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498
Review.--Sherburne's Life of Paul Jones.

[Nov abolition of corporal punishment in want of a chaplain. We think so too ; regard to naval and military service. but as it may amuse our readers to see

“Splendid as had been his (Jones's] Paul Jones in the character of a Bisuccesses, he was convinced that, had be shop, we shall give his own account been properly supported, much more might of the sort of religionist he desired to have been done. A great want of subordi- have: nation had been always apparent in his men ;

“ I should wish him to be a man of readthe American common sailors carrying their notions of Civil Government on board a man

ing and of letters, who understands, speaks, of-war, imagined that they had a right to

and writes the French and English with be consulted whenever any extraordinary elegance and propriety; for political readuty was to be performed. Jones had been sons, it would be well if he were a Clergyformed in a very different school; he was a

man of the Protestant profession, whose strict disciplinarian, and required everything sanctity of manners, and happy natural printo be performed with the most rigid punc- ciples, would diffuse unanimity and cheertuality and obedience. But he was well fulness through the ship; and if to these acquainted with the faults of the American

essentials were added the talent of writing

fast and in fair characters, such a man naval system, and his ambition was to reform it. His patience was, however, some

would necessarily be worthy the highest what taxed, when on making signals to his

confidence, and might therefore assure himconsort the Drake, he found them totally self of my esteem and friendship : he should disregarded, and that Lieutenant Simpson, always have a place at my table, the regulawho commanded the prize, did not consider

tion whereof should be entirely under his himself amenable to his authority.” P.41.

direction." P. 59. Jones then proceeded to Brest, the Thus the Chaplain was not to be American Commissioners (though the Jones's spiritual instructor, but Capdescendants of John Bull in the old tain's clerk and ship's steward besides. country would have died first) having A command in the French service was landed to solicit the aid of France; not, however, so easily to be obtained; and certain it is that a man who could for the native officers did not like to fight an English vessel of war, at par, serve under a foreigner, nor was it pruwas deemed a wonderful acquisition by dent to put one over their heads. Jones, both countries, indicative of the possi- who he says himself, drew his sword bility of kicking Great Britain into the only from principles of philanthropy, sea like a foot-ball. Sir Richard Gren- and in support of the dignity of huvill (says Evelyn, Miscellanies, 664) man nature !! but spoiled these hewith but 130 'soldiers (of which 90 roics by an honest confession that his were sick and useless) in the ship Re- ' desire for fame was infinite," had revenge, maintained a conflict for 24 ceived a foolish promise from the hours against 50 Spanish galleons, Prince of Nassau, ihat he would acsinking four of their best vessels ;" but, company him (Jones) as a volunteer, compared with Paul Jones, Grenville and had the vexation to find the Prince was only Tom Thumb to King Ar- retreat. Jones then wrote a letter 10 thur.

the King (Louis XVI.) and such was After Jones landed (for he delighted the effect of his appeal, that he was in the union of Mars and Venus), he appointed to the command of the Duwrote a polite letter in the Countess of ras of 40 guns. This appellation of Selkirk, in order to effect a restoration the ship Jones, from his respect to of the plate, an honourable delicacy of Franklin, begged to change to the feeling, which it seems philosopher “ Bon Homme Richard," from FrankFranklin (p. 48) did not think it worth lin's authorship of “ Poor Richard's Jones's while to consult. It was, how. Almanack,” though

« Bon Hoinine ever, placed within the reach of Lord Benjaminwould evidently have been Selkirk. 'Jones next tried to obtain more intelligible. Difficulties and desewards for his men, but his adopted Jays, however, occurred again. The countrymen had no money so to do. object of Jones's expedition was to He was not, however, disgusted. He land suddenly near all important towns required fast-sailing ships of force suffi- of Great Britain that were within a cient to repel our cruizing frigates, and reasonable march, and put them to proposed to harass and plunder our high ransoms, under the threat of coasts; and that the interests of Reli- burning them (p. 78); but the French gion and Morals might not be forgot. Court thought the scheme improveten also, he writes that he was in great able into a general invasion, " which

they

P. 18.

1825.] RBVIBW.-Sherburne's Life of Paul Jones.

