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1925.) On Parochial Seltlement.-State of Education in Ireland. 231 both her hands, in the act of adoration, or returns a pauper to his own parish whilst the other is holding up only one to live upon its scanty pittance, draghand. The expanding of the palms of ging out a miserable existence, when he the hands, as a religious observance, might honestly and happily have eaten has been discussed with much learning the sweet bread of his own industry. in that elegant work the Museum Pio- Labour is the only commodity the Clementinum. The extending, how- poor man can bring to market, and he ever, of one hand alone, seems rather has a right to its full value ; but being to imply a shout of praise than a sign restrained and shackled by this mode of devotion. The King of France of gaining a settlement, he cannot had a medallion, on which was repre- obtain it; for those to whom his labour sented the Panionian Solemnity, ihat is now valuable, are afraid he should is, a General Congress or Festival of become a future burden. Out of these Jonians, instituted in imitation of the laws arise the greatest part of those Panathenean Show. On this medal- expensive litigations between parishes, lion thirteen figures were seen attend- upon which so much money is unproing the sacrifice, and extending to- fitably expended ; as those country genwards Heaven their right hands only. tlemen, who are called upon as Justices Spanheim considers that attitude as the to attend the Quarter Sessions, can indication of a religious ceremony used well attest. in the sacred solemnities of the Greeks, From this source also spring those and grounds his opinion on some plau- little arts and quibbling evasions, so sible arguments. The bas-relief of the much practised in hiring servants, to Apotheosis of Homer* furnishes us prevent their gaining a seulement. with another instance of this rite, as Perhaps this may meet the eye of we find in it several figures that attend some gentleman who may have power, the sacrifice, and hold up their right- upou Jue consideration, to propose hands only.

J. SAVAGE. the remedy—a repeal of those statutes

by which a settlement is gained by MR. URBAN,

Sept. 14.

biring or service. Such a repeal I am T has lately been my

lot
sery

(re sure would be a great blessing to the quently to notice, how much hard industrious lower orders, and a benefit ship, espeuse, and inconvenience arisez

to all. I am at a loss to know what from the law as it now stands, allowing objections can be made, but I think Parish Settlement to be gained by biring they can be of no greater weight than and service; and I hope you will allow dust in the balance. me a small space to stale a few rea Yours, &c. A TRADESMAN. sons why I think such a mode of gaining a seulement would be beiter done

STATE OF EDUCATION IN IRELAND. "The moral character of the labour. The inquiring into the state of educatiou ing classes, particularly in the country,

in Ireland, which has lately issued from the is much affected by it, and any mea

press, extends to upwards of one hundred sure likely to benefit their morals is

pages. The Commissioners are decidedly well deserving the attention of those

averse to the continuance of the present sysenlightened Members of the Legisla- tein, and recommend the establishment of tuse, of whom this country has reason Schools for the education of children of all lo le proud.

religious persuasions. The school-rooms In some instances farmers are bound are recommended to be opened for the inby their leases not to make any settle- struction of Roman Catholic and Protestant nienis ia their parish; and if the mas children alternately. The following facts ter and servant are erer so well satis- gleaned from the Report will afford our reafied with each other, they are obliged ders some idea of the worth and respectability to part before the end of the year; and

of Irish Schoolmasters in general. It is even where no written agreement ex

intended to dismiss many of them from their

situations. But there are some who are ists, the fear of increasing the num

likely to be visited with a severer punishber of paupers has the same effect. The servant is therefore compelled to The School of Sligo was visited by two of seek another service, perhaps a worse; the Commissioners, who found the schoolor finding good conduct of no avail, house and premises in very good order, and he has recourse to dishonest practices, the appearance of eighty-two children, which

it contained, favourable. It appeared, howEngraved in vol. xix. p. 121. Edit. ever, on inquiry, that the master was a man

of

ment:

