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1825.)
Review.-Bombay Transactions.

337 “As their mythology describes their gods the elegant arched temple for containing as having descended upon the earth and be this object of adoration, not being required, come incarnated in various forms, the repre- is not to be found." sentation of these incarnations, or avatar, That there is any connexion between forms the chief ornament of their temples; the worship of the Dagop and that of the on one hand we see a deity with the head of Ling, there seems no ground to believe. a boar, on another with the head of a bull : They are different in their origin and obhere & god with two hands; there, one with ject. The Dagop is a tomb or cenotaph of four, or eight, and often with many heads. a divine man, or the repository of a relic; One god is distinguished by bearing a tri the Ling is the symbol of the organ of gedent, others have the disc, or the chank, neration, venerated in the productive power the vedas or the thunderbolt. Each god of nature. The one is always supposed to too has some animal to carry him from have reference to a Buddh or sainted man; place to place—the elephant, the goose, the other typifies the boundless energy of the kite, the peacock, the bull, the tiger; the divine power acting on the external uniand the appearance of his attendant animal Nor can au eye in the least expeleads us to look for the presence of the rienced mistake their forms. The Dagop deity, whose motions it is supposed to at rises at once from within the margin of the tend. We can rarely be at a loss to dis- cylinder, on which it is placed, into a hecover what deity a sculpture of the Brah- mispherical or globular form; the continumins represents, though the roundless range ous cylinder of the ling is slightly rounded of their extravagant mythology may often off at its upper extremity. leave us uncertain which of his innumerable “ It is not so easy to distinguish the saexploits is celebrated. As the Brahmins do cred edifices of the Iains, from those of the not live in a monastic or collegiate state, Bouddhists. Their images are simple, and but marry, and have families and houses of in the same contemplative posture, as those their own, their temples are not surrounded of Buddh. They may, however, be geneby cells, like those of the Talapoins. The rally recognised by some one of the twentystoried walls of their temple proclaim the four distinguishing characteristic signs endeity to whom it was raised, and his manis graved on the pedestals of the images of the fold exploits. Inscriptions are not required Tuthanker. Their temples, though dedito communicate in words ideas that are pre cated to a particular saint, generally contain sented at once by sculptures. Whether from the figures of the whole twenty-four ; but this, or from whatever other cause, I [Mr. they do not appear ever to have the Dagop Erskine] have never remarked an inscription of the Bouddhists, nor should we expect the in a Brahminical temple in the Konkan or vaulted temple in their excavations." Pp. Dekhan."

516, 517. Here we shall stop in our quotation, The two religious existed in India to do Mr. Erskine ihe justice of an ex

down to the eleventh century of the cellent philosophical observation. It Christiau æra; and when Buddhism is this. Perhaps the Bouddhist is not was destroyed (when is uncertain). only a simple, but a more intellectual Buddh was reverenced by the Brahreligion. The use of numerous exter mins, as an Avatur (incarnation) of nal symbols has a natural tendency to Vishnu, and his image, accompanied call off the attention from dogmas or with Brahminical symbols, occurs in opinions to forms and ceremonies. The temples of the latter system. religions in Europe that bave the sim XVI. Geological Notes on the strata plest ceremonies are the most metaphy- betwe Malwa and Guzerat. sical.”

This article concludes the volume, The means of discriminating the which contains some very valuable æras, appropriations and characters of papers. If, as is affirmed, ihe Druids Indian cavern- temples is a scientific were Buddhists, and Buddhism only acquisition of property-a benefac- commenced 540 years before Christ, tion to our institutions for the dis- and yet as Mr. Fosbroke has shewn, semination of ancient knowledge. Druidism is to be found in North We shall therefore proceed to the America, various important inferences further distinctions of Brahminical suggest themselves, which we reserve temples.

to another opportunity. “ The Dagop cannot of course be found in Brahminical structures, as the gods are 67. Junii Juvenalis Satire; with the oriimmortal; and the worship of holy men re ginal Text reduced to the natural order of moved to an union with the divinity is no Construction; an English Translation lipart of the religion. For a similar reason, teral and interlineal; and an Inder, hisGent. Mag. October, 1825.

torical,

398 Review.-Stirling's Juvenal, by Dr. Nuttall. (Oct.

torical, geographical, and poetical. By to the English idiom as to be almost John Stirling, D.D. Vicar of Great Gad- unintelligible. On comparing the predesdon, Hertfordshire. A new Edition, sent edition with a former one, we find revised, corrected, and improved. By P. A. this objection removed by the most Nuttall, LL.D. 8vo. pp. 420.