499 they sapiently inferred, from the lucky war, could only be considered as a redescents of Jones, whom they thought bel and a piraie. P. 104. another Coriolanus, had a great chance The Dutch Government declined of being successful. (p. 79.). How- interference, and Jones and the Ameever, as it would be a useful diversion ricans were successfully intriguing with in favour of the grand project, on the them, as they had done with the French, 1gth of April, 1779, the American “ to declare war against Great Britain, squadron, Bon Homme Richard, 42 and join the common cause.” guns, Alliance 36 guns, Pallas 30 Now there is a simple mode of tryguns, Cerf 18 guns, and the Ven- ing, the effects of physick; i. e. by geance 12 guns, sailed from L'Orient, taking it. The French and the Dutch, under the command of the Honourable by taking American physick, brought Commodore John Paul Jones. The down upon themselves a revolution and object was to surprise Leith, and ex a military despotism, which hurled the tort a ransom of 200,000l. from his Bourbons and the Orange family froin brother Scotchmen; but want of co their thrones. operation in the French officers, a sud “ Verily (says our author), the French den storm, and a large body of troops Cabinet had their reward. The very men at Edinburgh, prevented the execu who, authorized by their secret instructions, tion of the scheme. The next event hastened to assist rebellion in the colonies was the celebrated action with the of a friendly power, returned to exercise in Serapis, the parallel of which is not to their own country a retributive vengeance." be found in the naval annals of any nation. (p. 87.) Now this is really Jones escaped to France; and we too much for any one acquainted with suppose, through not having a Chap the exploits of Nelson, and of many lain with him there, thought only of other heroes of the late Revolutionary Fielding's addition to the code of hoWar. The fact was, that Jones be- nour, arising from the connection of ing a British subject, would, if cap- Mars and Venus, viz.“ that challenges tured, have been hanged as a traitor, to love and to fight are both to be acand therefore chose the least of two cepted.” He had acquired much fame evils; and that Captain Pearson struck as a warrior, and of course was a fahis Aag because the Alliance sailed vourite with the women. In p. 143, up to the support of Jones. Though we have an erotic poetical effusion to the French commander of that ship a Miss Dumas. ln p. 153, a love-sick did not do his duty towards Jones *, Delia, a sentimental Jass, who would Capt. Pearson could not tell that, and willingly, have been the lowest of his to him it must have appeared waste of crew, if he would but take her with life without object, to continue so un- him to America. Jones, however, equal a contest; especially as his main- left her to wear the willow, in order mast had gone overboard, and he could to gain a Countess de Lavendahl. pot escape. Let us suppose that he This coquet, after having Airted with had not struck, and that the Bon him, handed Jones over to her husHomme had sunk,-what then? The hand, as soon as the former proposed a Alliance would have borne down upon secret correspondence, “ being astohim with impunity. In fact, as stated nished at his audacity” (p. 156), but in p. 101, "the Serapis struck 10 nevertheless, not willing to draw either Jones's ship and the 32 gun frigate." into a duel, concluded her letter with

Jones made further depredations at a request that he would shew the Hull among the merchantmen, and Couni, her husband, every civility as then sailed to the Texel. Here he he passed throngh L'Orient. The real found our Ambassador Sir Joseph object seems to have been a joint exYorke demanding of their High pedition of the Count with Jones, by Mightinesses the restitution of the sea and land (sce p. 158), for which English ships, and the delivery unto the fair Countess was tickling Jones the King his master of a certain Paul like a trout. Several Frenchmen, glad Jones, a subject of the King, who, of opportunities of display, wanted also according to treaties and the laws of to join him as volunteers; the mean

ing of all which is, that, as the Baron * Apparently he wished Jones to be sunk de Stael informs us, the public service or taken, and then capture the Serapis him- is on the Continent the sole means of self easily.

