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1825.] REVIEW:-Miscellaneous Writings of John Evelyn. 433 suitable to their birth by their father's side), the people could never recover or seize on I cannot learne that the lace King had any; them since. A jewel this of too great value nay, it is reported that he did so abborre (some think) to bee intrusted to one perpaliardize (fornication), that he scarce son, upon what pretence or necessity sothought any other act to be sin in compa ever."

P. 58. rison of it; contrary to the opinion of his wise counsellor and cardinall de Richelieu, which abound with edification, we

Passing over passages without end, who (as I have sometime heard) did uso often to say, 'that a concubine was the ho

come to some interesting comparisons nest man's recreation,' a priestly aphorism, between the French and ourselves. and spoken like a Churchman." P. 56.

The plebeians or roturiers were imWhatever may be Evelyn's honest

measurably exhausted by taxations, caopinions on this subject, it is certain tions, and so possessed with litigious

bals, impositions, spoils, and contributhat lastardism, if the father was royal dispositions, that what with these, or noble, was in the middle ages no disgrace and that where impolitic abominable corruption of justice, this rank

«« The delays of their process, and the marriages were from rank prohibited, of people seldom or never arrive to any conand no marriage at all allowed, as

siderable fortune or competency by their among priests, very latitudinary prin

own wit or industry, as do so many of our ciples were disseminated concerning

yeomen and farmers in England. By theso concubinage; and that Richelieu said

means also their spirits becoming so ab-. no other than what Wolsey and many jectly debased, they are not able to afford others had said before him, of which their Prince that ready service in matter of opinions we have given proofs on a armes, as indeed their multitudes and necesformer occasion, from certain works of sities require. To supply which defect in Bishop Jewell.

all expeditions of consequence, the King Evelyn then tells us how absolute makes use of the gascons, &c." P. 80. Monarchy was established in France, The tradesmen were superior to the viz. by this means, among others : roturiers, “many of them living sery “ As for the Parliaments of France (hem houses, especially the better sort of

decently and handsomely in their sides the name and formality), there is in merchants, who are better furnished together with their ancient liberties, how than the rest; howbeit in competition deservedly they lost them, may be easily with our countrymen of the same discovered in their frequent rebellions." quality to be esteemed in truth but as P. 57.

mean mountebanks and inconsiderable France is necessarily, in self-defence, pedlars." (p. 81.). No gentleman in a military nation'; and it is the na

France would suffer his youngest son tural tendency of military habits to to belong to any trade or mechanical look to a supreme Chief. Besides, the living whatever. Baron de Stael says, that no fortunes

For this oppression of the people, are made in France, but by public mitted ample vengeance to be taken in

Providence, in retributive justice, peremployments. Things in England are otherwise; and we know that Holland, the late Revolution. Switzerland, and Great Britain, where

We shall continue the present notice free Governments long continued, were

with the following comparison benot military countries. For this fa tween the nobility and gentry of the vour of military despotism, however, two kingdoins : the French were, it seems, partly in “The nobility and gentry of this kingdebted to the English, in return for dom differ much from the garb of living in excluding their Kings froin the suc

England, both within and (till of late) withcession. Evelyn shows us how this

out doors ; they have many of them vast

estates, either in lands or offices; the 'rehappened in manner following:

venues whereof they chuse rather to spend “ For this slavery of theirs, they may in at Paris and other great cities in a specious some degree thank our countrymen, whose retinue of coaches, pages, and laquaies, forces being embowelled amongst them, then suffer themselves to be eaten up at hindered the assembling of the three es bome in the country in the likenesse of tate; (as they should have done), where- beef and mustard among their uothankful upon the King being necessitated to make neighbours. his simple edicts passe for authentick laws - This affection of theirs to reside for (although this power was delivered to him the most part in the chief towns of the during his wars only), was the reason why kingdom, is the reason why the CorporaGent. MAG. November, 1825.