232
State of Education in Ireland.

[Sept. of violent and ungoverned passions, and that twenty-nine only belonged to the Society. the boys were most severely and cruelly One farm of nearly sixty acres was two miles punished, not only by him, but also by his and a half distant from the school, and the son, and by a foreman in the weaving depart- boys were occasionally taken there to work. ment, and that these punishments were in In the School at Castlecomer, the Comficted for very slight faults. The habitual missioners found that the master took very practice of the master was to seize the boys little part in the instruction of the boys. by the throat, and press them alınost to They complained of being ill-fed and cruelly suffocation, and to strike them with a whip, beaten, both by the master and mistress. or his fist, upon the head and face, during the Two boys had recently been very severely time his passion lasted. One boy had black punished by the master. They stated that eyes at the time of our visit, caused by blows they had been set to work in the garden, of the master's fist; and the punishment of and having had but little breakfast, they another boy, who had received, many years were hungry, and had eaten a raw cabbage ; ago, by an accident, a severe and permanent that the master, who appeared to be a man injury in his eyes, was attended with circum- of violent passions, caught them, and flogged stances of peculiar violence. The anger of them for this offence severely; that one of the master was chiefly excited by the boys them received sixteen stripes in the usual performing less work than he expected in the manner, and six blows with a stick on the weaving shop (of which the master had the head, which continued cut and bruised when profit), or by their pot weaving well; they the school was visited by the Commissioner. were obliged to get up at five, or sometimes The other boy had eloped in consequence of four o'clock in the morning, when there the beating, was a pressing demand ; one little boy had On visiting the Charter School at Longbeen severely punished for complaining of ford, the children were very squalid and this violation of the rules of the society. The wretched, having been half-starved. The fear of the master generally deterred the boys master was in a state of hopeless fatuity, , from stating their grievances to the cate In the School at Lintown factory, it was chist, to the local committee, or to casual found that, out of twenty-one youths previsitors.

sent, only thirteen could read. There At the School of Stradlally, the boys, were only six copy-hooks for the whole eighty-three in number, were accustomed to school. The master did not teach, and there experience the same brutal treatment from was no usher. the savage appointed to instruct them. They In the School at Newport, which in 1819 had been deterred from disclosing the prac was converted into a day school, there were tices of this barbarian from the fear of pro found only twelve children (three or four of voking his further vengeance. From the whom were of the master's own family), and evidence taken on this occasion, it was suffi a large pile of unused books. ciently proved, that about three weeks before At the Charter School at Clonmel, which the first visit, one boy had been flogged also is a day school, were found only two with a leathern strap nine times in one day, children, and no book, except a few fragments his clothes being taken down each time, and of Testaments. The inaster is a cripple that he received in the whole uear a hundred from rheumatism; he receives fifty pounds lashes, all for “a sum in long division." a-year, and has a house rent-free, he also On the same day another boy appears to rents twenty-four acres of land from the have received sixty-seven lashes, on account Society, at twenty-five shillings an acre. of another sum in arithmetic ; another boy, At Cleomel, in 1817, the boys appeared to only thirteen years old, had received seven have been punished with great severity by teen stripes with a rope. On the 8th of the usher, who used on all occasions a comOctober, the day before the second visit, mon horsewhip. It was stated that he often eight boys had been so severely punished, gave four dozeu lashes with his utmost that their persons were found by one of the strength, and that the boys have been beacen Commissioners in a shocking state of lace till the blood ran down upon the flags. A ration and contusion. The offence with boy was once knocked down by the usher, which these boys were charged by the usher and kicked so severely, that two of his ribs was “looking at two police-men playing at were broken, and the ear of another boy was ball in the boy's ball alley.” The instru- nearly pulled off. ments of punishment were in the first case, At New Ross the same severe mode of a leathern cat and a rope; and in the letter, punishment is stated still to exist; two boys branches from elm trees. These severe pu have been punished for complaining, one of nishments were all inflicted by the usher in them with peculiar cruelty. Their common the absence of the master, and without his employment was whee ing dung in hand-barknowledge. The man was too much occu rows. Fifty had eloped in the course of the pied with forming to devote any of his attention to his school. He was found to be the Many other abuses, scarcely less flagrant holder of three farms, containing together than these we have qunted, were discovered nearly one hundred and thirty acres, of which by the Commissioners.

last nine years.

