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Review.-Dr. Kitchener's Economy of the Eyes. - [Aug. Constitution ; for Southey's Book of lustrative to make some preliminary the Church plainly shows, that to out remarks. In children the cornea is religious establishment we owe the extremely flexible, so as to be bent by preservation both of the Constitution its muscular ring into any given curvaand liberty.

ture necessary for reading, and of course The Pamphlet is cautious, modest, there is less occasion of contracting the and prudent; and we think that its pupil for distinct vision ; but in old object is an important national good. persons the cornea is stiffer, so that A resident Clergyman is a resident ihey can hardly read without spectacounsellor. Ignorant country people cles, unless the print be large, or the are perpetually flying to petty lawyers light so strong as to cause a great puupon the most trivial occasions, and pilar contraction. Thus the necessity thus either pay much unnecessary mo of spectacles ; but different lenses are ney to get into scrapes, or get out of required for the two reading kinds of them; nor do they understand the vision. Short-sightedness is owing to proper management of families, the the pencils of rays converging too fast, preservation of peace, the advantages and coming to a focus before they reach of tein perance, the consolations of Re- the retina. Here a concave lens religion, or the comfort of having a lieves by making the rays diverge more friend in superior life, upon whom before they enter the pupil of the eye. they can rely, from his independence In long-sightedness the pencils of rays and professional philanthropic bias. diverge so as not to meet in a focus till With regard to worldly conduct, the they have passed the retina. Here a road to happiness, both temporal and convex lens, by making the rays' coneternal, must be foundled upon pru- verge, is of benefit. As all our readers dence; and we therefore trust that no may not be acquainted with opticks, person, by our speaking, will presume we have made these remarks from that we mean to depreciate the doc. Priestley's History, by way of explanatrines of Christianity. God forbid ! tory introduction to ihe following imWe only mean healing diseases by me portant matters from Dr. Kitchener. dicines.

-The best plan to preserve the eyes is

not to employ them at night in any 43. Elements of Thought. By Isaac Taylor, they who are careful in following a re

work which tries them (p. 51); and Jun.

gular gradation in the change of their THIS is by far the best elementary glasses, may preserve their eyes to the treatise on subjects connected with the latest period of life (p. 39); and many developement of the intellectual facul- persons have worn out their sight preties with which we are acquainted ; maturely by beginning with too great of sufficient length for the demands of magnifiers (p: 40). The smaller the perspicuity,-short enough to remedy power, provided it be sufficient, is the the defect of weariness and exhaustion.

most pleasant and convenient (p. 56). To those who are not afraid of exa- Dr. K. recommends the following mode mining into the first principles of of trying new spectacles : mental exertion, to those who would emerge from the indolence of reposing paper with moderately largę printed letters,

By placing upright against a wall a on the opinions of others, and endea- such as usually occur in the title pages of vour to think for themselves, this little

octavo books, he finds the greatest distance volume will be an invaluable treasure.

he can distinctly see the letters with a good light to be the focal length of the specta

cles." P. 56. 44. The Economy of the Eyes ; Precepls for

the Improvement and Preservation of the Using a single glass causes the idle Sight. Plain Rules which will enable all eye to become of a different focus to to judge exactly when and what Spectacles that which is employed with the glass. are best calculated for their Eyes; Olser. (p. 13.) vations on Opera Glasses and Theatres ;

“When persons who have long patronand an Account of the Pancratic Magni- ized one eye and slighted the other, take to fier, for Double Stars, and Day Telescopes. spectacles, they will (generally) require By William Kitchener, M. D. Author of glasses of a different focus for each eye.the Cook's Oracle, &c. 12mo. Pp. 245.

P. 14. BEFORE entering upon this enter The average period of the 'eyes retaining and useful work, it may be il- quiring spectacles to read with is about

the

1825.]
Literature and Science.