Ward.

apt and judicious emendations in THE various editions of the Latin nearly every sentence, without the verclassics, published by Dr. Stirling, sion being less literal. Indeed some have been long and duly appreciated. passages, which have generally been His Juvenal, in particular, has for a misunderstood owing to their obscuconsiderable time been "out of print,". rity, have been so happily translated as the Booksellers say, and only to be by the Editor, as to remove all doubt rarely met with in private libraries. respecting the meaning of the original. It was originally published in 1760, In an adınirable “ sketch of the and was the last, and probably the Life, Genius, and Character of Juvemost laboured of his productions. nal,” which comprehends a general

In an Advertisement the Editor in- analysis of each satire, the Editor has forms us that it was his original in. mtroduced a fine and glowing portention to republish the Work with traiture of this energetic writer. We such emendations only as a critical re cannot resist the following extract. visal of the letter-press would bestow; • The characteristics of Juvenal were vebut he soon discovered that a careful hemence, loftiness, and freedom. His great examination both of the text and trans aim was to alarm the vicious, and if

pos. lation was requisite.

sible to exterminate vice. To accomplish “ln accomplishing this task (the Edi

this he disdained to wield the feeble weapon tor observes) he had first to compare the

of ridicule. He struck, without distinction,

all who deviated from the course of nature, various readings of different editions, and settle the punctuation, which is so fre

or the paths of honour. He combated not quently erroneous even in the best copies.

for conquest, but fur extirpation. With the He then arranged the translation under the

sudden dexterity of a warrior accustomed to ordo, in such a manner as to render it victory, he closed upon the objects of his strictly verbal and interlineal. This mode,

attack, trampled upon them, and tore them which was first suggested by Locke and

to pieces. He stood like a priest at the alDu Marsais, he adopted from the convic

tar. He heard the groans, and searched into

the entrails of his victims. tion that a very imperfect acquaintance with the genius and powers of a language could

“ The licentious period in which he wrote be acquired from dictionaries and grammars ;

supplied incessant exercise for a mind glowand that there were innumerable niceties, ing with every sentiment of hostility to ty

His fellow not only of construction and of idiom, but ranny, hypocrisy, and lust. even in the signification of words, which

citizens were enervated by luxury; their could only be discovered by much reading hearts were hardened by the institutions of and critical attention. Lastly, he correct

domestic slavery and the amphitheatre ; ed, in numberless instances, the harsh and

their sentiments were debased by the desobscure phraseology of the translation, and

potism and example of the emperors ; and endeavoured to impart to it a greater de

every characteristic and manly principle gree of ease and perspicuity."

subverted by the mixture and confusion of

nations in one great city. The wide difference between the “ In surveying this mass of guilt and Latin and English languages, in

languages, in wickedness, he perceived that iniquity had idiom, construction, and phraseology, acquired a kind of legal establishment, and must have rendered a verbal and in

that the laws of Nature were violated or terlineal arrangement a most arduous despised. Every feature of depravity and undertaking. Such translations require villany, started from the canvas, and he not only an extensive and critical painted them with a pencil grave, intrepid, knowledge of the Latin language, but

impetuous, and implacable. If at any time considerable versatility in our ver

he relaxed the sternness of his manner, he nacular tongue ; and to impart free

never forgot himself. He smiled indeed,

but his smile was more terrible than his dom of expression, under such restric

frown. It was never excited but when his tions, is like playing Harlequin in fet- indigpation was mingled with contempt. ters.-Stirling's translation was chiefly Like the deity in his fifteenth Satire, be appreciated on account of its literal saw that the earth produced only weak and construction, and its affording consi- wicked men; and like him he derided while derable aid to students ; but in gene

he loathed them." ral the style was hobbling, and some In presenting this edition of Juvetimes the expressions were 80 contrary nal to the world, Dr. Nuttall has

greatly

1825.] REVIEW.-Memoirs of Samuel Pepys, Esq.

