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1825.) Progress of Discovery, Navigation, and Commerce. 395 foundry of Mr. Mears, of Whitecha- removals from that country to Greece. pel. Thc tenor weighs 20 cwt. Sidon, as appears from the expressions

The ground on which the Church of Jacob, had already obtained importis built was given by the Corporation ances; the epithet "great” is applied of the Trinity House, who are the to it by Joshua, who also terms Tyre owners of considerable property in the “a strong city 6 ;" and its quiet and vicinity.

security are expressly stated by the Yours, &c.

E.I.C. succeeding annalist?.

The Phænicians, although cooped Note.- New Churches, No. IV. Vol. within a narrow territory, possessed xciv. ii. p. 489.–Camden Town Chapel some valuable advantages : to an excelwas built by the Parish, upassisted by the lent harbour were added the forests of Commissioners for the building of New Lebanon, and the strong impulse of Churches.

necessity. Their unfortunate brethrens,

in their fight from a conqueror whom Brief Historical Sketch of the Pro, they termed a “robber,” lined the

gress of Discovery, Navigation, and African coast, from Kartha-kadtha (or, Commerce.

in its corrupt but softer form, Car. session of iron constitutes, hu- clear indication of hostility at an early manly speaking, the difference between period between the kindred nations. savage life and civil society': , This The possession of a settlement on that assertion must be received with one side of the Strait was undoubtedly alimportant limitation, that the Chal- luring, though unkind treatment is deans, who are described as expert ar the traditionary cause; however, the mourers, were rude in the extreme. Tyrian chief (the Hercules of antiNevertheless, this remark illustrates quity) attacked the infant settlement, one of Montesquieu, that discovery reduced it by blockade, and put Antai, was formerly the result of conquest, as the founder, to death. In the true conquest is now of discovery S.

spirit of a warrior, he married the The latter acute writer has defined woman he had widowed, and, long the history of Commerce to be that of after, the Kings of Mauritania adorned the intercourse of vations, whose cala- their ancestry with his name: mities and migrations form a material The Pelasgi, whether Cuthites or

Aborigines, first rendered PeloponAfter the dispersion at Babel, there nesus entirely habitable. About 1820 is no professed notice of Commerce. B.C. Ænotris led the superfluous poThe purchase of a burial-ground by pulation to Italy, and settled in LucaAbraham was made with silver coin, nia; subsequent establishments were which is particularized as being made by the Arcadians, Lydians, and rent with the merchant*" (B.C. 1860); Thessalians, and the colonists were so and the descendants of Ishmael are in- nicely blended with the natives, that troduced about a century after, as deal- their descent became the undisputed ers in spices and slaves. During the propert 7 of fabulists and poets". same age, a miraculous famine made Passing along the stream of tradiEgypt the staple and granary of the tion, we arrive at the voyage of the East, while the influence arising Argonauts, B.C. 1263, which derived from its ability to supply other nations its com non name from the fleeces exwith corn, occasioned 'many colonial tended across the rivers to catch the

part of its.

cur

Natural Theology, p. 98. ? De L'Esprit des Lois, b. xxi. c. 9.

3 Ibid. c. 5. 4 Genes. xxiii. 15.–St. Augustine remarks (De Civ. 1.4), “ Ut Argentinus Deus diceretur filius Æsculani, quod ærea moneta argentum præcessisset....Jano tribuitur à plerisque origo signandæ pecuniæ, quod in alterå fronte nummorum adscriberetur ejus caput, in alterå vero fronte, vel Davis, vel pons, vel corona.

Licet alii velint navim appositam fuisse nummis Italicis, quod Saturnus navi vectus fuisset in Italiam." Suarez de Nummis, Amst. 1683, pp. 7, 8. 5 Gen. 49, 13. 6 Josh, xix. 28, 29. ? Judges, xviii. 7.

8 Gen. x. 15–19. 9 See Bochart, and the authorities referred to in Horne's Crit. Introd. iv. 32. lo Plutarch, Vit. Sertor. Strabo, 3. Newton's Chronology, p. 198, 233, et seq.