161 the 45th year, and the following is the original pleasant writer, that he makes test, when they become necessary to the acquisition of fame and esteem a save the eyes :

mere every-day birth, while to others, « The first indication of the eye beginning

even Jupiters, it is that of a Minerva to be impaired ly age is, that when you wish hammered out of the brains. to read a small print, you are obliged to re We shall end our remarks with a move it further from your eye than you piece of apposite pleasantry in p: 42. have been accustomed to do, and desire the Every man ought to use magnifying aid of plenty of light; and on looking at a

spectacles at a feast, for the conversion near object, it becomes confused, and ap

of morsels into mountains, and may pears to have a kind of mist before it, and the letters of a book run one into another,

check over-gorging, a rule of no smali

moment; for it seems that the usual or appear double, &c.; and BY CANDLELIGHT you catch yourself holding a book

allowance at a turtle feast is six pounds &c. close behind the candle." P. 26. live weight per head, an enormous raThere are many other things in this tion,

exceeding even Fielding's Parserviceable work which every man

son Thwackam, who used to eat at ought to know, and every wise man

one dinner only two pounds of beef, will know. Dr. Kitchiner is such an

and as many of pudding.

LITERATURE, SCIENCE, &c.
Ready for Publication.

Preparing for Publication. The Third Portion of the History of Mo A new and enlarged Edition of the Rev. dern Wiltshire; containing the Hundred of Mr. Brewster's History and Antiquities of Branch and Dole. By the Rev. John Offer Stockton upon Tees. and Sir R. C. HOARE, Bart.

Four Volumes of Sermons, by the late Part IV. of Progresses of King James. Dr. DoDDRIDGE.

Mr. BRAYLEY's Historical Descriptions of Essays on practical, religious, and moral the London Theatres, illustrated by 14 ex Subjects. By the Rev. S. HOPKINSON, terior Views (besides ground plans), co Rector of Etton, Northamptonshire. loured.--His Londiniana, or Reminiscences The Speeches of the Right Honourable of the British Capital, &c. is likewise far GEORGE CANNING on various Public Occaadvanced through the Press, and will ap- sions in Liverpool. pear at the commencement of the ensuing Dr. Charles Parry, of Bath, F.R. S. winter, with numerous graphic illustrations. Author of a valuable Work of the Arteries,

Roman Antiquities; or the Durobrivæ of &c. &c. is engaged in publishing new EdiAntoninius Identified, in a Series of Plates il- tions of his late, father's Medical Works, lustrative of the excavated remains of a Ro and extensive Collections from his unpubman Station in Castor, Northamptonshire. lished medical writings. Of the latter, one By E. T. Artis, Esq. F. S. A. who has interesting Volume has already appeared, nearly ready for publication, Antediluvian and with it an introductory volume by the Phytology, illustrated by a Collection of the Editor, in which the scope and tendency of Fossil Remaius of Plants peculiar to the Dr. Parry's doctrines are exhibited. Coal Formations of Great Britain.

Of Telescopes ; being the result of No. X. of Mr. Britton's Illustrations of thirty years' Experiments with fifty-one the Ancient Architecture of Great Britain, Telescopes, of from one to nine inches in to complete the Volume; another Number diameter, in the possession of WILLIAM of the Cathedral Antiquities; and vol. III. KitchINER, M. D. author of “ The Cook's of the Beauties of Wiltshire.

Oracle," &c. &c. &c. Remains of the Rev. Christian Frederick A Translation of the Six Cantos of KlopSehwartz, Missionary in India ; consisting stock's Messiah, in verse. of his Letters and Journals.

Practical Observations on the Nature, The Secret Correspondence of Madame de Causes, and Treatment of Water in the Majotenon and the Princess des Ursins, Brain. By Dr. SHEARMAN. from the original Letters in the possession A Practical Treatise on Poisons ; forming of the Duke de Choiseul, containing an in a comprehensive Manual of Toxicology. By teresting account of the political transac John Gordon Smith, M.D. tions of the Court of Louis XIV.

