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1925.] History of the Church and Priory of Swine.

491 man-in the nineteenth century, - structure. Nay, he would no more speak seriously of changing the name presume to alter such a name, than of a parish! Ridiculous! I will ven. he would presume to modernize or ture to say, that the majority of per- repair a Gothic abbey or castelsons who ever occupied their heads lated mansion, which had fallen into with thinking five minutes in their picturesque decay. As the very ruin lives, would consider me as malici forms the grand charm in the one ously libelling you, if I were to tell case, so does that tinge of obscurity, them you had any such intention. that affinity to the obsolete, which Have you considered what it is you the changes in our changing language propose to effect? Did you ever hear during so long a period must naturally of a private individual changing a impart, in the other. In the former name recognized in legal documents, we discern the characteristic touch, and which had prevailed for near a in the latter we distinguish the pecuthousand years? The most incorri- liar accent, of that exquisite artist, gible visionary never indulged a dream that eloquent moralist, Time ; and more wild. You may just as ration- the Goth who is dissatisfied with ally expect to tame the raging ocean, either, should be sent forth with to or silence the howling storm. There vegetate in the United States of Ameare but few instances on record of rica, or the settlements of New South even monarchs having accomplished Wales, or some country, equally desuch a metamorphosis, and that by stitute of ancient recollections, and the aid of some new incident of lo- of names of longer standing than a cal interest, a population willing and generation or two. Away with such anxious to co-operate, and Acts of a contemptible breed from glorious Parliament and other expensive for- Old England, mine and my family's malities.

Father-land !-they are literally Swine, And this name, towards which you and should go, to Swine in have conceived so foolish an antipathy, Holderness, but to some congenial and which you would so wantonly stye, where they can munch their annihilate, is not only renerable from tasteless husks, without vexing our its antiquity, but exceedingly honour more patriotic spirits by defiling and able in its import, as I shall bye and gnawing the pearls which our probye take the troubl to convince you. genitors have here so plentifully scatHow shameful would success be, were tered for our intellectual benefit wherit even possible for you to insure it! ever they may happen to turn. Away I look upon the appellations given to with them: they can well be spared": districts and objects by our remote they belong to that class which forefathers (and what educated Eng- Shakspeare has particularized as hav. lishman does not?) as something sa- ing no music in their souls. But cred. They uniformly excite my re- surely my friend Milne has no amverence. They at once inform the bition to be in this sense a Swinehead and affect the heart. They are Herd. Now that the hot weather has so many monuments of the illustrious departed, I confidently expect his personages

and transactions of the wonted good sense will return, and olden time. We should treat them chase from his mind the absurd scheme as we would some venerated tomb in which has so unaccountably obtained a sacred edifice. We may be per a transient lodginent there. mitted occasionally to wipe away the And pray, what inducement can you dust, to bring our optics as near as possibly have for performing this une possible, and to decipher the inscrip: heard of freak? Why, truly, the Vicar of tion as well as our portion of skill Swine is a title which holds out a most and learning will permit. But every tempting lure to any graceless wag, thing beyond this is sacrilege, and who, like myself, may occasionally inI should scarcely regret if the penalty dulge in cracking a joke at a friend's were excommunication. A man of expense. This may be very terrific to good taste (and good taste is much a weak mind, but what mind of ordimore nearly allied to good feeling than nary powers would condescend to most people imagine,) would no more be scared by such a bugbear ? Did consent io the extirpation of an an you ever hear of Cicero quarreling with cient name, than he would lend his name, because it happened not only his hand to demolish an ancient to sound like, but absolutely to mean

492

History of the Church and Priory of Swine. (Dee. Pimple-nosed? Or Ovid, whose name ... The situation of the place does in plain English would be Nosy not sanction such a supposition. That (Naso)? Or Strabo, who was conti the district ever was suitable for feed-, nually accosted as Mr. Squint-Eye? ing herds of swine, even Mr. ThompOr Cato, one of whose names was son does not seem to intimate. For actually this identical one of Swine such a purpose, as acorns formed the (Porcius)?