11 Bryant, Anal. of Myth. iv. 21. D'Hancarville notices historiques sur l'origine des Pelasques, &c. apud Ant. Etrusques, vol. V.

particles

396 Progress of Discovery, Navigation, and Commerce. (Nov. particles of gold. Owing to their ig: revive the former, commerce, B.C. porance of the sea, or mistrust of a di, 896, but after the loss of one Heet, he rect course, these adventurers visited did not venture on a second attempt. Lemnos, Samothrace, Troas, Cyzicus, The fall of continental Tyre opened Bithniæ, and Thrace: after beating a prospect of aggrandisement to Carabout the Euxine, they discovered thage, and peopled it with industrious Mount Caucasus, which 'served them exiles. Its mariners were familiar with for a landmark, and anchored near the coasts of Albion '6, though their Ea, the capital of Colchis. The con

visits are

more distinctly traced in tradictory accounts of their return in- lernes. Their encroachments in Spain dicate that they were tempted by suc- were resisted by the peuy princes, who cess to embark in other expeditions. cultivated the friendship of the PhoHowever, their exploits became so fa- cæans 18; nevertheless, on quitting their mous as to be associated, even to the country, the latter preferred the com- name of theirvessel'”, with the tradition- modious harbour of Marseilles, where, ary accounts of the Deluge. During the being seldom molested, and generally Trojan War, Eunæus of Lemnos, son victorious'', they maintained a respectof Jason, is related to have furnished able station, till reduced by the arms the Grecian camp with wines, for of Cæsar. Their geographer, Pytheas, which he received' metals, hides, and is celebrated for a voyage, in which it slaves 13.

is said he coasted Spain, France, and The misfortunes which befel most Britain, as far as the northern extreof the Grecian chiefs on their return mity of that island, whence he bore for from Troy, occasioned many emigra- Thule (whatever place be meant by tions. Southern Italy and the west- that name) and the Baltic. ern coast of Italy were the principal The Egyptians were averse to maresort. The successful wars of David ritime attempts as a nation, but the brought under Hebrew dominion Elath enterprising Necho achieved the first and Gzion-geber, two harbours on the circuinnavigation of Africa. He sent Red Sea, but the religious institutions some Phænician vessels from the Red of the Israelites, which obliged them Sea through the straits of Babelmandel, to visit Jerusalem thrice in a year, to discover the coast; and in the third were unfavourable to maritime expe- year they returned by the Mediterraditions.4; their ships, therefore, were nean : the shadow falling to the South, manned by Phænician sailors, who after they had passed the line; the debrought from the Mediterranean and lay of stopping 10 sow and reap grain Ophin's, precious metals and curious for their subsistence, and the space of animals. Horses were imported from three years employed in the voyage, Egypt. Jehoshaphat endeavoured to are the proofs on which it rests. In 18 1278, Argoz. 13 Hom. II. vii. 467–75.

14 Deut. xvi. 16. 15 “ An unknown place, concerning which a great deal has been written, but which appears to have left some traces in Ofor, an Arabian district, at the entrance of the Persian Gulf.” Volney, Ruins of Empires, p. 31, 1. 5. note, where the reference is made to new Researches in Ancient History, vol. I. and Travels in Syria, vol. II.

16 This was the name given collectively by foreigners to the island ; in the Bardic relics it is termed “Ynys Prydain," or, the Beautiful Island, whence Britain : and its divisions Lloegyr, Cymru, aud Alban, or England, Wales, and Scotland. Cambrian Register, 1795,

17 In a Welsh poem composed about A.D. 630, and entitled “ Arymes Prydain Vawr," or, the Great Armed Confederacy of Britain, Ireland is termed Iwerddon ; mention is also made of its capital in these lines,

“A gynhell Dulyn genhyn a savant,

Pan ddyfont i'r gâd nid ymwadant."
“ And the leaders of Dublin will stand firm in our behalf :
When they come into the battle they will not desert the cause."

