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Literature and Science.

[xcv. Dav. Multa priùs curæ-ora-ambi-suffragia capta :

Qui te proponat, quique secundet, opus.
Fecerit arbitrium de te tandem urna ; periclum

Magnum hoc-exsiliat calculus ater, abis !
Cri. Non Cereris-Bacchique mihi mysteria tanti ;
Pam. Quin abeo_infelix, atque profane, vale-

[Exeunt Pam. et Dav.
Cri. Haud inventa tamen nostratibus ulla novabunt

Ingenium, hospitibus semper, ut ante, ferum.
Ad vos confugio-securus quippe repulsæ est,

Qui vestrain implorat pauper et hospes opem.

A valuable genealogical MS. of the Paston merly occupied by Sir John Welsh, and now Family was lately sold by auction, by Mr. the property of the Wax-chandlers' ComEvans, for 741. It was emblazoned in the pany, for the purpose of forming reading. highest style of miniature painting, and rooms, and of building a theatre or lecturecompiled from the pedigrees of all those room on the garden behind. The lectures noble and illustrious families into which

are now given twice a week at Albion Hall. they have married. At the same time, Mr. Cromwell, who is, we are given to unGibson's " Camden's Britannia,' illus- derstand, a lineal descendant of Oliver trated with a profusion of plates by the late Cromwell, will soon give a gratuitous course John Cade, Esq. F.S.A. sold for 731. of lectures on Topography. Dr. M‘Intyre, LONDON UNIVERSITY,

of Stockwell Park, Fellow of the Linnean

Society, is now lecturing gratuitously on On 19th of Dec. a meeting of the share- Botany, and on the last lecture night, notholders of this joint stock company was held withstanding the severity of the season, at the Crown and Anchor Tavern, for the made a fine display of plants. purpose of electing by ballot, a council of twenty-four, to direct the affairs of the

TRANSFUSION or Bloop. University. The provisional committee At the close of Dr. Blundell's introducbegged leave to recommend twenty-four tory lecture at Glasgow, that gentleman comnoblemen and gentlemen. It was also an municated, to a numerous class, a successnounced that they had concluded a bargain ful case of transfusion of blood into the for a large space of ground at the end of veins. A woman had lost a large quantity Gower-street, near Euston-square, and that of blood after labour; her life was in immia sum of 30,000l. had been paid down for Dent danger; and, in fact, from all the it, and that applications had been made to symptoms, there was no probability that she six architects, to send in designs for the could live more than three or four hours. buildings, which were about to be under Mr. Doubleday, of the Blackfriars-road, who taken. After some discussion, scrutineers attended her, having read in the Lancet of were appointed, and the ballot commenced, the operation of transfusion, which Dr. when the following gentlemen were elected : Blundell lately performed with success, de-Hon. James Abercrombie, M.P., Right termined to make a trial of it. He acHon. Lord Auckland, Alexander Baring, cordingly took a quantity of blood from the Esq. M.P., George Birkbeck, M.D., Henry arm of her husband, and having made an Brougham, Esq. M.P. F.R.S., T. Camp- opening into the median vein of the right bell, Esq., Right Hon. Lord Dudley and arm, proceeded to inject the blood with a Ward, I. Lyon Goldsmid, Esq, Olinthus syringe, in the manner described by Dr. G. Gregory, LL.D., G. Grote, jun. Esq., Blundell, in the late experiment. The opeJoseph Hume, Esq. M.P. F.R.S., Mostration was performed without the least diffiNoble the Marquis of Lansdown, F.R.S., culty; and as soon as three charges of the Zachary Macauley, Esq. F.R.S., Sir James syringe, or six ounces of blood, had been Mackintosh, M.P.F.R.S., Jas. Mill, Esq., injected, the woman, who was a native of Most Noble the Duke of Norfolk, Lord the sister kingdom, exclaimed, “ByJ! John Russell, M.P., Benjamin Shaw, Esq., I feel as strong as a bull !" The syringe John Smith, Esq. M.P., Wm. Tooke, Esq. was replenished several times; and upon the F.R.S., Henry Warburton, Esq. FR.S., whole, fourteen ounces of blood were inHenry Waymouth, Esq., John Wishaw, jected. Mr. Doubleday then very judiEsq. F.R.S., Thomas Wilson, Esq. ciously discontinued the injection, as the City of London LiterARY AND Scientific patient began to experience a slight pain in

the head. INSTITUTION.