principal food of this animal, woody And, supposing for a moment that tracts, abounding with oak, which ridicule were really a thing to be dread- does not generally thrive so near the ed by a person in your situation, would sea, were usually selected. Now, not you escape “the world's dread laugh" only is this portion of it in particular by taking the step you propose ? I can in many respects unsuitable, but it assure you that, to use a homely pro can be shown, that Holderness, from verb, you would leap out of the frying an earlier period than that of the pan into the fire. Can you not per- Saxons, was appropriated to a very difceive, that you would be calling the ferent purpose. At the era of the Roattention of the whole country to the man Invasion it was inhabited by the feature of ridicule you are so shocked Parisi, who are supposed to have deat having discovered, and virtually say, rived their name from the two British ing “ Laugh at me"? And depend words Paur Isa, which signify Low npon it you would be laughed at to Pasture, and are sufficiently descripsome purpose, not only now, but tive of the situation and use of the many, a succession of Antiquaries country. They were the herdsmen of would enliven the dryness of their their powerful neighbours the Brilearned details by the standing joke of gantes; cattle, as Cæsar informs us, the clerical metamorphoser, who was constituting the principal wealth of to Ulysses and his Swinish adventure the Britons, which were kept, he adds, in the Isle of Calypso, precisely what "in open grounds." the Knight of the Woful Countenance 2. Nor is there greater probability was to the genuine Knight-errant of in the conjecture, that “as the Saxon the days of Chivalry. You might as lords in England kept indumerable well pin a paper to your back with an herds of swine in the forests which inscription requesting those who read then covered a great part of the counit not to laugh at you.

try, the village of Swine might be a But enough of this. I shall now convenient place into which to drive proceed to fulll my promise of endea- the swine from the woods of Holdervouring to convince you that the name ness, for exainination or sale." The of your parish is one of which you Saxons generally fixed on British sites have no reason to be ashamed. My for this and other public purposes. respect for you has led me to give the Now, a more inland situation would subject some consideration, and the certainly be far preferable as a home result is, that I can by no means ac market, which was commonly as cenquiesce in the etymology assigned to tral as possible: and we have no reaSwine by its respectable topographer son to suppose the animal was then Mr. Thompson, not being able to dis- an article of exportation, even to the cern the slightest ground for it; while neighbouring Trans-Humberine nas on the other hand I can see abundant Lion of the Coritani, who were equally confirmation of that which he has absorbed in pastoral pursuits with the thought proper to reject. I think you Purisi. Nor were the Saxons more in will allow there is force in the arguments the habit of exporting this species of which I am about to lay before you. stock. Besides, how does it happen

Mr. Thompson says “the name is that no other place in the kingdom apundoubtedly of Saxon origin, and is. propriated to the purpose (for 1 prein fact, the word Swin (porcus) with sume in such a swine-stocked country the addition of the final letter.” The this was far from being the only one) supposition he makes is, that “as the bears a similar appellation ?-and why Saxons of Holderness probably kept should the word so often occur in a numerous flocks and herds at Swine, particular line-to use Mr. Thompand in the neighbourhood, this cir- sop's words,“ especially in Yorkcumstance might tend to fix the name shire,” where the Danes were most of the place.”

numerous and powerful and be so I can point out many reasons why rarely met with elsewhere? and unis this etymology is not at all probable. formly occur in the track of the Da

1825.) History of the Church and Priory of Swine.

493 nish incursions? and very generally Law-hill, How-hill: but I know not where the monarch of that name is of one name in the whole island asknown to have been under very me- signed to a spot by the Aborigines from morable circumstances ?

the purpose io which it was devoted, 3. The name itself is far from being which has been translated by their in accordance with Mr. Thompson's Saxon conquerors. There is not the interpretation. Hog, I am inclined to slightest ground for considering Swine think, was a far more ordinary Saxon a translation from the British. appellation for the animal in question 5. “ Some of the Saxons who setthan Swine ; at least it occurs very tled at Swine,” says Mr. Thompson, frequently in the names of places once "might have emigrated from a place appropriated to the accommodation of of the same name in Germany;' and "swinish multitudes." I may instance he quotes Verstegan in support of this the Hog-heys, near Manchester ; and theory, who informs us that the Saxons Hog-thorpe, and various others in Lin

"gave names [in England] similar to colnshire. Many more will at once the names of like places in Germany recur to memory. Then again, names from which they came. Thus the derived in part from animals have al name of Oxford or Oxenford on the ways some other term appended, de- river Thames, he adds, was given afscriptive of the special nature of the ter the town of the same name in Gerplace, as in those just quoted. Con many, on the river Oder; and the same sider also, that it was the custom of may be said of Hereford, Swinford, our ancestors, in Latinizing names of Bradford, Mansfield, Swinefield, and places, to render thein by existing Ro- many other places." Verstegan, though man words, and not to coin new ones a soinewhat venerable, is by no means except in the case of proper namnes, an unquestionable, authority; and on which were translated by merely add- this point I for one must venture to ing a Latin termination. Thus, Cha differ from him. It is likely enough worth was De Cadurcis ; Marsh, De that the names of many places in EngMarisco; Pudsey, De Puteaco; Roch, land would coincide with those of De Rupe; Sultmersh, De Salso Ma- places similarly situated in Germany: risco, &c. &c. But Swine, in the because the people by whom such Close Catalogue of Vicars, and other were imposed were in both ancient documents, is written, not De countries the same; the rule by which Suillo, or De Porcis, but De Swynd : settlements were chosen, was the same; more than

a presumption, in my the principle on which names were opinion, that the place derives its li given, was the same; and the lantle from a proper name.

