.
But, from the very words of the service, it appears that the compilers of our Liturgy had no idea of the sacrament of baptisın, being administered in any other place than at the fount or altar in the Church. For the words arete “ Ye have brought this child here to be baptized.” Now, no one acquainted with propriety of expression, will say, that the word here relates to the verb brought, because it certainly would have been hither, not here: “ Ye have brought this child here to be baptized," that is, in the Church. Such as read the word here for hither, have argued, that when this service is performed at hoine, and the clergyman sent for to perform it, there ought to be a slight al teration made in the words ;, and instead of his saying, Ye have brought this child' here, that is, hither, to be baptized, he should say, Ye have brought me here, that is, hither, to baptize this child.
In short, gentlemen, it fares with this, as with every other deviation from the right way, that we are gradually led into absurdities, of which at first, we were not aware; and the only way to inaintain a character of consistency and respect is firmly to adhere to the rules presented for our conduct, not yielding to the importunity of those who from, improper :matives, would first seduce the clergy, from their duty, and then treat their too easy compliance with contempt.
argument in favour of administrating this sacrament, as the rubric directs, the public congregation, viz. that, to an attentive and well-disposed congregation, it is found to be extremely edifying and impressive; the hearers are reminded of their own sacred engagements, by the in tervention of others, at their baptism; and such as have undertaken the office of sponsors, learn that it was not; a mere matter of form, but a very import ant duty, when they promised in behalf of the baptized infanty to see that it , be brought up to lead a godly and a Christian life;" and lastly, to all are "represented in this rite the duties.of their Christian profession; to die unto
sin, and to rise again unto righteousness.;" so that it becomes, when rightly considered,
a most instructive service, not to be confined to a bed-chamber or a drawing room, but most proper to be performed where all may hear, and all
be edițied. I mean that children, when really sick, should always be pitvately baptized, and at a convenient time should be admitted into the Church. I am, &c.
A LOVER OF ORDER,
I shall add one other a
FOR THE CHURCHMAN'S MAGAZINE. no !!!125"}", TON DUELLING.".
Pride was not made for Man-nor furious anger for him ruho is born of a Woman.
S. S. XCESSIVE anger and revenge are ever productive of cruelty-There is E 'manity, that there is reason for considering them as certain marks of human depravity, and 'apostacy from God and goodness.
Estimate the tree by its fruit. de tróý privately those who have offended them: others take the more open
some point make me to be the means to and fashionable method of duelling ;--- which, though, not so infamous as the former, in the eyes of the misjudging part of mankind, cannot be justly reckoned less cruel ; especially as it is often occasõned by mere trifles, or yery slight or imaginary provocations ;'and many times happens between the inost intimate friends ;-who, although too thoughtless of the turpitude and cruelty of the acțion, before it be committed, yet, when one falls, the surcitor sees t in its true and horrible form; and would then give, as the expression iş, the whole world, of in his power, that he had not committed so shocking and detesta
know me, will say hi whare
frime, is a crime without remedy, and for whịch ng adequate recomat penseigay possibly be made. Gjathisisbgupidable custom of duelling is of Gothic original, and stands upon the same ground, as cock-fighting-bull-baiting, and shooting for six-pence at someyillstated domestic fowl.-I he principle is the same-a degree ol a nighi
errantry peryades every branch of the falsely called honorable deed. --The eye accustomed to behold quivering limbs and the flowing blood of animals torg Jured to gratify the vanity of an unfeeling marksman, may soon be brought to have, an equal indifference for the consequer ces of an equal quantity of pouder and lead levelled at the side of a brother niortal
. - The“transition is easy
, non the shedding of one sort of blood to that of unother. I be paths which lead from one, sort of folly to another—from one sort or vice to another-Trem a lesser to a higher degree of guilt, are all upon the descent – leiding doun to the chambers of death."
Not only does a Stoical indifference about a man's future state pronipt hiin to revenge for injuries real or injaginary, and to perpetuate his name qu this side the grave by
some action meriting public notoriety ;--but by progressive steps 7of indiference to the pleasure or pain of others, he may even bring his mind to be indifferent to his own lite, especially so, if his condition is checkered with cross accidents, which now and then rouse him from his lethargia and make him wisių tor death as the universal cure of all, ills. It would noự be disa
ficult to enumerate several instances of duels fought upon this' desperate prin fiple.
Infidelity. is also a strong prompter to duelling.-The man lives without in his merciful Providence-without the most cursaty idea of future amenabui ty for the deedsdo ne in the body--- will neither be very careful of his obedi ence to the laws.pt God nor man.- -A mixture of perverted principles and infiuence, he thinks, will protect, him from the operation of human jaws and
as to divine sanctions--be places them to the account of priesterait-thus bis mind iš easy--and like another lying Greek, he is in utrumque paratus-prepared on the first pressing emergency, to koll or be killed !