Camb. Reg. 1796, p. 563. See Cols. Vallancey and Montmorency-Morres,

18 Herod. i. 163.

19 Thucyd. i. 23. Voltaire, in his Posthumous Observations on the French Language, has the following remark: “ There are no words in the French Language derived from the Greek, but those relating to the Arts. This is a sufficient proof that the Greeks established a factory, not a colony, at Marseilles, and that the Celtic language prevailed there." Perhaps it is important with regard to the latter inference.

after

P. 23.

1825.] Progress of Discovery, Navigation, and Commerce. $97 after times, Eudoxus of Cyzicus, fly- instigated by the measures of his Ining from the rage of Ptoleiny Lathy. dian neighbour, Maraja. This morus, is said to have accomplished the narch, who was contemporary with same route. On the other hand, Sa- Hystaspes (father of Darius, and Go taspes, a Persian who attempted it by vernor of Turkistan), having reduced the straits of Gibraltar, proceeded no Guzerat," built a port in that country, further than Sallee, being impeded by where he constructed vessels, and carthe periodical East wind. Hanno, the ried on commerce with all the states Carthaginian, who sailed on a colonis- of Asia2." Darius, whose dominions ing expedition about 400 B.C. did not are extended by geographers as far as reach the Cape. Those, observes Mon- Moultan, sent Scylax, a Greek, with tesquieu, whoset out from the Red Sea, a fleet, eastward 14 down the Indus, had this evident advantage, the com who arrived at the Red Sea after a royparative nearness of the Cape; while age of 30 months. Whatever may be others, on quitting the coast of Guinea, thought of this story, its geographicould not reach it without a compass, cal inaccuracy, the coasting of the an invention at that time unknown 20. Gedosian shore, when compared with

It is now time to advert to the the difficulties encountered by Alexchanges produced in Asia by the su- ander's mariners, the object appears perfluous population of the North. rather to have been political, and an About 630 B.C. the Massagetæ of acquisition of territory was the results, Turkistan moving westward, dislodged The disastrous expedition of Darius the Nomadic Scythians, who crossed to Scythia was attended with beneficial the Araxes, and occupied the territo. cousequences to geographical knowries of the Cimmerií. These latter, ledge; having crossed the eastern diafter a protracted debate, in which a visions of the Danube, and the Don, considerable number perished, Aed he proceeded through Podolia to the along the sea coast; part of them set banks of the Wolga, whence he was iled on the site of the modern Sinul, led by the retreating inhabitants in the while others possessed themselves of direction of Vologhda. Fortunately Lydia, during the reign of Ardys, by for his army, he returned by the same whose grandson, Alyattes, they were indirect course. Whatever was known expelled. The Scythians missed the of this region, observes the illustrator course of the fugitives, and leaving of Herodotus, was evidently the result Mount Caucasus on the right, entered of this expedition. Media by the Upper route: after an One of the most valuable geographiascendancy of 28 years, in which they cal remains is the Melpomene of Hepenetrated Palestine, having rendered rodotus: this inquisitive and judicious themselves odious by their rapacity, historian visited a considerable portion they were destroyed by Cyaxareszt. of the space he describes, which porIn the poetical relics of Persian his- tion may be comprised within Syrene, tory, this migration may be traced in Italy, the Danube, and Babylon. Euthe various invasions of Afrasialc, or doxus of Cnidus, as a geographer, and the Asiatic Tartar, during the Seventh Pytheas of Marseilles, as a voyager, il, Century, which were terminated by lustrate the period between Herodotus the illustrious]Rustem, about 600 years and Alexander the Great. before Christ.

Selden remparks, "there never breath, From their veneration of the ele. ed that person to whom mankind was ments, the Persians were

more beholden” than Aristotle; yer maritime expeditions, and the same much of this eulogy belongs to his en superstition exists at this day. Darius, terprising pupil. Previous to the batwhose attention to his revenue procur- tle of Gaugamela he bad trayersed ed him the surname of broker 29, seems Egypt and Libya, visited the Red Sea, alone to have turned his thoughts to and explored the countries on the Cas commerce, to which he was probably pian and Seą of Azof. From that

averse to

20 B. xxi. c. 10.

9' Herod. i. 15, 16, 103. iv. 11, 12. There is some confusion in his narrative with re: gard to the two continents; but his account of the massacre of the Scythians is confirmed by the policy of Shah Abbas, who took off the Curdish chiefs at a feast. 23 Herod. üi. 89. 23 Dow's History of Hindostan, i. 8. 24 The course of the Indus is South-west.