guage in which those names were ex4. As to "the Saxons translating pressed, was the same. It could scarcely the old names of places into their own therefore be otherwise. But it does language,” the slightest acquaintance not by any means follow, that the with the nomenclature of the island Saxons were in the habit of assigning will be sufficient to evince that Mr. certain names to places in their adopted Thompson labours under a grand mis- country, because others bore them in take. I will venture to affirm they thạt from which they had emigrated. never did any such thing. In dis- And such coincidences being confined tricts where they had completely ex to places denominated from local aptirpated the Britons, or ai a period pearances, is a proof that they were when the British language had be As to the particular towns mencome obsolete, they indeed called any 'tioned, far greater Antiquaries than prominent natural object, as a hill, a Verstegan have assigned a widely dife' wood, a defile, by the most signifi ferent cause for the appellation of Hecant term their own tongue afforded, reford. I happen to know that the which would of course be equivalent name of Bradford occurs very freto that imposed by their predecessors, quently, and in very distant situations, as the peculiarities of such objects and also that there is a chieftain of the would necessarily strike both nations name mentioned in the Saxon Chronialike: and in some instances, where cle. Oxford and Mansfield are capable the British name was retained, the of a much more plausible derivation. Saxon synonyme has been appended, And if there be a Swinford and a by way of glogs, forming such ple- Swinefield in Germany, it is not imonasms as the later ones of Dun-hill, probable they may originate, as in

names

not.

494

History of the Church and Priory of Swine. (Dec. this country, from a proper name. All that at Leeds, there is nothing to indiwhich militates against Verstegan's cate in the least its appropriation to rule, and Mr. Thompson's inference swinish purposes, and that it is near, from it. The name of Swine not be- and the direct road 10, several acknowing indicative of any local features, is ledged Danish encampments. even less likely than most others to be 2. This very, spot is perhaps the borrowed from a place of the same most likely in ihe whole İsland to be name then existing in Germany. selected for such a purpose. It is near

Thus far I have principally confined the shore of that part of the country myself to such arguments as were re most frequently infested by these pira. quisite to confute the theories advanced tical adventurers, and where they most by Mr. Thompson. I shall now, have firmly established themselves, and at ing, I hope, sufficiently cleared the the mouth of that very river where way, apply myself more exclusively to their vessels usually wintered. Nay the establishment of my own.

more. King Sweyne, according to the I certainly consider Swine, as I testimony of all our historians, landed have already hinted, as being the more than once on the banks of the Danish proper name written in va- Humber, when his arms spread such rious authors, Swin, Sweine, Sweyn, devastation through the land which he &c. and as very probably conferred in eventually conquered. Not having commemoration of the celebrated Mo- other authorities at hand, I give you narch of that name. My reasons are

Fox's account of one of these inrasions these :

from his ponderous Martyrology: 1. It was customary with that war “1004. Swanus, King of Denmark, relike nation to confer the name of their turns for thirty thousand pounds ; but soon most renowned warriors on the scenes after hearing of the increase of his people in where their valour had been signalized, England, breaks bis covenant before made, or their camps or other habitations aud with a great army and navy in most deerected. A multitude of instances fensible wise appointed, landed in Northmight be easily adduced in confirma- umberland, and proclaimed himself to le tion of this assertion. We have, among tion, when he had subdued the people, and

King of this land, when, after much vexaothers, Knottingley in Yorkshire; Knot

caused the Earl, with the rulers of the counMill at Manchester; and Knutsford in Cheshire ; from Canute; Guthram- try, to swear to him fealty, he passed the ri

ver Trent to Gainslurgh, and to North Watgate, in York, from Guthrun, proba, ling-street, and subduing the people there, bly the same to whom Alfred was forced them to give him pledges, which sponsor: and whence have we Swine- pledges he committed with bis navy unto gate in that city, as well as in Bristol, Canutus his son to keep, while he went furLeeds, and other places of remote an- her into the land, and so with a great host tiquity, but from one or other of the he came to Mercia, killing and slaying." Danish Monarchs or other illustrious Swine seems one of the most suitachieftains who bore the name of ble situations on the coast for such an Sweyn? It would be strange indeed, encampment, as it is natural to supif while each of his countryinen of pose would be formed on such an ocequal note, who headed a successful casion, near the place of landing; invasion of England, was honoured and the traces of fortifications here, with this species of commemoration, and the absence of them elsewhere in the renowned father of Canute should the district on a suitable scale of magbe without it; as he must be, if Swine nitude, are strong corroborative ciris uniformly to be derived from the ig, cumstances. noble root of Suillus. Whal name of 3. The current tradition to which a place have we that bears a closer re Mr. Thompson alludes, is not without semblance to his name? I may ob- weight to me. Popular traditions of serve that many places in Denmark this description are like shadows, which, and Sweden are namned on this princi- however distorted, must invariably prople; as Svanholm in Zealand, and ceed from some substantial cause, hoveSundfiord in Norway, from Svend and ever distant from our reach, or concealSvane, which are common Christian ed from our perception. Traditions and surnames in those parts, and syno- originate with the vulgar; and what nymous with Sweyn or Swain. I can could the vulgar of a village approadd, from personal observation, that in priated from time immemorial to the one of the streets abure alluded to, ending or bartering of hogs, know,