434 REVIEW.-Miscellaneous Writings of John Evelyn, [Nov. tions are little considerable, as dot daring, take away all interest in cleanliness, to be brewing and hatching such factions, because, under the circumstances, as as where the gentry and civiller sort of impracticable as in a counting-house mankind are universally given to solitary or public office. Under this situation and unactive lives in the country. Besides, of living, as at an inn, with no feelthe gentlemen are generally

given to those ings of home, and no furniture that nishing their palaces with the most precious we fear to spoil, trouble squats like moveables, much of the luxe and excesse of

the night-mare upon cleanliness, and Italy, being now far entred amongst them, paralyzes all her limbs. as may well serve to exemplifie, when in the Mr. Evelyn makes the following Dutchess of Chaulmes her palace neer the comparison between London and Paris : Place Royal in Paris, the pennaches or tufts of plumes belonging to one of her beds only, it hath been and still is a great controversie

“Touching the extent of this city (Paris), are estimated worth fourteen thousand livers, which amount to deer a thousand is the larger, this or London ; every one

amongst our countreymen travellers, which pounds sterling of our money. “Every great person who builds here, the figures of them both are so different,

speaks according to his inclinations ; but however qualified with intellectuals, pre- that it would be a very difficult matter to tends to his elaboratory and library, for the reconcile them, by making an exact tryall : furnishing of which last he doth not much and, peradventure, all things considered, amuse himself in the particular elections of there is as yet no very great inequality: but either authors or impressions ; but having if we may conjecture from the buildings at erected his cases and measured them, accords with a stationer to furnish him with their suburbs on all sides, what a little

present, and prodigious enlargements of so many gilded folios, so many yards of time and peace will render it, it must witha quartos and octavos, by the great, till his bibliotheke be full of volumes. And yet tention and far exceed it: for I finde no end

out doubt in a short time outgrow the consome of them both have excellent books, of their erecting not onely of particular and are very polite scholars; but the no- houses, but even of whole streets, and those blesse do not naturally so addict then.selves so incomparably fair and uniform, that you to studie as the gownmen do ; accounting it would imagine yourself rather in some Itaa life so contemplative and below their spi- lian opera, where the diversity of scenes surrits, that no gentleman's necessity whatso- prise the beholder, then beleeve yourself to ever shall easily engage him to seek any be in a reall citie. This is onely to be obsupport either by Physick or Law; both which professions are (as in truth they that the best fabricks commonly promise

served in their prime buildings and palaces, highly merit) in very laudable esteem and less towards the front or streets than you reputation amongst us in England." pp will finde them within the court; which is 81, 82.

caused by the high walls and tarraces that Cleanliness is the concomitant of thwart them; a piece of modestie which in industry; but Evelyn very justly also other appearances and outsides they do not áttributes dirty habits to the custom of usually practise. living in lodgings; and we know that

“But what our city of London hath not at Edinburgh the people so live in in houses and palaces, she hath in shops what they call flats or stories, and that and taverns; which render it so open by there is an old joke among these our day, and cheerfull in the night, that it ap

pears to be a perpetuall wake or wedding to gallant and able fellow countrymen, the beholder ; for so mad and lowd a town *That nae good comes of cleanliness.” is no where to be found in the whole world."

« Most of the houses (at Paris) ordinarily harbour six or often ten families be Hence, perhaps, was originally detwixt beaven and hell, the garrets and the rived the French insult of a nation cellars; and this I take to be the true cause of shopkeepers." of that nastinesse which we usually impute The next extracts which we shall to the nation : persons of quality, and such make are from a Character of England As have room enough, being far more pro- by a French Protestant, in the Comper and sumptuous in their houses then

monwealth æra. Evelyn was much the best of us here in England, however we

offended with it; but ihough an illarrogate the contrary." P. 93,

natured essay, it nevertheless contains The French mode of living is cer-, facts


which a foreigner might be tainly very uncomfortable to an Eng. supposed to put illiberal constructions. lishman. Brick floors without car The traveller, upon his arrival at pets, and people eternally (in collo- Dover, was “entertained by the peo, quial language) bobbing in and out, ple of the town with suspicious and


