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PART 11.] Gradual Emancipation of Slaves recommended. 593 for the objects of justice towards the if the whites should ever dread a black black population, and notwithstanding insurrection, prudence and caution, the liberal compensations paid by the and the stronger grounds of public poGovernment of this Nation, and the licy, would afford them ample strength, limits of both time and latitude on the without having recourse to summary Coast of Africa, it is still found that justice. But while the enormous prothis nefarious traffic was never more fits which are supposed to arise to the extensively carried on, nor the oppres Planter upon sale of sugar, covering sion and cruelties of treatment more all his great expenditure, at once afabhorrently practised than at present ! ford a ground for delaying every graEither the profit must be very enor dual means of Emancipation; let him mous, or the laws very deficient in consider whether if the trade were their penalties, that after so long and wholly prevented, the support of the laborious an attention to this subject, Slaves on each estate by weekly wages every effort should have been subvert- would amount to less or more than the ed, and every argument overwhelmed present cost of procuring them whe-and that we are now informed by ther this would not better attach them Sir James Mackintosh, “the reform to each other and to their owners; and proposed has been adopted in Trini as their return to their native shores is dad, but he only doubts that it will be hopeless, whether they would not be adopted in the other Colonies.”—See better satisfied to remain with their his speech at the great meeting stated progeny under a milder state of law? in New Times of Dec. 22. He adds, But as to what Mr. J. J. Gurney “Let every man give the fair answer said about purchasing sugar here, it is to himself, and he must end by de- well recollected that his doctrine was ciding for the gradual abolition." embraced 30 years since, and so con
After some animadversions on the tinued to influence many families, who Report of Mr. Dwarris, Mr. Denman in their housekeeping never used any agreed that “the Emancipation ought West India sugar, lest they should to be gradual, but not slow; and that thereby assist in continuing this slathe wrongs of Africa ought to be re very; until at last, after some years dressed without delay;" and Mr. J. trial, their zeal relaxed, because SlaJ. Gurney protested that “whosoever very was still carried on without any bought a pound of sugar, was support- prospect of its abolition. It is also ing the system of Slavery.".
well-known that if there were no buyIt is indeed a melancholy truth, ers and consumers of this commodity, that if all the measures and reasonings there would then cease to be cultiwhich 30 years have produced are at vators of it, at least by such means. this time found ineffeciual to the great They waited for the time when Slaves purpose of a cautious Emancipation, should be emancipated, and hired as such as Mr. Dundas, or at least such weekly labourers at competent wages; as many of his sincere hearers, antici- but this day did not approach "with pated would in that space of time have healing in his wings; its partisans been brought to a close, it is high time died off, and the cause returned to its to add measures of a severer colour, viz. former state ; but it left the same that the trade should be declared pi- facts behind it wholly unreformed, racy; the black population admitted and with which we have still to comto give evidence every Colonial bat: a few zealous friends may satisfy Court, whether baptised or not, for their consciences in this point, but the baptism of a witness seems to be that will not effect any public good; wholly foreign to the case; and a this must be done by great numbers; rigid exaction of the English Law, and if these were to be extended, the which renders both master and servant effect of their privation of this most paequally responsible to each other. latable comfort, might grow to a serious I am quite ready to confess that I
cause of duty in the planter to con, write with English ideas, and hope form himself to measures which would that I shall never be able to write place his servants on a fairer footing of otherwise; and I am ready to consider labour, remuneration and obedience, whether, but at the same time to admit and would ultimately abolish the Afri, that, the liberality of the English law can trade; for I conceive the black should be secured to the whites; but population would be prolific enough, Gent. Mag. Suppl. XCV. PART II.