about

1995.] History of the Church and Priory of Swine.

495 about Sweyn King of Denmark? or ordinary Roman camps ;-there are no what could induce them to connect names fundamentally Latin, as far as him in any way with the plebeian de- I can gather from his work, attached signation of their own place of abode, to any adjacent places, which is genesupposing him never to have been rally, I almost think universally, the there? They would have been much case elsewhere, and the reliques found more likely to change a noble into an have more claim to a British than a ignoble appellation, and to merge the Roman origin. So that whatever prememorial of a Monarch in the term dilection the luxurious Romans might for a pig-stye. I do not mean to say have for swine's flesh, I am still unthat this tradition affords of itself suffi- convinced that either there was ever cient ground for affirming that the Mo- any extraordinary quantity of that aninarch died and was buried there: thomal in your parish for them to eat, or it is rather remarkable that historians that, supposing there had been, they are far from being agreed, either as to were ever there, as residents, to eat the time, the place, or the mode of his them. But the remains in question decease. Mr. Thompson indeed in- do bear a strong resemblance to a forms us, that “the historians of the Saxon fortification. It may well be eleventh century mention the particu- supposed, therefore, that a fortress was lar circumstances of the death of here erected by that people for the deSweine, and assert that he was buried fence of the coast, on the site of a preat York :” and refers to Drake. This vious British one, and wrested from alludes to the statement in some of our them, and applied to his own purold Chronicles of his being stabbed with poses, by Sweyn, after a victory so dea knife at Gainsbro' or Thetford. But cisive as to induce his followers to others assert, and are followed by Fox, confer his name on the scene of acthat he died mad ; and the Danish tion. Several of the ancient names Chroniclers scruple not to affirm that preserved in the documents quoted in he returned to Denmark, and lived to Mr. Thompson's work, add greatly to a good old age. But even if we were the probability of this theory. Snoresobliged to give up King Sweyne, he is holme is unquestionably from Snorro, not the only Danish hero of the name which is decidedly a Danish proper connected with this Island, and of name: Snorro's Holme. Swynesholme whom history retains a record. Ca- (which by the bye would be Swinenute, his successor, had a son of the holme, if it were derived as Mr. name, and another who bore it was Thompson imagines, from a herd of contemporary with William the Con- swine), Collesholme, Seggesholme, and queror, and sent his sons to invade Brauncesholme, are also from proper England, who landed in the Humber, names, and most probably Danish. I penetrated far into the North, and win- should not feel justified in adding tered berween the Ouse and Trent. I Tyryngholme, though Mr. Thompson must not omit to mention, that the mentions Tyryng as being a proper non-existence of any tradition ascrib I rather suppose the appellaing the place to the purposes of a hog- tion to have been given after the apfold or market, and of any popular cus- propriation of the land to religious purtom denoting, such an origin, are fa- poses, indicating that particular porvourable particulars on my side of the tion as being reserved for providing controversy.

vestments, &c. for the monastics; quasi, 4. The vestiges of ancient military the Attyring-Holme, especially as it works still discernible, and the Danish forms part of the Beningholme, which and other remarkable names indicative signifies the allotment devoted io pious of the residence here of a Royal per- uses, from the Saxon word Bene,

prayer. sonage neither British nor Roman, Coleman, however, is a proper name confirm me in my opinion. Mr. occurring in Domesday Book ; and at Thompson indeed, from compunc- Swine, it seems, there is, or was, a tion, I suppose, at having assigned to Coleman-dale. Wighe-field, Waghun, your parish so humble an origin, la- and the Waight, sound

very bours strenuously, but, in my opinion, ruptions of the name of Wightred, unsuccessfully, to confer on it the dig- who was then Earl of Northumbernity of having contained a Roman sta- land, and likely enough to have comtion. The earth-works he describes do manded the Saxon garrison here in not exactly correspond with the more person. He is expressly said, in a

passage

name.

like cor

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