P. 94.


Review.-Miscellaneous Writings of John Evelyn. 485 forbidding countenances, whispering, "The minister uses no habit of distincand stiff postures. (p. 149.) When he tion of gravity, but steps up in guerpo; and had taken post, and was scarce out of when be laies by his cloak (as I have obthe village, he was amazed at the ac

served some of them), he has the action raclamations of the boys “ running after ther of a thrasher than a divine. This they and affrighting the horses, huoting and call taking pains, and indeed it is so to those crying out, . French dogs, French dogs, encouraged every pert mechanick to invade,

that hear theni; but thus they have now a Mounser, a Mounser!?" (ibid.) And affront, and out-preach them; and having when he arrived at Rochester, " it ap- incancelled all manner of decency, prosti peared a new thing to him that his con

tuted both their persons and function to hdent host set him down cheek by joulusurpatiou, penury, and derision. You may by him, belching and puffing tobacco well imagine by the manners of the people, in his face, though he afterwards found and their prodigious opinions, that there is it to be the usual stile of this country, no catechism nor sacraments duely admiand that the gentlemen who lodged pistered : the religion of England is preachat their inns entertained themselves in ing and sitting still on Sundaies." P. 153. their company, and were much pleased

Our author next declaims against at their impertinences.' P. 150.

the tyranny, ambition, ignorance, spia This tract was written in 1659, and ritual disdain, incharity, and imposthe blessed effects of liberty and equa- ture, which thus " deformed the oncelity are thus exhibited :

renowned Church of England” (pp: « Arrived at the Metropolis of civility: 155, 156); and then proceeds again London, we put ourselves in coach with

to the buildings. If he says a whole some persons of quality who came to con

street of this wooden city were burnt duct us to our lodging ; but neither was this passage without honour done to us;

down, the Magistrate had either no the kennel dirt, squibs, roots, and rams' power nor care to make them build hornes, being favours which were frequently with any uniformity, and thus it hap cast at ús by the children and apprentices pened, that London, " though a large without reproofe ; civilities than in Paris a was yet a very ugly town, pestred with gentleman as seldom meets withall, as with hackney coaches and insolent carrethe contests of carmen, who in this town men, shops and taverns, noyse, and do domineer in the streets, o'erthrow the such a cloud of sea-coal, as if there hell-carts (for so they name the coaches), be a resemblance of hell upon earth, cursing and reviling at the nobles you it is this volcano in a foggy day."would imagine yourself amongst a legion of P. 157. devils and in the suburbs of hell. I have greatly wondered at the remissness of the He next proceeds to the prodigious Magistrate, and the temper of the gentle- number of houses, where they sold a men, and that the citizens who subsist certain drink called ale, a muddy kind onely upon them, should permit so great of beverage, in drinking which, and a disorder, rather joyning in the affronts smoking tobacco, gentlemen spent then at all chastizing the inhumanity. But much of their time (p. 157); though these are the natural effects of parity, popu- others frequented taverns, where they lar libertinism, and insulary manners." P.150. drank Spanish wines, and other som

The situation of London he admires, phisticated liquors, to fury and intembut says that the town itself consists of perance (p. 157); and to these taverns a wooden, Northern, and inartificial transferred the organs out of their congestion of houses, and the princi- churches, singing to them Bacchanapal streets narrow; the Banqueting lian dithrambicks. (p. 158.) Ladies House at Whitehall “built about and of the greatest quality suffered themconverted into raskally warehouses; selves to be treated in these taverns as the Churches made jakes and stables, if they were courtezans, drank their markets and tippling houses” (p. 151); crowned cups (bumpers) roundly, the congregations at the Meetings set- danced after the fiddle, and kissed ting with their hats on, when the freely. [Lord Clarendon mentions Psalms were read, and bare-beaded this practice in his own Life.]. Drinkwhen they were sung; insipid, tedious, ing healths (a very rare thing in and unmethodical prayers; sermons of France) to every one at the table, speculative and abstracted notions and made, he says, the whole company things, which not the people nor ready to fall asleep before the cloth preachers themselves understood. P. was removed; the females, he adds, 152.

boasted of making all advantages at

play ;

436 Review Miscellaneous Writings of John Evelyn. (Nov. play; and then, like a true French neates tongues, salacious meates, and man, he says,

bad Rhenish." P. 105. “ There is here no such thing as court

After condemning our courts of jusship after the decent mode of our circles; tice, where our barristers " supplied for either being mingled in a room, the gen

the defects of the cause by flat, insipid, tlemen separate from the conversation of and gross abuse of each other," he the ladies, to drink, or else to wbisper with commends our bowling-greens, races, one another at some corner, or bay window, horses, dogs, incomparable parks of abandoning the ladies to gossip by them- fallow deer, and laws of hunting ; but selves," P. 161.