A Work, displaying the Useful Arts and A Treatise on Epidemic Cholera, and Manufactures of Great Britain, similar to Sketches of the Diseases of India, including “ les Arts et Metiers" of France. By Dr. Statistical and Topographical Reports, &c.

BIRKBECK. By James ANNESLEY, Esq.

The Session of Parliament for 1825, conGent. Mag. August, 1825.

taining

162
Literature and Science,

[Aug taining a careful estimate of all the Parlia- young man cannot be maintained and inmentary parties and interests, the state of structed at Oxford or Cambridge at a less Ireland, the Catholic question, and the charge than 2001, or 250l. per annum : , whole business of the Session, &c.

while the expenses of most exceed this

sum, Attic Fragmeuts. By the Author of the and nearly five months in the year are al« Modern Athens."

lowed for vacations. The whole expense for

each student's justruction at the London Among the collection of two hundred University, will not exceed 25l. or 301. per Arabic, Persian, and Turkish MSS., which

annum, (this supposes a student to attend have been purchased of M. Rousseau, five or six of the general classes, but the French Consul-general, and Charge des Af medical education will be necessarily more faires at Tripoli, by the Emperor of Russia, expensive, from the costs of the anatomical for 15,000 francs, are some which will sup department;) with not more than ten weeks ply deficiencies in the most interesting pe of vacation. A treaty is now in progress for riods of modern history. There is the His a suitable piece of ground, in a central situatory of the Arabs in Spain, by Ahmed Al tion, for the buildings and walks ; and it is magari; the Bark Yainani, or History of expected that the structure will be completed the Conquest of Arabia Felix by the Oth- in August, 1826, and the classes opened in mans; an Arabic translation of the History October following. The vacations will comof the Jews; and a History of the Sultan prise a fortnight at Easter, about six weeks Noureddin; but of which Noureddin we from the middle of August to the end of cannot state. Certain we are, that the Em

September, and a fortnight at Christmas. peror has made a most valuable acquisition The capital (300,000l.) is to be raised by for the Asiatic Museum of St. Petersburgh. 3000 shares of 100l. each, or donations of At Mr. Evans's sale, on the 20th and 21st

501. which will entitle the donor to the same of July, the celebrated Mazarine Bible,

privileges for life, as a shareholder of 1001.

Each holder of a 1001. share will receive printed on vellum, was purchased by Mr. Perkins, the opulent brewer, for 480 gui- interest at a rate not exceeding four per cent. neas. The Duke of Sussex bought the per annum, payable half-yearly, and be enLatin Bible, in 2 vols. without date, place, titled to present one student for each share. or name of the printer, but undoubtedly from the shares will be transferable by sale and the press of Ulric Zell, for 44 guineas; by bequest, and descend to the holders' likewise the Latin Bible printed at Nurem- representatives in cases of intestacy. The berg, by Frisner et Sensenschmin, 1475,

money will be called for by instalments, as for 48 pounds. Mr. Thorpe purchased the

wanted; but it is calculated that not more excessively rare Latin Bible, in 2 vols. with than two thirds of the amount will be reout signatures, date, place, or name of the

quired, and the remaining third will thus be printer, but certainly one of the earliest and

in reserve, to provide for an extension of the noblest productions of the press of Metellin, plan, or any unforeseen contingency. No and printed before 1466, for 180 guineas.

person to hold more than ten shares; and a Mr. Thorpe also bought the original draw

donor of 501. to have all the privileges of a ings by Francis Grose, most of which have shareholder during life, except the receipt of been engraved for the Antiquities, for 100 interest and transfer of his rights. The guineas. The Musée Francais, in 4 vols. interest on the shares will be paid out of the folio, was bought by Arch, the bookseller, surplus revenue of the institution, after defor 1261. The first edition of Martial, in fraying all the expenses of conducting the folio, produced 141. 10s. The first edition

same, and arising from the annual payment of Plutarch, in 2 vols. without date, brought of five guineas by each Student to the Gene211. Mr. Heber gave 91. 125. for Plinii ral Fund, exclusive of one guinea per annum Historia Naturalis, 1472. A collection of

to the Library, Museum, and collection of the documents chiefly relative to the Abbey Maps, Charts, Drawings, and Models. The of Culross, one of the most ancient Abbeys rules of this establishment will be submitted in Scotland, was bought by Sir Thomas

to a general meeting of shareholders and Phillipps, for 401. 195. The four days' sale

donors; who it is anticipated will be induced amounted to between two and three thou

to vest its government in a Chancellor, Vicesand pounds.