The woman shortly after de

clared that she felt herself well enough to This Society has taken the Mansion near get up and walk. Not one bad symptom the Albion Tavern, Aldersgate-street, for- has supervened since the operation.


PART 11.)

( 629 ]


at once.


On the Composition of ancient Earthen Vases, count, that very different degrees of satu

commonly called Etruscan. By Professor ration may be produced. A thin solution Hansman. Read before the Society of affords a transparent varnish, by which dusky Gottingen.'

colours are produced, passing more or less (Continued from p. 552.)

into red, according to the different colour

of the clay. If the application of this soAs the appearance of the coating of vases lution be repeated, very different varieties of proves its fusion, it may be concluded, that varnish may be produced, from a brown colour the matter was either fusible of itself, or

to a perfect black., If a saturated solution bad been rendered so by iutermixture with be applied, a dull black colour is produced some other substance. Nor does it seem improbable, that in order to form this coat

In the same way that the surface of vesing, a substance was applied, which either sels is covered over with varnish, various occurred in the different countries in which figures are painted upon it by means of a those vases were manufactured, or pencil. The paintings may be made more easily procured by commerce,

perfect, in proportion to the degree of I instituted various experiments, with the beating which the vessel undergoes; for the view of determining this substance, which varnish enters in this manner the sooner entirely failed, because I followed the com into the pores of the clay, and loses its mon opinion, that the black coating of the fluidity, on which account the delineations antique vases was laid on and burned in, in

are more distinct. But the more the vessels the same way as the pigments are in the are heated, the more quickly must the manufacture of our better sort of earthen paintings be applied. ware. I applied various carbonaceous sub

As it is only the outsido that requires to stances, vegetable as well as mineral, re be covered with varnish or paintings, vessels duced to a sufficient degree of tenuity by may easily be heated for this purpose, by levigation, either by themselves or by means filling them with burning charcoal or hot of a fuid, or mixed with fusible substances, embers. But, if vessels, having little depth, to vessels either dried in the air or baked ; are to be painted within, they must be preand these I exposed, after enclosing them viously heated in a proper furnace, or amoug in other vessels, to various degrees of heat hot cinders. in a pottery-furnace. These vessels, so Although the black coating produced in coated, came, without exception, from the this manner upon the surface of earthen furnace, with red, yellow, or white colours, vessels, agrees in many of its qualities with according to the quality of the clay, and the varnish of the antique Grecian vases, the diferent degrees of heat. I applied and it is not improbable, that a similar subliquid bitumen in other experiments, but stance, and a similar mode of painting, was with no better success.

used in their manufacture ; yet the varnish When I had almost despaired of accom- prepared in the manner above described, plishing my object, it occurred to me, that differs from the ancient varnish in this perhaps the method which is used for co respect, that it does not resist a very great vering iron-work with a black coating might degree of keat; nor have I as yet sueceeded be equally applied to earthenware. The in my efforts to discover by what means the experiments in which I made use of mineral faculty of sustaining the power of an intense bitumen succeeded very well. I dissolved heat could be given to varnish prepared of asphaltum in naphtha or mineral oil, and asphaltum. However, it is evidently not applied the solution, by means of a pencil, impossible, that time may have done someto earthen vessels, once baked and again thing in this respect, which art could not heated; by which a black coating like var produce. nish, intimately attached to the surface of It is well known, that asphaltum and the vessels, and precisely similar in appear- naphtha were among the substances known ance to the black coating of the ancient to the ancients, and that they were applied Grecian vases, was immediately produced. by them to various purposes. Pliny, in The degree of heat at which the solution is fact, relates, that inscriptions made with to be applied, should be such as is sufficient jet (gagates) upon earthen-ware, are not for melting the asphaltum. I exposed the effaced *. But from what we learn with vessels, after the coating was laid on, for regard to this gagates of Pliny, it is to be some time to heat, by which the naphtha inferred, that it was not the jet of modern is evaporated, and the varnish is completely times, but asphaltum ; which renders it dried. Liquid bitumen, applied in the same probable, that the art of making a coating manner, gives a siinilar but less bright var for earthen-vessels of that substance was nish. The solution of asphallum by means of naphtha, is also preferable on this ac * Natur. Hist. lib. XXXVI. cap. 34.


Antiquarian Researches.-Etruscan Vases.