1995.)

[933]

REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.

45. Memoirs of Samuel Pepys, Esq. F.R.S. Diary, for independently of strong in

&c. &c. 2 vols. 4to. Colburn. ternal testimony to his veracity, the Ibehe value of these popoderous tomis

facts which he relates, of which we bore but a slight proportion to their have contemporary history, are so acbulk, it might be fairly predicated of curately given, as to leave the strongest them that they form one of the most conviction of the truth of the whole. important publications of the present This it must be confessed is a rare century. But although we are free to quality in a Placeman, who had so confess that their Noble Editor has done inany temptations to swerve, and so the world some service by rescuing many interests to bias him from the the matter of these volumes from the truth, and it is a quality for which his obscurity in which it has so long lain, Noble Editor praises him; but yet, yet we are not disposed to estimate when we consider that this Journal this service quite so highly as do many was intended for no eye but his own, of our contemporaries. Of their his- the praise may be spared. torical importance we think little, for The character of Pepys, as exhibited they refer to a period too recent for in his Diary, is that of a shrewd, pruobscurity, and too well explored for dent, money saving-man, of sufficient much further elucidation. Yet is it pliability of temper for his temporal pleasant as a curiosity to read the per- interests, and of integrity enough to sonal narratives of men who lived in bear him on in a straight forward times and scenes familiar to us in bisa course of upright dealing, and to guard tory; and it is amusing to observe how him against those temptations to wrong, sensibly they were influenced by events to which his office and the evil exwhich at a distance appear to us trivial ample of those around him more imor disproportioned to the effect pro- mediately exposed him. Surrounded duced.

by the profligate creatures of a proFrom the short biographical notice fligate age, and within the verge of prefixed by Lord Braybrooke, it appears the merry Monarch's” dissipated : ibat Samuel Pepys was descended from court, his prudence supports him from a respectable family in Cambridge- the contagion; he sighs, and shakes shire, and from a hint in his Diary, we the head of disapprobation at proceed. collect that he was distinguished when ings which he cannot correct; but his a boy as a violent Roundhead. It ap- caution never permits his virtuous repears that his father was a tailor, in sentment to endanger his own safety. London. The son was educated at with the Powers that were. The gosCambridge, but whether he graduated siping spirit which so thoroughly posa' or not, we are not informed. Through sessed him, induced him to put down the interest of Sir Edward Montague, many particulars which a stronger mind afterwards Earl of Sandwich, he ob- had rejected as trifling; and from these tained some official situation in the straws, thrown up at random, it is Admiralty, at the Restoration of Charles that we collect many entertaining picthe Second, and was soon after ap tures of his times. A constant playpointed to the office of Secretary. It goer, and an ardent admirer of theatriis just previously to this appointment cal entertainments, he has thrown con(1659-60) that he commenced his siderable light on the dramatic history Diary, which was carried on with of his age, and it is not the least rescarcely a hiatus to the summer of markable of his many peculiarities, 1669, a period of nine years, and em that with a mind overburthened as he bracing three remarkable events, the would represent it, with business, there Plague, the great Fire, and the success seems to be hardly a sight worth the ful enterprise of De Ruyter against seeing, of which he was not a spectaChatham-events, each causing the tor. Of his powers as a dramatic critic, utmost consternation and alarm, and we do not think much. Of Shakeach detailed by Pepys with much mi- speare he appears to have had no admiduteness and extraordinary fidelity. ration. This indeed is the great charm of his We will proceed to give a few exGENT. MAG. September, 1825.

tracts

234

Review.-Memoirs of Samuel Pepys, Esq. [Sept. tracts from the Diary, merely premis- than ever I expected; but I pray God give ing that the origináhed sin other it." Vol. i. p. 282.

in short me a heart to fear a fall, and to prepare for papers by Pepys, to Magdalen Col

He appears, from his Diary, to have lege, Cambridge, of which society the been constant in' his attendance at Honourable and Rev. George Neville Church, and living as he did in an Grenville, brother of Lord. Braybrooke, age when Religion was not only neis master. The MSS. were deciphered glected but ridiculed, his devout imby the Rev. John Smith. On their pressions were very strong. genuineness there, cannot rest a shadow