London Wall. [xcy, by instituting marriages, to secure a military work on the South bank of long line of offspring, with regulations the river, and drew up their ships on for their final freedom. And I con- the West of the bridge, so as to cut off ceive there to be little doubt, - with all access to the City. Edmund dethis object in view, that it remains fended it for a while in person, and only for Mr. Gurney to make known when his presence was required elsethe numbers now ready to forbear su- where, the brave citizens made it imgar, and many would unite in this penetrable. Sax. Chron. 148, &c. St. gentle method of bringing the oppres. Olave, the Sea-King of Norway, as, sion of distressed Africans to a close ! sisted in this contest, and his principal
I cannot finish this letter without ad. achievement was to destroy the forti. verting to the recent establishment of fied bridge from Sudric or Southwark, Episcopacy in our Western Colonies. which Snorre calls a great emporium Both of the Bishops are well known to the city, and which the Danes deand esteemed for their piety and con- fended. scientious rectitude, and for that vi This internal conflict then spread gour of mind that will never suffer its course through Essex, &c. and afthem to remain surrounded by an im- ter the defeat of Edmund at the battle mense negro population without use- of Ashdown or Assendun in Essex, the ing every effort within the scope of combat was by the proposal of the gal. their influence to ameliorate their lant Edmund reduced to a personal wretched condition on their first ar- fight between himself and Canute, rival, at the moment of sale, and af- who accepted the challenge, but both terwards in the field of labour, their agreed to a pacification, by which Casevere discipline, and their ignorance nute was to reign in the North, and of Christianity! Their Lordships will, Edmund in the South. The rival it is presumed, lend their ears acces Princes exchanged arms and garments; sible io those whose sighs for protec- the money for the fleet was agreed uption cannot but be heard ! Neither on, and ihe armies separated.-Flor. their Lordships' residence nor their Wig. 389; Sax. Chron. 150; Turner, visitation through the country will be 1. 427. too remote from the hovels of these After this we hear, as might be exsuffering strangers to allow them to pected, no more of the Wall above be either unseen or unhear nor will mentioned; but if it was so strong as they be backward in using every means to be impregnable, some part of its of conciliating the owners by forbear- ruins or base might have reinained in ance and persuasion, and the obedience the wreck of subsequent improvements. of the Clergy likewise will be wisely It would be interesting to Antiquarian called upon to enforce the consolitory research to retrace its course, and to orders of their Diocesan! The eyes bring forth to light any relics or taof all England are now fixed upon blets of its foundations and bastions, these pious ministers of her faith and with inscriptions 10 commemorale Christian love ; nothing doubting that names and events. they will be able to effect what the The brave Edmund was suffered to prayers of thousands and the laws of enjoy his honours only one year after the Legislature have hitherto sought this treaty. He was basely assassifor in vain !
A. H. nated by Edric, at the corrupt instiga
tion of Canute, A.D. 1016, who thereLONDON Wall.
by obtained his regal honours, at the
age of 20 years! N A.D. 1016, during the struggles The traitor Edric was afterwards nute, the Danes, in order to establish a personal dispute on the subject, and themselves in London, which they had was by command and in the presence long besieged in vain, found the City of Canute struck down by Eric the to be defended on the South by a ruler of Norway, and his body thrown Wall which extended along the sic from a window into the Thames bever. “Similiterque ab Austro Lon- fore any tumult could be raised among donia murata et turrita fuit."-Ste- his partizans. Malmsbury, 73; 1 phanides, p. 3, Lond. 1723. The ships Turner, 434. of Canute from Greenwich proceeded It does not appear in what part of to London. The Danes built a strong the river this King's palace then stood.
PART 11.] Compendium of County History.-Worcestershire. 595 Are there now any remains of it? or Hart-street dedicated to that Royal is the exact place ascertained ? and are saint of Norway? Any references on there any traces of the South wall these heads will oblige your constant along the river? Was the church in friend,
COMPENDIUM OF COUNTY HISTORY.
(Continued from p. 416.)
- British Tempe*! There along the dale
Or gleam in lengthen'd vista through the trees."_THOMSON,
Owen Glendowr in the 15th century, after plundering Worcester.-The
lodge was the residence of Wm. Walsh, “the Muse's judge and friend." At AlveCHURCH the Bishops of Worcester anciently had a palace. Of this
church were Rectors, Richard Moore, the nonconformist, author of “A Pearl
in an Oyster-shell," &c. and Dr. Hickes, author of the Thesaurus. In Areiey Church.yard is the curious tomb of Sir Henry Coningsby, under
the shade of four elms planted on the steep brow of the hill.--Here is a bota
nical phenomenon of a yew-tree growing in the body of an oak. At the hermitage, Astley, were preserved in Mr. Abingdon's time the coat
armour of the Beauchamps, Mortimers, and even of royalty. At_BewDLEY Free Grammar School were educated 'Bp: Willis and John
Tombes, a learned Baptist divine. Beoly Church contains numerous and elegant monuments to the Sheldon
family. Bits Morton was long the property of the Nanfans, one of whom is said to
have been instrumental in the first political rise of Wolsey. In BROMSGROVE Church are several handsome monuments of the Talbots,
Earls of Shrewsbury.--Here are several very remarkable echoes. In Claines (ou Bevere Island) resided the late Dr. Nash, historian of the
County Clent has been noticed under “STAFFORDSHIRE” (see vol. xcii. ii. p. 218).