339 greatly contributed to the promotion and himself and wife now being shut up and of classical literature ; for the volume in despair of escaping did desire only to save will form an agreeable and useful aux the life of this little child; and so prevailed iliary to the acquisition of the Latin

to have it received stark naked into the arms tongue.

of a friend, who brought it (having put it 'The mode of its arrangement (to adopt the language of ihe into new fresh cloths) to Greenwich'; where Editor) removes every difficulty; the upon hearing the story, we did agree it position of the words is developed with in the town.

should be permitted to be received and kept clearness and precision; the ideas of

“4th. Walked home, my Lord Brouncker the original are neither amplified nor

giving me a very neat cane to walk with ; retrenched; the periods correspond in but iť troubled me to pass by Crome farme, every part; their members aud even where about twenty-one people have died their length being usually the same:

of the plague in short, it will furnish the greatest

" '5th. After dinner comes Colonel Blunt facility ever offered for the acquisition in his new chariot made with springs; as of a tongue so deserving of our atten that was of wicker, wherein awhile since we tion. If we consider the grandeur of rode at his house. And he hath rode, now the people by whom it was spoken he says, his journey, many miles in it with the lustre of its writers—the empire out-goes any horse, and so easy he says. So

one horse, and out-drives any coach, and which it still maintains among our. selves--the necessity we are under of the hill to the heath, and over the cart

for curiosity I went into it to try it, and up learning it in order to obtain access to

ruts, and found it pretty well, but not so almost all the sciences, pay, even to easy as he pretends. the knowledge of our own laws, of is 6th. To London, to pack up more our judicial proceedings, and of our things, and there I saw fires burning in the charters—every aid rendered to this street, as it is through the whole City, by important study must be highly accept- the Lord Mayor's order. Thence hy water able to the taste and spirit of the

to the Duke of Albemarle's, all the way

fires on each side of the Thames, and strange age.

to see in broad daylight two or three bu

rials upon the Bankside, one at the very 68. Memoirs of Samuel Pepys, Esq. F.R.S. heels of another: doubtless all of the (Concluded from p. 241.)

plague ; and yet at least forty or fifty peoWE resume our notice of this en. ple going along with every one of them. tertaining Volume, with the follow "7th. To the Tower, and there sent for ing account of the plague, as being the Weekly Bill, and find 8,252 dead in all,

and of them 6,978 of the plague ; which is very characteristic of Pepys.

& most dreadful number, and shews reason “Sept. 3, 1665. Lord's day. Up; and

to fear that the plagne hath got that hold put on my coloured silk suit very fine, and

that it will yet continue among us. my new periwigg, bought a good while since, but durst not wear, because the

It is to the honour of Pepys that he plague was in Westminster when I bought was the friend of the virtuous Evelyn ; it ; and it is a wonder what will be the fa- several interesting notices of whom are shion after the plague is done, as to peri- scattered through the volume. wiggs, for nobody will dare to buy any “ Sept. 10, 1665. To Greenwich, and haire, for fear of the infection, that it had there sending away Mrs. Andrews, I to Capt. been cut off the heads of people dead of the Cocke's, where l'find my Lord Brouncker plague. My Lord Brounker, Sir J. Min- and his Mistress *, and Sir J. Minnes. des, and I, up to the vestry at the desire of Where we supped (there was also Sir W. the Justices of the Peace, in order to the Doyly and Mr. Evelyn); but the receipt of doing something for the keeping of the this news † did put us all into such an explague from growing ; but Lord! to con tacy of joy, that it inspired into Sir J. Miusider the madness of the people of the town, nes and Mr. Evelyn such a spirit of mirth, who will (becuse they are forbid) come in that in all my life I never met with so merry crowds along with the dead corpses to see a two hours as our company this night was. them buried; but we agreed on some orders Among other humours, Mr. Evelyn's refor the prevention thereof. Among other peating of some verses made up of nothing stories, one was very passionate, methought, but the various acceptations of may and can, of a complaint brought against a man in the and doing it so aptly upon occasion of sometown for taking a child from London from thing of that nature, and so fast, did make an infected house. Alderman Hooker told us it was the child of a very able citizen in * Mrs. Williams. Gracious-street, a saddler, who had buried + Falling in with the Dutch fleet, and all the rest of his children of the plague, taking several valuable prizes.