this he qualities with a remark, that And thus he says it ensued, that “all Englishmen rode so fast upon these beautiful creatures had not the the roads, that you would swear there assurance, &c. of the French da were some enemie in the ariere; and moiselles, which made them so charm. all the coaches in London seemed to ing, and that the gentlemen were drive for midwives." P. 167. clowus. (p. 161.) There being no He evds with the uffliction (as he court to set the fashions, the women calls it) of not rising from dinner, one too were much affected with gaudry, by one, as the respective persons diued, and old ladies wore colours, “a thing and the tediousness of visits, observwhich neither young nor old of either ing, as a finale, that there were so sex do with us (the French), save in many particulars worthy of reproof," the country and the camp, but widows that in speaking of England, he found at no time.” pp. 161, 162.

it difficile salyram non scribere.Our satirist proceeds to servant. P. 167. maids dressing like their mistresses; to It is known, that in the middle age ladies familiarly calling gentlemen fashions travelled from Italy to France, Tom A. or Jack B. instead of Mous. and from France to England, but that A. or Mons. B. and bragging of ta the forms of Government have made vern treais; of the superciliousness of great difference in the habits of the our nobility, who, from intemperate iwo last countries. France being unhabits, gave birth to the proverb, “ as der absolute dominion, and accustomdrunk as a Lord” (p. 103); and of the ed to look to the court as the sole means ignorance of our gentlemen in dance of advancement in life, imitated that; inz. Speaking of a ball, he says, but the English, a free people, insu

“I was astonished to see when they lated from the Crown, and devoied 10 were ready to move, that a dancing-master making fortunes, contented themselves had the boldness to take forth the greatest with manners similar to that of the ladies, and they again the dancing master, class of society to which they belongwho performed the most part of the ball, ed; for their estimation did not die whilst the gentlemen that were present pend upon th:ir refineinent, but their were least concerned, and stood looking on, wealth. so as it appeared to me more like the farce

Without any adoption of the pejor of a comedy at the flotel de Bourgogne (the fit ælas, as a tenei, unphilosophical Play-house at Paris], than a ball of the noblesse.” P. 164.

and untrue, there is something so com

fortable and domestic in the picture of He then condemns our ample pay of our grandmothers, drawn by Evelyn dancing- masters, who rode in their himself, that we are satisfied of one coaches,-ladies atteuding their school thing; viz. that wives were so usesul, balls (p. 164); our coarseness in rail- and so less expensive, that the chance lery, as degenerating into personal of obtaining husbands, though they abuse. (p. 165.) The incumbrance of had no fortunes, was then much Hyde Park, which was farmed of the greater, and parents and daughters far Crown, with wretched jades (horses] more happy. We do not think that and hackney coaches. (p. 165.) The

our ancestors were greater fools for fast walking of the ladies in St. James's studying comforts more than display. Park, and the stay of some of th« m till Evelyn, after speaking of the leuuism midnight, the place being furnished and selleism of his age, treats at the with thickets, 'contrived io all advane play, the park, and musick, presents tages of gallantry,” after taking a colla at the ruffle, following Miss 1o Tuntion “at a certain cabaret in the mid- Istige, praising her singing and dancdle of this paradise, where the forkid ing, friblleismis on the part of the den fruits were certain trilling laries, suilor, und attractions, on that of le



1825.) REVIEW.Miscellaneous Writings of John Evelyn. 437 males, properly appertaining to ac To resume: tresses only, speaks in the following “ In those happy days, Sure-foot the

grave and steady inare carried the good “Thus you see, young sparks, how the knight and his courteous lady behind him to stile aud method of wooing is quite changed, without so many hell-carts (the term is

church, and to visit the neighbourhuod, as well as the language, since the days of before used for coaches, see p. 150], ratour forefathers (of unhappy memory, simple and plain men as they were), who tling coaches, and a crew of lacqueys, which courted and chose their wives for their mo

a grave livery servant or two supyly'd, who desty, frugality, keeping at home, good

rid before, and made way for his worship. housewifery, and other economical virtues, wholesome; nothing was superfluous, no