[xev. known to the ancients. The varnish and All that I have observed with regard to this paintings, indeed, which occur in the se matter, during a diligent examination of pulchral vases of the Greeks, do not seem Grecian and Etruscan vases, as well as all to have been applied by the Romans to that has already been observed by others, earthenware manufactures; for no traces of agrees well with the opinion expressed them occur among the numerous remains of above, regarding the compositioa of the Roman pottery *. A covering, however, in varnish. some respects similar to it, but consisting Some antiquaries have thought, that the of vegetable pitch, was used by the Romans paintings of Grecian vases have been perin their wine vessels, the preparation of fected by the assistance of the moulds, to which is accurately described by Columella t. which our workmen gave the name of paI do not doubt, that a varnish made from trones * Others have supposed, not that asphaltum in the manner above described, the whole paintings, but the ornaments, and the mode of painting founded upon ito have been made in this way t. I cannot, to which the name of epanelling is applied, however, give my assent to these opinions. might be used with advantage in modern If the figures or ornaments had been perpottery, as for ornamenting vessels, cover fected by the aid of moulds, vases would ing tiles, &c.

undoubtedly be sometimes found in the Besides the black varnish, some other same place, with the same paintings. But colours are seen in Grecian and Etruscan although similar representations are not unsepulchral vases ; for example, white, yel- frequently seen in different vases, there have lowish white, red, brown, rarely bluish never, in so far at least as I know, been green or livid I. In the vases, whose paint. found two vases, whose paintings correspond ings are made of the varnish itself, parti- in every respect, which has already been cular parts only of the paintings consist of remarked by Grivaud I. If the ornaments these colours ; for example, leaves, Aowers, which might have been made by means of architectural ornaments, the drapery of moulds more easily than the more diverfigures, the wings of winged furies, horses, sified and complex figures, be attentively chariots, &c. In other vases, which are examined, certain irregularities and slight evidently covered with black varnish, certain blemishes will often be found, which would ornaments are sometimes laid in upon it undoubtedly have been avoided, if moulds with other colours, especially white. The had been applied in the painting of vases. nature of these pigments is as follows:-1. From certain marks to be observed in the They are, without exception, opaque, and paintings and varnish of vases, it may be belong to the paints, called in German inferred that the black paint has not always Deckfarben. 2. They seem prepared either been applied once only, but sometimes refrom earth or metallic oxides; for example, peatedly. The first coating is not always the white pigments from argil; the red accurately covered by the succeeding one; from oxide of iron; the brown from oxide of nor is it rare to find different shades of coiron, mixed with oxide of manganese. 3.

lour in the same vase. The parts of vases, They are not vitreous, but have an earthy not covered by the black vamish, very freaspect. 4. They are not intimately united quently are of a red colour, which is darker with the baked clay; they fall off, and may than the peculiar colour of baked clay, and casily be abraded; they are partly dissolved has also a certain degree of lustre; proin acids §. 5. They are usually laid upon perties which have probably been produced the black varnish, which appears evident by a single application of a thin varnish. enough when particles of the paint have In vases, whose figures are of a black fallen off, or are abraded, by which the colour, the outlines have first been drawn black varnish is discovered. From these with a pencil, and the minor parts of the properties, it may be inferred, that the an figures then filled up with paint; a mode of tique painted vases have not been baked in painting, which is plainly discernible, for the same manner as our earthen-ware is, example, in some Locrian vases ģ. In along with the pigments, but have had the vases, which have red figures upon a black pigments applied to them after being baked 'l. ground, a similar mode of painting is often

We shall now, in the second place, speak observable. In them, the outlines of the of the mechanical method, in which the figures are covered with diluted paint, and varnish and paintings have been applied. the filling-up of the black ground is then

Consult Brocchi, sulle Vernici usate Hamilton was of this opinion; but he dagli Antichi. Bibl. Ital. t. VI. p. 453, 463. afterwards thought otherwise. Boëttiger's + De Re Rustica. lib. xli. cap. 18. Vasengem. Bo. 1. Heft. 3. p. 46, 58.

Hirt, in Boetticher’s Vasengemälden. + Rossi, First Letter to M. Millingen. BI. 1. Heft. 3. p. 27. Millingen, Peint. Peint. Ant. p. 6. Ant. p. 5.

I Jorio, Sul Met. d. Ant. nel dipingere i $ Hirt, in Boetticher's Vasengem. Bd. 1. Vasi, p.9. Heft. 3. p. 29.