The hills were once actually all in Worcestershire, but now in a great mea
sure are considered to be in Staffordshire. At Crowle, near three centuries ago, was found a stone lined with lead, con
taining the bones, as Dr. Thomas thought, of Sigismund the Dane. The drawing-room of Coome-Court is hung with the finest tapestry now in
England, of the Gobelin manufacture. At DailsFORD resided the patriotic WARREN. DroitwiCH. Through the Chapel on the bridge the carriage road passed. In
fact, the pulpit and reading-desk were on one side the road, while ihe congregation sai on the other. The salt-works are as old as the year 816. Mr. Steynor, who opposed the monopolizers of salt in the 17th century, being at last ruined by law-suits, was obliged (though the champion of public rights) to depend upon parochial allowance, and his daughter in 1777 was a pauper
of Claines parish! Of Dudley Free Grammar School was master Richard Baxter, the eminent
Nonconformist. At Evesham the learned Mrs. Elstob kept a small day-school, her weekly sti
pend with each scholar being at first only a groat !—The tower of the Abbey is a fine specimen of florid Gothic architecture.
596 Compendium of County History-Worcestershire. [XC, In FLADBURY Church is a marble monument to Dr. Lloyd, Bp. of St. Asaph. Of Harley was rector Wm. Bowles the poet, who died 1705.- In the Church
is the mausoleum of the Littletons.—The park is every way beautiful, and the various temples, caves, and grots, so harmonize with the surrounding scenery, as justly claim for it the title of the “ British Tempe."— The ancient hall was the hiding place of Stephen Lyttleton and Winter, two of the gunpowder conspirators, where they were taken. In the library of the present edifice are busts of Shakspeare, Milton, Spenser, and Dryden, by Scheemaker, the bequest of Pope to Lord Littleton; and a portrait of Pope with his dog Bounce. In some apartments are numerous family and other portraits, by Vandyke, Lely, &c. The portrait of Queen Henrietta Maria is exquisitely lovely:-Here died, May 1774, aged 125, Mr. John Tice, whose only friend was Lord Lyttelton. The staircases of Hanbury Hall were painted by Sir Godfrey Kneller, who has introduced Sacheverell carried away by furies. The Church stands on such an eminence, that it is necessary to ascend 180 steps from the parsonage house. It contains several beautiful monuments of the Vernons, on one of which is the figure of Bowater Vernon, esq. the upper part of which is in the Ro
man costume, whilst the lower is in breeches and slippers ! Of HARTLEBURY, the palace and usual residence of the Bishops of Worcester,
Richard Bentley, the well-known critic, was incumbent; and in the churchyard is the tomb of Bishop Hurd. HÁStings was allowed the full exercise of religious worship under King John,
at a time when the Roman Pontiff had excommunicated all the rest of the
kingdom. Hendlip Hall. There is scarcely an apartment that has not secret ways of
going in and out; some have back staircases concealed in the walls ; others have places of retreat in the walls; others have places of retreat in their chimnies, and some with trap-doors. In some of these secret places (of which there were eleven) were discovered several of the gunpowder conspirators, among whom was Garnet.-Here was preserved a small enamelled casket given to Wolsey by the King of France; afterwards in possession of Anne Boleyn. It was the property of the Abingdons, of whom there are several poriraits at the mansion. Of this family was Thomas Abingdon, who was concerned in the gunpowder plot, the first collector of Antiquities
for this County. At Kemsey Simon de Montfort and his unfortunate prisoner Henry III. slept
a short time before the battle of Evesham. At KidderMINSTER resided Waller the poet. In the Church are many beau
tiful monuments and brasses. Of this place was vicar Richard Baxter the polemist and theologian.- In the churchyard is the mutilated monument of the learned father of the patriotic Lord Somers. The office of parish clerk of Kings-Norton was held in one family for 200
years. The ceiling of the chance of Leigh Church represents the firmament with
the Moon and stars, with the motto—“the heavens declare,” &c.; but by some strange mistake, the arms of Sir Walter Devereux (who repaired the ceiling) are placed in the centre of the firmament. The Church contains many curious monuments. The winter drawing room at MADRESField contains a profusion of rich minia
tures; one of which, the size of a common miniature, contains seventy heads, all of which are portraits ! In the King's room, Charles II. slept the night before the battle of Worcester. The quilt and furniture, &c. of the bed in the State bed-room were worked by Queen Anne and the Duchess of Marl
borough. Great MALVERN Church re-edified by Sir Reginald Bray. Here are many
ancient inonuments. At Sodington in Mamble was discovered, in 1807, the remains of a Roman
aqueduct; and also a brick-kiln of about 10,000 bricks, the greater part well
burnt. Mr. Milner's opinion thereon may be seen in vol. LXXVII. p. 1009. At OFFENHAM resided King Offa. At OLD SWINPORD is interred the learned and amiable Rev. Dr. Ford.