“ Things of use were natural, plain, and then in reputation, and when the young thing necessary wanting ; and men of esdamsels were taught all these in the country, and at their parents' houses, the por

tate studied the public good, and gave extion they brought was more in virtue than amples of true piety, loyalty, justice, soin money; and she was a richer match than briety, charity, and the good neighbourhood one who brought a million and nothing else

composed most differences; perjury, subornto commend her. The presents which were

ing witnesses, alimony, avowed adulteries, made when all was concluded, were a ring,

and misses (then the term for kept women, a necklace of pearls, and perhaps another

repeatedly used by Evelyn in his Diary], fair jewel

, the lona paraphernalia of her publickly owned, were prodigies in those prudent mother, whose nuptial mirtle gown days, and laws were reason, nor craft, when and petticoat lasted as many anniversaries as

mens titles were secure, and they served the happy couple lived together, and were

their generation with honour, left their paat last bequeathed with a purse of old gold, heir, who, passing from the free school to

trimonial estates improved to an hopeful rose-nobles, spur-royals, and spankees *, as 'an beir-loom to her grand-daughter.

the college, and thence to the inus of court, plate, whole chests of dainask for the table, example of his worthy ancestors ; and if he “They had cupboards of ancient useful acquainting himself with a competent tincs

ture of the laws of his country, followed the and store of fine Holland 'sheets (white as

travelled abroad, it was not to count stee. the driven snow), and fragrant of rose and lavender for the bed; and the sturdy oaken ples, and bring home feather and ribbon, bedstead, and furniture of the house, lasted such experience as rendered him useful to

and the sins of other nations, but to gain one whole century; the shovel-board [ex his Prince and his country upon occasion, plained in Encyclopædia of Antiquities, ii


and confirmed him in the love of both of 605), and other long tables, both in hall and parlour, were as fixed as the freehold;

'em above any other. nothing was moveable save joyat-stools, the

“ The virgins and young ladies of that black-jacks, silver tankards and bowls; and golden age, quæsierunt lanam et linum, put

their hands to the spindle, nor disdaine though many things fell out between the cup and the lip, when happy ale, March they the needle ; were obsequious and helpbeer, metheglin (a mixture of water, honey, ful to their parents, instructed in the maand all sorts of herbs. Encyclop. of Antiq.1. nagery of the family, and gave presages of 405), malmesey, and old sherry, got the making excellent wives. Nor then did they

read so many romances, see so many plays nscendant amongst the blew coats and

and smutty farces ; set up for visits, and badges (uniformly the livery of servants. Encycl. of Antiq. ii . 564,661). They sung time, honest gleek [a game in which deucos

have their days of audience, and idle passOld Symon and Cheviot Chase, and danc'd · Brave-Arthur, and were able to draw a bow,

and trays were thrown out, Complete Gamesthat made the proud Monsieur tremble at

ter, p. 67), Ruff and Honours [English

whist, so common in England, as to be the whizze of the grey-goose feather. 'Twas then ancient hospitality was kept up in toun played by children of eight years old, id. 84],

diverted the ladies at Christmas, and they and country, by which ihe tenants were ena

knew not so inuch as the names of ombre, vled to pay their landlords at punctual day; the poor were relieved bountifully, and charity Their retirements were devout and religious

comet and basset. (See Nares's Glossary.] was as warm as the kitchen, where the fire books, and their recreations in the distille was perpetual." Pp. 700, 701.

tory, the knowledge of plants and their virThus it appears that our ancestors

tues, for the comfort of their poor neighconsidered hospitality, by its implying bours and use of the family, which wholeconsumption of the commodities grown

some plain dyet and kitchen physick preby the fariner, essential towards ena

served in perfect health. In those days the bling them to pay their rents.

scurvy, spleen, &c. were scarce heard of, till foreiga drinks and mixtures were wan..

tonly introduced. Nor were the young gen* Spanish gold coins, we presume,

then tlewomen so universally afflicted with hysin circulation. See Ruding, iii. 131.-Rev. tcrical fits, nor, though extremely wodest,


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