§ Rossi, First Letter to M. Millingen. 1 Grivaud. Ant. Gaul. et Rom. p. 125. Peint. Ant. p. 10. Jorio. loc. cit.


PART 11.) Antiquarian Researches.- Etruscan Vases.

631 perfected *. In some vases, the ground- currence, could only have been produced, colour does not completely touch these out after the pigments had been applied, by lines ; in some others the ground-colour means of a sharp stile. passes over the outlines here and there ; In some vases, there occur letters either sometimes connections of the outlines are painted or cut out with a sharp instrument, observed t; defects which clearly shew the which either exhibit the name of the painter, mode of painting. It may also be recognised or notify the object of the painting. by the circumstance, that the black colour The painted letters have been done in is less intense in the places where the out

various ways *.

1. In the most ancient lines have afterwards been covered by it than vases they are black, upon a red ground. in the other parts 1. According to the ob 2. In more recent ones, the ground on which servation of Meyer, a first shading of the they are laid is cometimes white or red; or, paintings with a red pigment, is rarely seen §. 3. In the same manner as the figures, they In some vases, it is obvious, that the out are circumscribed by a black ground, and lines of the figures have been cut out with have the colour of burned clay. The ensome sharp instrument.

Instead of cut graved letters upon some of the more anlines, dotted ones sometimes occur l. Jorio cient vases

are found either in the red has observed, that, in some vases, it is evi- ground, or in the black varnish. dent that the figures have been first painted 6. Of the composition of those Vases which naked, and afterwards covered with the dra are entirely Black. -Among the antique pery; -a mode of painting which was much vases dug up in Lower Italy, as well as in in use even in the time of Raphael.

the districts of ancient Etruria, there occor In vases with red figures upon a black some which have a black colour not only on ground, the internal delineation of some the surface, but eveu internally, concerning parts of the figures being of a deep colour, the nature of which I have already spoken. have undoubtedly been made last. After In these vases, the fracture of the mass is the laying on of the black paint has been earthy, and of a pure black colour. On executed, other colours have sometimes minute inspection, not only black particles, been added to the paintings, as has already with a pitchy lustre, but also sometimes been noticed above. All the paintings of argillaceous ones, of a yellowish colour, are the ancient Grecian vases have been done seen : from which it may be inferred that with a very fine pencil. If the black varnish the vases have not been manufactured of has in reality been made in the manner black clay, but that some black heterogeabove described, the greatest quickness has neous matter has been added to the mass. been requisite in applying it, according to

The smooth surface of these vases has a the experiments described by me; and, certain lustre, similar to the black varnish , therefore, the nicest address in the work of painted vases. man. A blunder committed, if it could not At first sight it might be thought that be covered over, was irreparable. Although the black colour of the mass had been proa wonderful steadiness and sureness of hand duced by oride of manganese, in the same is manifest in the paintings of vases, yet manner as in some of our earthen-ware mablemishes produced by haste are not unfre- nufacture, first made by Wedgwood; but quently seen.

this opinion is confuted by experiments We are, in the third place, to treat more made with a view to determine its nature. especially of the operations required, after The mass of these vessels has a distant the application of the paints, for finishing resemblance to the famous Ipswich cruthe paintings:

cibles, which are formed of a mixture of We have shown above, that it is probable clay and graphite, and but slightly baked. vases have not, after being first covered with The graphite, however, gives the clay an a coating of varnish and other pigments, iron-colour, and the surface of the vessel a been again baked, like our modern glazed metallic lustre ; whereas, on the contrary, earthen-ware. Consequently, no further the external colour of those antique vasos operations were necessary for finishing passes into pitchy, and the lustre is like that them. In some vases, however, engraved of varnish. delineations occur, which penetrate through It is well known, that a black colour may the black varnish, aud present the clay- be given to clay by means of charcoal vacolour of the base ; in others, similar lines pour. Some sorts of eartben-ware receive are seen, which pass through the pigments å black colour from the vapours of mineral laid upon the black varnish, and lay the coal: and charcoal-makers blacken their latter bare.

smoking pipes, by putting them into the These ornaments, which are of rare oc pile. But that their black colour has not

been given to these vases in a similar way, • Jorio, loc. cit. p. 13.

may be inferred from this, that they have I Rossi, loc. cit.

been baked in a very small fire, and that the Buettiger's Vasengemalden, i. p. 58. black colour is not equally diffused through § Rossi, loc. cit. p.4.

the whole mass. i Sul Met. d. Ant. nel dipingere i Vasi,

* Jorio, loc. cit. p. 19.