PART 11.] Compendium of County History.-Worcestershire. 597
by the first artists. The staircase, painted by Fuller, represents the six lead-
translation of the Metamorphoses first prompted Pope to his poetical efforts. In OVERBURY Church is an elegant epitaph from the pen of the celebrated
Burke, displaying the virtues of his friend Wm. Dowdeswell, esq.
by the country people “Quicken pear."
one of the last Romish priests executed in England on account of his religion. In SeveRN STOKE Church is interred the father of John Lord Somers. SPETCHLEY Manor House was the property of the celebrated Judges Littleton
and Berkeley, the latter of whom derived it from Selden, and is buried in the
Judge Berkeley, and several members of the family.
quary and historian,
to Worcester. UPTON SNODSBURY was the scene of the barbarous murder of Mrs. Palmer, by
her own son and his brother-in-law. Westwood Park was the property of the Pakyngtons; a member of which
family, the good Lady Pakyngton who died in 1679, is supposed to have written the Whole Duty of Man," in concert with Bp. Fell, who was
sheltered here, together with Bp. Morley and Dr. Hammond, during the At White Lady A8tox, Oliver Cromwell had his head-quarters the night be
fore the battle of Worcester. At WORCESTER F. G. School the great Lord Somers and Sam. Butler, the au
thor of “ Hudibras,” were educated. At the White Ladies were preserved the bed which Queen Elizabeth slept in, the cup she drank out of, &c. at her visit in 1585, but no longer visible.—The house of Grey Friars now the City Gaol.-In St. Helen's Church are eight bells, containing poetical inscriptions in honour of the glorious battles achieved by Queen Anue's heroes.-The spire of St. Andrew's Church is very beautiful. It was erected by Mr. N. Wilkinson, a common mason !-- In the Cathedral were interred King John, Prince Arthur, son of Henry VII.; Saints Oswald and Wulstan; Bps. Gauden (whose monument appears to countenance the suggestion of his being the author of Eixoy Bassaoxn), Stillingfleet, Hough (with a most elegant and magnificent monument by Roubiliac); Judge Littleton; the gallant Duke of Hamilton, and James Johnstone, jun. M.D. with a classical inscription by the late Dr. Parr. Prince Arthur's Chapel is an elegant and distinguished example of Pointed architecture. In the spandrils of the arches above the nave, is a curious and regular arrangement of ancient grotesque sculptare. In the refectory the King's School is kept.-Of Worcester were Bishops, Saints Egwin, Dunstan, Oswald, and Wulstan; Pope Clement VII., the martyrs Latimer and Hooper, Archbishop. Whitgift ; Gauden, Stillingfleet, Hough (a Bishop after the primitive model), and the amiable and learned Dr. Hurd. -Of Worcester were Deans, the learned Dr. Wilson, Abp. Juxon, Potter the Royalist, Hickes, whose Thesaurus is well known.-The house at the corner of the North end of New-street on its East side, was inhabited by Charles during the battle of Worcester, 1651.-At the Guildhall are portraits of Queen Anne, Lord Keeper Coventry. In the
Council Chamber a very excellent whole-length portrait of George III.-Of St. Oswald's Hospital Bp. Fell was Master, as also his father, who died upon hearing of the death of Charles I.-Here resided the incomparable mathematician Nic. Facio Duil