acquiring rank and fortune. By the

farour

430

Review. Sherburne's Life of Paul Jones. (Nov, favour of Franklin, Jones was put in trumpery conquests as that of Paul command of the American frigate Al. Jones,-a traitor fighting to prevent liance; and as soon as he was in that being hanged, and canting with the situation, found that a Mr. Arthur Americans and French under the osLee, a bitter enemy of Franklin, and tentation of patriotism, to gratify bis a M. Landais, had laid various plots to own ambition. We are forced into ruin him. Jones, however, got over these remarks, by insulting misrepreit, and in his efforts so to do, rests his sentations. Every body knows, ihat claims to patronage opon his hostility after Rodney set the example of breakto the English, and the mischief to be ing the line, victory attended the Engdone to them through their commerce, lish. Paul Jones represents this very and incursions on their coasts. A circumstance in the following light, greater man than Jones, Napoleon viz. that the English did so from ignohimself, made the attempt with the rance of superior French naval tactics; whole power of France, and that of that is, that they broke the line from all the Continent. In the American ignorance ! Clarke's quarto volume war, the French, &c. (&c. only) were of course never had existence. Paul the mastives engaged with the lion was artfully persuading the French, Nero; but in that which followed, that they might gain a victory by keepthey found that they had Wallace to ing the line of battle; and to support deal with ; and we can certainly ven- this, he tells some bouncing stories. ture to say, with regard to Jones's preposterous derogations of Great Britheir Navy, vever fought a ranged battle on

“ The English, who boast so much of tain, that Nelson would have punished the ocean before the war that is now ended. his presumption by suspension at the 'The battle off Ushant was, on their part, yard-arm as a traitor, at the end of a

like their former ones, irregular; and Admonth. The conquest of America by miral Keppell could only justify himself by Great Britain was a physical impossi- the example of Hawke in our remembrance, bility; and, because this was seen and of Russell in the last century. From through, they persuaded the French that moment the English were forced to that the subjugation of the parent study and to imitate the French in their country was only to burn a fishing evolutions. They never gained any advantown without a garrison,-armies after tage when they had to do with equal force, armies vanquished in Spain,-fleets and the unfortunate defeat of Count de after fleets destroyed, the tremendous Grasse, was owing more to the unfavoura

ble circumstance of the wind coming a-head Napoleon chained upon the rock of St. Helena ;-"and yet nothing can pa- which put his feet into the order of eche

four points at the beginning of the battle, rallel the engagement of Paul Jones quier, when it was too late to tack, and of with the Serapis!" We really are petri- calm and currents afterwards, which brought fied by this bombastic gorgon's head. on an entire disorder, than to the AdmiBut the Americans confess that they ralship or even the vast superiority of Rodnever had a naval oslicer equal in va ney, who had forty sail of the line against lour and talent 10 Jones. True ; but thirty, and five three-deckers Against one. that man was not an Ainerican. God By the accounts of some of the French offisend them as many brave officers and cers, Rodney might as well have been asleep, as many blessings as they desire, as not having inade a second signal during the long as they have natural feelings to

battle, so that every Captain did as he wards the glorious land of their fore pleased.” P. 183. fathers. To talk now of the tyranny We are acquainted with officers of Great Britain, is utter nonsense'; who were in that action. It is true and had his father, uncle, or brother, that after Rodney had broken the or cousin, been in service on board the line, a calm sprung up, and our ships Serapis, and killed by the fire of the were left in ihe midst of the enemy, Bon Homme Richard, Jobn Paul without power on either side to avail Jones would have buried them with themselves of tactics. The French funeral honours, and viudicated trea had taken on board the day before a

quantity of live oxen for fresh proviThese, however, are matters of prin- sions, and had not had time to slow ciple; and we should not notice them, them. When the broadsides comif these American narratives did not menced, the poor distracted animals on shew an insuperable propensity to de- the decks, in their wild motions, bafgrade their ancestors, and with such fed all order, and gave that advantage

son.