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P. 10.

Antiquarian Researches.-Etruscan Vases.

{xcv. With the view of finding out their true which gives the coloor in the vases which nature, I made some experiments, in which are entirely black; end as the black have, I observed the following circumstances :- without doubt, been manufactured in the 1. In the fame of a blowpipe, the black same places with the painted ones ; it becolour of the mass is soon destroyed. The comes probable, that the problematical mass of vases assumes a reddish yellow co black varnish of the painted vases, also, has lour, which, in a stronger heat, passes into been produced in the manner above degreyisb-black, which is probably affected by scribed, or in one very similar to it. the reduction of the particles of oxide of The examination of the black vases of iron : fusion then follows, by which a Grecian and Etruscan origin, led me to greenish or blackish gloss is produced. 2. explore the nature of the ancient sepulchral With borax, the black particles of the mass vases of the Germans; and I have observed, afford a yellowish-green colour, which, that, in many of them, there exists simihowever, on cooling, nearly disappears, - larity to the former, not only with respect a phenomenon which may he observed, if to figure and external circumstances, but any substance contain the smallest quantity also in the whole composition and fabric of of oxide of iron. No vestige of a violet- the mass. The result of my investigations colour, indicating the presence of oxide of on this subject, I propose to publish at manganese,could be observed. 3. If a little another time. of the black mass, reduced to powder, be From these inquiries into the nature and added to nitre in a platina cup, detonation composition of the vases, commonly called takes place. Sparks are seen,which are always Etruscan, it follows: repewed ;-a phenomenon which is long 1. That the manufacture of earthen vases observed, when the combustible partieles appropriated to funeral occasions, had been are much enveloped in those of the clay :— widely propagated at a remote period of a circumstance which causes the combustion antiquity, with little deviation from a general to go on slowly. If any acid be mixed with plan, in so far as regards their principal cirthe salt left by this detonation, carbonic acid cumstances. gas is produced by effervescence., 4. In 2. That these vases have been forced muriatic and nitric acid, the black particles with much particular diversity, in regard to of the mass do not undergo any change. less important circumstances, such as, the

From these experiments it may be in- quality of the clay employed, and differences ferred, that the black pigment in the mass in the forms, ornaments and paintings, not of these vases, is a combustible substance, only in the different countries and at difand, in fact, either carbonaceous or bitu- ferent times, but also in the same countries, minous.

and at the same periods. From these experiments I proceeded to 3. That the finer sort of these vases are others, the object of which was, to produce superior, in regard to the preparation of the a substance similar to the black mass of the clay, and the elegance and variety of the antique vases; and in this I succeeded. I forms, as well as the ease of the paintings, made use of the same substance which I had to all others of the kind, whether of Roman applied to the making of varnish, namely, or of modern manufacture; insomuch, that asphaltum ; and of that remarkable variety the pottery of the most remote ages forms coming from the Dead Sea, which was al- the model of that of the present times. ready known to the ancients. Of this, 4. That the art of manufacturing those reduced to powder, I added some to the vases, as practised in very remote times, is clay used in the manufacture of tobacco much more worthy of estimation than our pipes and stone-ware, intimately mixing best performances in that way, since the with them a sufficient quantity, to convert ancients were not in possession of many the white colour of the clay into grey. Of assistances which are applied to the art by this mass I formed cylinders, which I dried us ; and because some things which are now in the air, and smoothed at the surface. I done without difficulty, by means of certain gradually heated these cyliuders in a crucille instruments or machinery, were, in thuse placed among burning embers, to the degree times, perfected by means of the hand alone, at which asphaltus is melted. In this inan by the greater dexterity of the artist. ner the clay was thoroughly penetrated by 5. That certain circumstances were pecuthe liquid asphaltus becoming perfectly liar to the very ancient art of making and black, and, at the same time, the surface of ornamenting those earthen vessels, which the cylinders became of a shining smooth- have evidently been lost in later times; of ness, as if varnish had been applied to it. which may be mentioned in particular, the The mass of these cylinders agree perfectly composition of a very thin varnish, which in every respect with the black substance of gave a heightening to the colour of the the Grecian and Etruscan vases.

clay in a greater or less degree, and afford a This, then, being the case, and since the very thin, firm black coating, retaining its black varnish of the painted Grecian vases Justre to the most remote ages, and capable is intimately connected with the substance of resitting the action of acids and other

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