More closely connected with duelling than people imagine, is the heathen notion of fatality, adopted among many sečts of Christians, under the reform
of Predestination. The fatalist reasons tus.-I will be avenged of mine enemy-I will easë ine of mine adversary--that lump of animated matter shall not continue long a stumbling block in my way.-I will challenge bim to a duel-and such is the opinion of all men of courage concerning that geritlemanly way of revenge, that if he refuses to fight me, he will be for erer stigmatized with the epithet of coward-white-livered rir tel and chuckie-ticad.
But what if I should fall-well-wħat if I should-whatever is, is right” --if I fall by the discharge of my enemy's pistol-1 shall have not only lived my appointed time upon Earth-but forefer be superior to the object of my hatred. It will be said of me when I am gone, functus est fato, a: hath been said of many illustrious Romans :
-and all men who are of my sentiments and a danin'd clever fellow !--but his time a delusion, thus to make God the author of
trie evils which murder man's happiness and to place man in the condition of a mere machine--without volition, or the hopes or fears attendant on future anienability.
We hear much of civilization of the influence of wholesome and well administered laws of the politeness and elegance of manners to be found ámong us-and upon a comparison of the moderns with the ancients, much preference is given to the former.-Perhaps the balance is in our favour-but it any truth is due to the author of Cæsar's Commentaries on the subject of duelling, their knowledge, their reasonings, their practice, were of a more extensive and refined nature than what modern times exhibit: If he antient Greeks and Romans never fought duelsmif they chailenged one another, it was to fight only against the enemies of their country. Of such a challenge, Cæsar, in the 5th book, $ 36, of his Commentaries, has given us a remarkable instance.
Two Centurions, T. Pulsio and L. Varenus, having with great animosity, long contested which was the braver man, or more worthy of prefernient, and
Human Life. Being present at Cæsar's camp, when assaulted by the Gauls; the former, the heat of the attack, çalted aloud to the latter in these wards, Quid duwie tas, Veranę? aut quem locum probandæ virtutis tuæ expectas ? Hic dies, This dies de nostris controversiis judicabit.
Iinigediately after this spirited incitement to a trial of their valour,lli Petsie went out of the camp alone, and rushed upon the thickest of the enemies ranks. Varenus followed his rival, who, with his javelin, slew the 'Are bf the Gauls who engaged him; but being attacked by a shower of darts, one of them pierced his shield, and stuck so in his belt, that he could not diaw hiş sword. The enemy instantly surrounded him," thus encumbered and unable to defend himself; at this instant Varenus comes up to his assistance, kills one, and drives the rest before him:-but pursuing them too eagerly, 'stepped into a hole, and fell down. Pulsio, who had by this tiine disencumbered him self from the part, and drawn his sword, came very seasonably to the rescue of Varenus ; -- with whom, after having killed many of the Gauls, he returned with safety and glory to the camp.--The Romans, we see, did not in their private quarrels, sheath their swords in one another's breasts : contests for valour among them were properly and nobly turned against the enemies of their country. Here is a noble lesson-and happy would it be if in this we imitated them.
It is reported of the famous Viscount de Turrenne, that when he was a young officer, and at the seige of a furtified town, he had no less than twelveig
challenges sent him; all of which he pocketed. But being soon after commanded upon a desperate attack of some part of the fortifications, he sent a billet to each of the challengers, acquainting then that he had received their favours, which he deferred answering till a proper occasion offered both for them and himself to erert their courage for the King's service, that being ordered to assault tlic enenry's works the next day, he desired their company, where they would have an opportunity of shewing their own bravery, and of being witnesses of his. Was not this acting like a man of sense, of temper, and of true courage
HUMAN LIFE. "We lash the ting'ring moments into speed, to hurry us inte eternity." ALCULATIONS have been made to ascertain the number of inhabitants
on this Globe, and thence to deduce the number of those who die in any given time. The general computation stands thus,
، ( ) ، رزق
1089. In all one thousand and four-score millions. If then we suppose, for the sake of around number, that the Earth is inhabited by one thousand millions of
men, or thereabout, and that thirty-three years make a generation, it follows, that in that space of time, there die one thousand millions.-Then the number of deaths each year amounts to 30,000,000_each day to $2,000.and eact-hour to
3,416.. This computation I suspect is under the truth, yet it she#s'us with what impetuosity the tide of human life goes out-how rapidly our hours and minutes filee--and that our life is but a vapour 'which continueth for a momierit.
To my Young Readers, Let the whole of this essay be dedicated. : Therefore, let me intreat them to sobserve that Youth is tbe proper season for cultivating the benevolent and
wmane atfections. As a great part of your happiness is to depend on the con -nections which you form with others, it is of the highest importance that you acquire in early life the temper and the manners which will render such con, nections comfortable. Letá sense of justice be the foundation of all your social qualities : do your early intercourse with the world, and even in your youthful ainusements, let no obliquity or unfairness be found: Engrave on your minds