1825.] REVIEW.--Miscellaneous Writings of John Evelyn. 431 to our Admiral. But this is all of showed invincible bravery, masterly which we could ever hear. Paul Jones diplomacy, and chivalrous courtesy ; adds,

but what shall we say to his unnatural " The English are very deficient in sig- hostility to his native country, -a pals as well as in naval tactics." P. 184. country remarkable for nationality,

He was a Scotchman, who formed a. Sir Home Popham has, we believe, plan for plundering Edinburgh; he most importantly improved the fore was a fighting Fauntleroy, instead of mer; and, for the latter, let the late

a banking one; and would have prey. war speak. Paul says, that he never ed upon the funds and vitals of his knew any thing of naval tactics till relatives, his friends, and countrymen. he was acquainted with that great Most Scotchmen would prefer death. tactician Count d'Orvilliers and his Bernadotte never entered 'France, and judicious assistant the Chevalier du him Napoleon had tried to depose. Pavillion.” p. 185. Now those great What had Scotland done to Paul tactics were merely to escape defeat, Jones? not to gain victory; but the English In short, as an officer, his conduct broke the line, and what became of is a good exemplar, and for that obthe great tacticians ?

ject his life ought to be studied. In Here ended Paul's days of glory. all other respects, he was an unnatural Except as a diplomatist, and a Rear parricide. He had not suffered by Admiral under ihe Russian service, in ihe American war; nor had his couiiwhich he defeated the Turks (as the try injured him in any shape. Greeks have done by fire-ships only), we hear no more of Paul Jones. The Proditori nulla fides followed him 77. The Miscellaneous Wrilings of John wherever he went. His bravery and

Evelyn, Esq. F.R.S. Author of « Sylva, talent were respected, but his princi

or a Discourse of Forest Trees,Memoirs, ples were questioned. The Court of &c. Now first collected, with occasional Denmark pensioned him, to buy off a

Notes, by William Upcott, of the London dangerous man; and the Empress Ca

Institution. 410. pp. 849. Colburn. tharine made a tool of him as long as IN every country village, says Swift, he was wanted: but to suppose that it is necessary that there should be one the Monarchs of Europe would en man who can read and write; and we tangle themselves with him and the would add, that it is necessary for republican doctrines of America, was every gentlemian resident in the counutierly absurd. Catharine soaped his try, that he should have a taste for the nose with the order of St. Anne, then pleasures of imagination. The exerpulled it, and he retired into France, cise of this quality is intimately conassigning his dismissal to the intrigues nected with the existence of the emoof the English, and died at Paris in tions of sublimity and beauty. Unless June 1791. The National Assembly this exercise of imagination be excited, went into mourning on account of his whatever is great or beautiful in the death, and no doubt wore the same scenery of external nature, the land-. clothes for many of their own relatives, scapes of Claude Lorrain, the music of whom the flattery of Paul Jones and Handel, the poetry of Milton, excite the politics of America had brought only feeble, it'any, emotions. to an untimely end by the guillotine. As all the pleasures of intellect arise

We will, however, do justice to the from the association of ideas, the more really great personal merits of Paul the materials of association are multiJones. Born in obscurity, with the plied, the more will the sphere of these consciousness of superior talents, Ame pleasures be enlarged. To a mind rica presented an opening for the exer. richly stored, almost every object of tion of them, which he never could nature or art which presents itself to have found in the old countries, with the senses, either excites fresh trains out going through the usual routine of and combinations of ideas, or vivifies service, which at the age of twenty- and strengthens those which existed eight was impracticable. In com- before; so that recollection enhances merce he had been unsuccessful; and enjoyment, and enjoyment heightens desperation made him an adventurer. recollection. Qualified for a hero, as a warrior, a We have made these remarks, beStatesman, and as a geotleman, he cause we think that they philosophia