Of his worldly prudence, take the of suspicion.

following sample: The former part of the Diary is " To St. Paul's Church-yard, to cause occupied with the proceedings that the title of my English • Mare Clausumoto followed the death of the Protector, be changed, and the new title dedicated to previous to the Restoration, and is an the King to be put to it, because I am interesting record of the fluctuations of ashamed to have the other seen dedicated public opinion respecting a return to to the Commonwealth.” Vol. i. p. 212. monarchy. Pepys had the honour of

His whimsical lament at his extraaccompanying the vessels appointed to

vagánce: bring over the exiled King, and narrates with his accustomed minuteness

To my great sorrow find myself 431.

worse than I was the last month, which was the whole of this preliminary ceremony. then 7601. and now it is but 7171.—But it'

It may be as well to separate the hath chiefly arisen from my layings out in private history of the Journalist, from

clothes for myself and wife; viz. for her, ihe public acts of which he treats; and about 121. and for myself 551 or therefirst of Mr. Pepys hiniself, who, for a abouts, having made myself a velvet cloak, man of business, is as fond of fine two new cloth skirts, black, plain both, a clothes as a modern Dandy, perhaps new shag gown, trimmed with gold buttons fonder of a pretty wife.

and twist, with a new hat, and silk tops for “ This day I put on my silk suit, the first my legs, and many other things, being rethat I ever wore in my life. Home, and

soived henceforward to go like myself; and called my wife, and took her to Clodins to

also two perriwigs, one whereof costs me 31. a great wedding of Nau Hartlib to Mynheer but will begin next week, God williug."

and the other 40s. I have worn neither yet, Roder, which was kept at Goring House with very great state, cost, and noble com

Vol. i. p. 257. pany. But among all the beauties there, During the alarm occasioned by the my wife was thought the greatest.” Vol. i. success of the Dutch fleet in its attack

ou Chatham, Pepys dispatched his Every suit is minutely recorded, and wife into the country, with a sum the first wearing of his perriwig is dis amounting to 13001. in gold, directing cussed with laughable gravity.

her to bury it for security. His anxiely, He casts his care upon Providence, on discovering the slovenly operation, with true Christian humility.

and his distress, are irresistibly lu

dicrous : “ To my Lord Crewe's, and there dined with him. He tells me of the order the

“ Sept. 10, 1667. My father and I with House of Commons have made for the draw a dark lantern, it being now night, into the ing an Act for the rendering none capable garden with my wife, and there went about of preferment or employment in the State,

our great work to dig up my gold. But, but who have been loyall and constant to

Lord! what a tosse I was for some time in, the King and Church; which will be fatal that they could not justly tell where it was ; to a great many, and make me doubt, lest I but by and by poking with a spit, we found myself, with all my innocence during the it, and then begun with a spudd to lift up late times, should be brought in, being em

the ground. But, good God! to see how ployed in the Exchequer, but I hope God sillily they did it, not half a foot under will provide for me." Vol. i. p. 216. ground, and in the sight of the world from Again :

a hundred places, if any body by accident

were dear hand, and within sight of a neigh“ This day, by the blessing of God, I bour's window, only my father says he saw have lived thirty-one years in the world : them all gone to Church before he began and by the grace of God I find myself not the work when he laid the money. But I only in good health in every thing, and par was out of my wits almost, and the more ticularly as to the stone, but only pain upon from that, upon my lifting up the earth taking cold, and also in a fair way of coming with the spudd, "I dia discern that I had to** better esteem and estate in the world, scattered the pieces of gold round about the

P. 64.

ground

1

1825.)
Review.-Memoirs of Samuel Pepys, Esq.