25 Herod. ii. 44.

398 Progress of Discovery, Navigation, and Commerce. (Nov. time his expedition ought to be con diterranean, by a canal ; and establishsidered as one of discovery; at the ed a caravan between Egypt and AbysEast of the Penjab his soldiers refused sinia. But the rapid progress of Rome to proceed further, but their return disappointed their extensive views; the was made beneficial to science, being Carthaginian colonies on the West of conducted by a different route. Hav- Africa perished, or were blended with ing explored the mouth of the Indus, the savage nations; while the liberty where he was struck with astonish- of Greece languished from the death ment at the tides, he returned through Philopæmen to the capture of Athens Gedrosia (the modern Neckran) to Ba- by Sylla. bylon. The Indian ocean and Persian A survey of the Roman dominions gulf were, in the njeanwhile, success was planned by Julius Cæsar, and fully navigated by Nearchus ; and other finished under Augustus, by Greek voyages were projected when Alexander geographers. In the reign of the latwas carried off by a fever, which in ter, Arabia was partially, and Ethiothe hands of later writers has been ex- pia successfully explored. aggerated into debauchery.

Reverting to the West, we learn The motives of Alexander were as from Diodorus, that tin was carried honourable as his views were liberal; from Cornwall to St. Michael's Mount but his successors degenerated while at low water, and thence to the northhis empire decayed : * thus (says an

ern coast of France, and transported on eloquent historian) did the growing horses to Marseilles, being a journey dishonesty of the Greeks, the proud of 30 days. The same author mentions tyranny of the Romans, the barbarous Orcas as the northern extremity of the despotism of the Parthians, and all island, which was first circumnavigatsucceeding Asiatic dynasties, conspire ed by Agricola. to defeat the sanguine hopes concern While Justinian possessed a numering the improvement of the Eastern ous fleet, and effected maritime conworld, that had been entertained by quests, the naval history of the West Alexander, and by him partly realised. presents little but piracy: The advenIn his military chlamys Pompey de tures of the Saxons and Normans are lighted to triumph: Augustus spared well known. The Welsh triads menAlexandria for the sake of its founder: tion several heroic freebooters, and one his life was read by Trajan, as his sta of them wamed Coroi (who was slain tue had been contemplated by Cæsar, in a sea-fight with another called Cuwith a sigh of humbled ambition. All chullin), is celebrated in an elegy by conquerors admired Alexander ; but Taliessin. Llywarch, the bard, denone ever united the will and the scribes Rodri, son of Owain Gwynpower to imitate his example 26.", nedd, as going " on the steeds of the

Of Alexander's generals, Seleucus torrent,” and hints that he perished inherited the greater portion of his in an engagement. The Triads also spirit, but the wars in which he was mention Ysgewyn in Gwent (Ysgeengaged thwarted his designs. That wydd in Monmouthshire), Gwygwr valuable portion of territory which he in Môn (Beaumaris) and Gwyddno possessed between the Indus and the in the North (?) as the three princiGanges, was wrested from him by the pal ports of Britain 27. usurper Chandragupta, whose alliance Alfred devoted his attention to nahe preferred to hostilities in a quarter val affairs, and has left behind him a 80 remote from his capital. Under his geographical description of the North successors, this vast empire dwindled of Europe. Athelstan passed an ento the province of Commagene, which lightened law, that every merchant retained a nominal independence : who should perform three voyages the migration and invasion of the with his own manufactures, should Gauls, the conquests of the Romans, enjoy the privileges of a Thane. and the Parthian and Jewish revolts, The capture of Alexandria by the are the principal events which mark Saracens, A.D.640, threw the Oriental its decay. Under the Ptolemies, Alex- trade into the hands of the Venetians, ander succeeded to the traffic of impo- from whom it dropped on the discovery verished Tyre and declining Carthage. of the Cape. The same age They united the Red Sea to the Me new world to Castile and Leon,” as