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432 REVIEW.-Miscellaneous Writings of John Evelyn. [Nos. cally explain the intellectual habits of the kernel," or counts steeples; but Evelyn, and furnish a useful sugges he who in foreign manners sees things tion for augmenting the pleasures of which may improve his own, "espepersons resident in the country. It is cially in point of drink and tobacco, not sufficient to be a sportsman or a which are our Northern, national, and farmer. These avocations are only most sordid of vices.” (p. 46.) The connected with the kitchen-garden of truth is, that men travel for education the mind; they have nothing to do at an age when they are least qualified with its park or shrubbery. They and inclined to indulge in ethical, phimay gratify the necessity for action, á losophical, and political studies; and necessity as powerful as that for eat if they travel in more mature years,

it ing, but they do not make it plea. is either for business, or to little pursurable also." In short, it is obvious pose in ethics, unless they have lived that innocent enjoyments cannot be among the people for some time, and too much multiplied under rural resi then it is too often only the miserable dence; and that musick, books, draw- drudgery of unlearning what is good ing, landscape-gardening, and plant- and besi. We really think the advaning, are essential ingredients of feli tages of travel, as to political and mocity in the situation described.

ral good, to be merely the Hibernian Such a man was Evelyn,-a man gain of a loss; for “Frenchified and who, in the words of our Author, was Italianized Englishmen" are not those a perfect model of what an English from whom their country derives begentleman should be; a man whose nefit. Besides, there is nothing in whole life was devoted to the advance. which Mind is of more consequence, ment of those arts which iTave been than in Travel. A fool brings back the source of the wealth, greatness, only snuff-boxes and cigars, and reand prosperity of his country. Pref. members nothing more than his re

freshments, accoinmodations, and adThe first article of this volume is a ventures, in his peregrinations. He Tract on Liberty and Servitude, trans- brings home no improvements in com, lated from the French of La Mothe le merce, the conveniences of life, and Vayer, a crafty rogue, who finding his the arts. Sir Rich. Sutton brought Vertu des Payens drop dead from the to England clover and the locks of press, procured a Government order canals; and a philosophical Frenchfor its suppression, in consequence of man would take home from England which manæuvre the whole edition the steam-engine. was rapidly sold. P. 3.

From this preface we proceed to We were startled, not being in- Evelyn's “ Account of the state of clined to think a Frenchman's idea of France, at the period in question." He liberty sound law on the subject; but begins with a Court Calendar of the this fox confines himself to philosophi- titles of the Royal Family, from which cal liberty, freedom from the tyranny we learn (inter alia) that the Salic of passions and appetites, and wisely law, or bar to the succession of females, considers, concerning the political sort, was only a piece of Court legerderthat “ Louis the Just is such a Prince, main, ci to elude and invalidate the that there is no imagining liberty which title of our former and ancient Kings can possibly be so sweet and advanta- of England, as to succession in the geous uuto us, as the obedience ren- right of their mothers and wives.” dered to him. (p. 36.) La Mothe la (p. 54.) By this the French have unVayer was called the French Plutarch, intentionally rendered us the most vaand assuredly this tract is an admirablé luable of services, for had our Moimitation of one of that Greek's essays. narchs succeeded to the throne in

The second Essay is, The state of question, Paris would have been the France as it stood in the ninth yeer of Metropolis, and England become only this present Lewis the XIII. This a province. He next gives us the chatract is headed by a preface, in which racters of the Royal Family in flatterit is observed, concerning foreign tra- ing colours, and then adjoins the vel, chat a man derives no benefit from French opinions of Royal illegitimates, it who passes through a country “like &c. in the following words : a goose swimming down a' river"

Touching the natural issue of the (p. 46), acquires only the language, Kings of France (who are ever in this kind "a parrot virtue,” the “ shell only of country in very great reputation and place,

suitable

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