235 ground among the grase and loose earth; whether all was well, and I did ride in great and taking up the iron head-pieces whereia fear all the day.... they were put, I perceived the earth was “ 12th. By five o'clock got home, where got among the gold and wet, so that the I find all well, and did bring my gold, ca bags were all rotten, and all the notes, that my heart's content, very safe, having not I could not tell what in the world to say to this day carried it in a basket, but in oux it, not knowing how to jądge what was hands; the girl took care of one, and my wanting, or what had been lost by Gibson wife another bag, and I the rest, I being in his coming down, which, all put together, afraid of the bottom of the coach, lest it did make me mad; and at last I was forced should break." to take up the head-pieces, dirt and all, and

The following are his remarks on as many of the scattered pieces as I could

Hudibras : with the dirt discern by candle light, and carry them up into my brother's chamber,

“ To the wardrobe. Hither come Mro and there lock them up till I had eat a little Bathusby, and we falling into discourse of a supper : and then, all people going to bed, new book of drollery in use, called Hudibras, w. Hewer and I did all alone, with several I would needs go find it out, and met with pails of water and besoms, at last wash the it at the Temple-cost me 25, 6d, but when dirt off the pieces, and parted the pieces I come to read it, it is so silly an abuse of and the dirt, and then began to tell them the Presbyter Knight going to the warrs, by a note which I had of the value of the that I am ashamed of it, and, by and by whole (in my pocket). And so find that meeting at Mr. Townsend's at diuner, I sold there was short above a hundred pieces; it to him for 18d.” Vol. i. p. 189. which did make me mad; and considering

He tries it again : that the neighbours' house was so near that we could not possibly speak one to another

“ To a bookseller's in the Strand, and in the garden at that place where the gold there bought Hudibras again, it being cerre lay (especially my father being deaf) but tainly some ill humour to be so against that they must know what he had been doing, I which all the world eries up to be the exfeared that they might in the night come ample of wit; for which I am resolved once and gather some pieces, and prevent us the

more to read him and see whether I can find next morning; so W. Hewer and I' out it or no." Vol. i. p. 197. again about midnight (for it was now grown

appears to have purchased so late), and there hy candle-light did make second part more in compliance with shift to gather forty-five pieces more. And fashion than from judgment, for he so in and to cleanse them: and by this time

calls it, it was past two in the morning; and so to bed, and there lay in some disquiet all night'

“ The book now in the greatest fashions telling of the clock till it was day-light.

for drollery, though I cannot, I confess, see “ ilth. And then W. Hewer and I, with enough where the wit lies." P. 266. pails and a sieve, did lock ourselves into the Of Mr. (afterwards Sir Peter) Lilly garden, and there gather all the earth about (Lely), he thus speaks : the place into pails and then sift those pails

« After I had done with the Duke, with in one of the summer-houses (just as they do for dyamonds in other parts of the Commissioner Pitt to Mr. Lilly's the great world); and there to our great content did painter, who came forth to us : but believby nine o'clock make the last night's forty- ing that I come to bespeak a picture, he five up seventy-nine ; 90 that we are come

prevented it by telling us that he should,

not be at leisure these three weeks, which to about twenty or thirty of what I think

methinks is a rare thing; and then to see in the true number should be. So do leave my father to make a second examination of what pomp his table is laid for himself to the dirt; and my mind at rest in it being go to dinner; and here, among other picbut an accident, and so give me some kind

tures, saw the so-much-desired-by-me picof content to remember how painful it is

ture of Lady Castlemaine, which is a most sometimes to keep money as well as to get blessed picture, and one that I must have a it, and how doubtful I was to keep it all copy of.” P. 171. night; and how to secure it to London. The following notices of the introAbont ten o'clock took coach, my wife and duction of tea are curious : I, and Willet and W. Hewer, and Murford « 1660. I did send for a cup of tea (a and Bowles (whoin my lady lent me to go China drink), of which I never had drank along with me my journey, not telling her before." P. 76. the reasoni, hut it was only to secure my gold) and my brother John on horseback; And seven years after he writes, and with these four I thought myself pretty

“ Home, and there find my wife making safe. My gold I put into a basket, and set af tea, a drink which Mr. Pelling the Potti under one of the seats ; and so my work cary tells her is good for her cold and deevery quarter of an hour was to look to see Auxions.”. Vol. ii. p. 85.

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