gave a

26 Gillies, Hist. of Greece, part 2. iv. 552,

27 Camb. Reg. 1795, p. 317.

the

1925.] Fund proposed for defending Rectors of Benefices. 399 the epitaph of Columbus expresses it. ment, the interests of which have sufThe Spaniards have exclusively retain- fered materially from the distresses, ed the American trade, but by crippling non-residence, or perhaps negligence the conquered Portuguese in India, of his predecessors. I need not here they prepared the way for Dutch and enlarge on the various encroachments English acquisitions. We have little and forms of injustice to which fear that the sea will afford other na- Church property is subject. Few peolions a political superiority; but it is ple who live in the country, are impossible to read the prophecies of strangers to them, and the Clergy Isaiah 28, without feeling some anxiety from woeful experience are full well acas to that commercial people, whose quainted with them. One of the most endeavours are to assist in the restora common and difficult to investigate is tion of the Jews.

the system of setting up moduses in. stead of the payment of tithes. Other

pleas of exemption, likewise, from the Mr. URBAN,

Oct. 8.
payment

of them are contended for. ERMIT me through the channel To which may be added local and special make known a proposed measure, of landholder. Encroachments too on no small importance to the interests the glebe land are sometimes so bareof the Beneficed Clergy. It was sug- faced, and to such an extent, as to outgested some time ago, but I believe no rage every principle of common ho-, means were taken to put it in execu- nesty: Public records of such rights, tion. The inadequacy of small liv- whether parish Terriers, the Liber ings to supply a decent and respectable Regis, the Taxatio Ecclesiastica, the maintenance to the incumbents, has Inquisitio post Mortem, the Augmenlong and deservedly been a matter of tation Office, or other documents usucomplaint Various modes have been ally referred to, may be of occasional adopted of increasing their value, and utility, but as a dependence are little with some success. Queen Anne's more than broken reeds of support. Bounty has done much. Augmenta. If an incumbent, under these circumtions and benefactions from private stances, is daring enough to seek repersons, in several forms have con- dress by law, what are his prospects ? tributed to the same desirable end. I answer, the following, generally But the benefits thence derived have speaking. In the first place he feels unfortunately been more than coun- probably the res angusta. Next he teracted by the operation of a constant is sensible that he has (commonly) a ev il, which is the inability of the in- life interest only in the benefice. He ferior clergy to defend their own rights, finds too that his adversaries are wealowing to the formidable and almost thy, and determined upon making all incalculable expenses attending litiga. possible resistance: that the issue of tion on these occasions. I proceed, suits is ever uncertain ; that in case of therefore, to say, that the present plan failure the loss may be ruinous to him, is to raise a fund for the purpose of and that eren if he be successful, the defending the rights of benefices. I opposite party perhaps will not abide shall not now attempt to enter upon by the decision; as well as that the the subject so fully as its probable con- expenses already incurred, are, it may sequences might authorise, but just be, to a greater amount than his interstate the general grounds on which est in the preferment is worth. The such measure is undertaken... Let me patron will seldom lend any aid, so but call your attention awhile to the that every risk must be his own. frequent and discouraging situation of If he looks forward to the usual course an incumbent with respect to the of law proceedings in these matters, it rights in question. Too often it is his is as follows. The plaintiff begins by fate, perhaps in the decline of life, and filing his bill in some Court at Westafter having passed the pritne of it in minster, claiming his dues. After passserving curacies, which have afford- ing the usual forms, the cause reed him a bare subsistence, and there- mains for hearing, and awaits its turn. fore left him no means of providing for If this takes place within two years or the future, to be instituted to prefer- so, he may esteem himself fortunate :

if not till iwice that time, he must not 29 Chap 60. be surprised. When the cause is called,

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