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340

Review.-Memoirs of Samuel Pepys, Esq. [Oct. us all die almost with laughing, and did so, stead of marble statues, of those who. stop the mouth of Sir John Minnes in the toiled, who bled, who died in noble, middle of all his mirth, (and in a thing contempt of a life of ease) in an existagreeing with his own manner of genius) ence of suffering for their country. The that I never saw any man so out-done in all merchant moves only from his countmy life ; and Sir J. Minnes's mirth too to ing-house to his fire-side. He begins see himself out-done, was the crown of all in the safe path of parsimony, goes on our mirth. In this humour we sat still about ten at night, and so my Lord and his in those of security, and ends in those mistress home, and we to bed.” P. 367.

of plenty. But the Barons defied axes, ". Nov. 5th, 1665. By water to Dept- and scaffolds at Runnymede-thunderford, and there made a visit to Mr. Evelyn, bolts ratiled about the ears of Marl

other things, shewed me most borough, Nelson, and Wellington. excellent painting in little ; in distemper, In- These, where the lives of ourselves, and dian incke, water colours : graving; and, the honour of our wives, sisters, and above all, the whole secret of mezzo-tinto daughters, were dependent upon the and the manner of it, which is very pretty, issue of the contest-and others there and good things done with it. He read to

are, the offspring of men of wisdom, me very much also of his Discourse, he hath of those whoin the Toga has ennobled. been many years and now is about, about An arma cedant Toge? One cannot Gardening; which will be a most noble and do without the other. We feel warm pleasant piece. He read in part of a play or two of his making, very good, but not as

on the subject, as being interesting to he conceits them, I think to be. He shew- antiquaries. The Commons is the ed me his Hortus Hyemalis ; leaves laid

arena for novi homines, of course now

up in a book of several plants kept dry, which the most active men; indeed, the preserve colour, however, and look very House of Commons is the finest disfinely, better than an herball. In fine, a play of talent in the world; but we most excellent person he is, and must be can remember in history the days when allowed a little for a little conceitedness; they did not dare to be active; the days but he may well be so, being a man so when Tyranny had no opponents but much above others. He read me, though in the Nobility; and not in England with too much gusto, some little poems of alone, but in France also does it appear his own that were not transcendant, yet one

that obstructions to despotism were or two very pretty epigrams; among others, of a lady looking in at a grate, and being repeatedly made by the peers of that pecked at by an eagle that was there.” P.377. country. See “Evelyn's Miscellanies." April 29, 1666. T. Mr. Evelyn's formed on Heylyn's Help to English

The Peerage before us has been where I walked in his garden till he came from church, with great pleasure, rending History; but upon so much more exRidley's Discourse, all my way going and tended a scale, as to be a totally distinct coming, upon the Civil and Ecclesiastical work; exhibiting, under strictly alphaLaw. He being come home, he and I walk- betical arrangement, the descent of ed together in the garden with mighty plea- every title which has been conferred sure, he being a very ingenious man; and in this Country since the accession of the more I know him, the more I love him.” William the Conqueror, the manner P. 403.

and period of its creation, the dates of

the deaths of those who inherited it, A Synopsis of the Peerage of England; and of the year when each dignity beexhibiting, under alphabetical arrangement, came extinct, was forfeited, or fell the date of creation, descent, and present into abeyance. It is in fact Dugdale's state of every tille of Peerage which has Baronage in epitome, continued to the existed in this country since the Conquest. present time. Lists of all the Prelates In tuo volumes. By Nicholas Harris

within the same period, Knights of the Nicolas, Esų. Barrister-at-Law, F. A. S. Garter, and Knights of the Bath, are

added. The utility of such a plan A PEERAGE is to a Patriot a re- speaks for itself. The book is, in fact, cord of his Nation's glory. 11, as John- one of the highest convenience, and son said, little is that man to be envied will be generally foand of constant use whose patriotisın does not glow upon for reference. the plain of Marathon, still less is he The following passage from the preto be envied, whose meanness of soul face will further explain the Editor's cannot see in the descendants of heroes views : and statesmen, animated elligies, in “To the merit of sedulous care, of rigid

69.

12mo.

1825.]
Review.-Nicolas' Synopsis of the Peerage.

341 impartiality, and to having acted upon the « COMMUNE CONCILIUM REGNI resolution of not stating a single word wbich he did not believe to be strictly true, with words to Parliament admits of no

NOSTRI.”—The application of these the view of flattering the pride or gratifying question. the ambition of others, he conscientiously feels that he is entitled; and many instances

The Charter proceeds thus. “Siwill be found where dignities, which by every Londinensi ; et civitas Londinensis

mili inodo fiat de auxiliis de civitate previous writer have been attributed to different noble families are in these

pages

habeat omnes antiquas libertates et liproved either to be now vested in other in beras consuetudines suas tain per terdividuals, to have become extinct, or never ras quain per aquas. Preterea volumus, to have been created to the ancestor of the et concedimus, quod omnes aliæ civipresent. He has felt that with respect to tates et burgi et villæ, et Barones de hereditary honours more than with awy other Quinque Portubus, et ombes Portus, worldly possession, that

habeant omnes libertates et omnes libe. Rien n'est beau que le vrai'.

ras consuetudines suas, et AD HABENPrefixed are elaborate dissertations DUM COMMUNE CONSILIUM REGNI upon Baronies by Tenure, Writ, Pa- de auxiliis assidendis aliter quam in tent, &c. full of valuable, and often tribus casibus prædictis," i. e. in like curious information. Now there are

manner let it (or it may] be done, concertain points, connected with these cerning the aids of the City of Lonsubjects, upon which we wish to dilate. don; und let the City of London (or

Every one has read that nothing the City of London may) have all its conclusive can be said concerning the ancient liberties and free customs, both persons who composed the Anglo- by land and water. Besides we will Saxon Witenagemot, or the Norman and grant, that all other cities and Parliaments before the time of Edw. I. Burghs (walled towns] and Towns, and We should be arrogant if we presumed Barons of the Cinque Ports, and all upon superior capacity to those very Ports may have all their liberties and able men, who have created the sub- all their free customs, and to HOLD A ject most elaborately; but that very common Council or The Kingmeritorious circumstance, where evi DOM concerning assessing the aids, exdence is conflicting, often occasions a cept in the three cases aforesaid.person not to be able to see the wood

AD HABENDUM COMMUNE Consi. for trees, and we shall endeavour to

LIUM REGNI. The sense of this passhow, from a testimony not to be dis- sage turns entirely upon the governputed, the ancient constitution of the

ment of Regni. If it be the genitive two houses *.

after auriliis, the sense may, mean, This testimony is the Magna Charta that they had liberty of holding a of King John. We quote the copy print- Common Council (among themselves] ed by Matthew Paris, p. 216. Ed. Watts. concerning assessment of the aid; but

The paragraph commences with the if it be connected with consilium, (and following: '« Nulluin scutagium vel commune consilium Regni is the auxilium ponam in regno nostro, nisi term just before used for ParliaPER COMMUNE CONSILIUM REGNI ment,"') then the sense may imply Nostri nisi ad corpus nostrum redi- their appearance in a meeting of the mendum et ad primogenitum filium Commons House for levying taxes t. nostruin militem faciendum, et ad We will not decide either way. primogenitam filiam nostram semel The Charter next

says,

Et de scumaritandam. Et ad hoc non fiet nisi

TAGIIS ASSIDENDIS, submoneri facie. rationabile auxilium." i.e. I will levy

mus Archiepiscopos, Episcopos, Abno scutage or aid in our Kingdom, ex bates, Comites, et majores Barones cept THROUGH The Common Cour. Regni SINGILLATIM cil of our KINGDOM, except it be

NOSTRAS, i. e. and concerning levyto ransom our person, make our eldest ing scutuges, we will cause to be sumson a knight, and murry (once) our moned the Archbishops, Bishops, Abeldest daughter ; and for these pur- bots, Earls, and greater Barons of the poses, reasonable aid only shall be re Realm, SINGLY BY OUR LETTERS." quired.

+ It is commonly understood that BurBefore the 48 Hen. III. is the time to gesses did not sit in Parliament before the which our investigation refers.

time of Edward I.

SCUTA

PER

LITERAS

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