Chancellor, and 19 ordinary members of

Council (a proportion of which will go out LONDON UNIVERSITY.

of office annually), to be elected by the There is every prospect of this Institution , shareholders and donors, voting either in being soon established and brought into person or by proxy. The Professors will active operation. Its principal object is to have moderate salaries, but their emoluments bring the means of a complete scientific and will principally depend on the fees received literary education home to the inhabitants from students. of the metropolis, who may thus be enabled Single Blocks OF STONE. to educate their sons at a moderate expense, The enormous columns of granite destined and under their own immediate superinten- for the portico of the new church now build dence. Under existing circumstances a ing in the Place d'Isacc, at St. Petersburgh,

are

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1925.]
Literature and Science.

163 dre very remarkable. In order to form á 900 carats in the rough. The largest dias proper estimate of their size, we may give mond ever brought to Europe is one now in the comparative magnitude of the largest the possession of the Sovereign of Russia. blocks known, both ancient and modern. It weighs 195 carats, and was long employed 1. The column of Alexandria, commonly äs the eye of a Braminical idol. A French called Pompey's Pillar, holds the first rank: Soldier discovered the value of the gem; and it is of a single block of red granite, 67 ft. changed his religion, worshipping at the 4 in. 11° lines. 2. The columns of the altar of the god, that he might deprive him Church d'Isacc, just mentioned, in height of his splendid eye. At length he succeeded 56 ft. 3. The columns, whose ruins are in substituting a piece of glass for the dianear Mount Citoria, at Rome, height 52 ft. mond, and again became a good Christian ! 4 in. 4. Columns of the portico of the After passing through several hands, the Pantheon, height 46 ft. 9 in. 11 lines. 5. Empress Catherine at length fixed it in the Colamns of the Cathedral of Casan, at St. possession of the Russian Crown, giving for Petersburgh, height 42 ft. 6. Two columns it 90,000l., and a perpetual annuity of 1000l. of the Church of St. Paul, at Rome, with. It is cut in the rose form, and is the size of out the enclosure, height 38 ft. 4 in. 7. & pigeon's egg. One of the most beautiful The columns near the Baths of Dioclesian, is the Pitt diamond, which is a brilliant, and those of Caracalla, now placed at Flo- and weighs rather more thau 136 carats ; it rence, near the Pont Trinité, of the same was brought from India by Governor Pitt, height as the preceding. To these may be and purchased by the Duke of Orleans, who added a beautiful column of white marble, placed it in the Crown of France, where it about 40 ft. Iong, taken from a quarry on still remains. (See p. 106.) The celebrated the south side of the Simplon road; it was Pigot diamond is now in the possession of destined by Napoleon for the ornamental Messrs. Rundell and Bridge.. improvements of Milan.

GIGANTIC Organic REMAINS.
COMPARATIVE HEIGHTS OF THE Highest

We lately mentioned (says the New York
EDIFICES KNOWN IN THE WORLD. Evening Post of July 15) that the bones of

Eng: Feet. a nondescript aninjal, of an immense size, Pyramid of Gizeh in Egypt

and larger than any bones that have hitherto Steeples of the Cathedral at Cologne

been noticed by naturalists, had been discoSteeple of the Minster at Ulm

vered about twenty miles from New Orleans, Steeple of the Cathedral at Antwerp

in the alluvial ground formed by the MissisSteeple of the Minster at Strasburg 486 sippi river and the lakes, and but a short Pyramids of Cheops in Egypt

distance from the sea.

It now appears, Steeple of St. Stephen's at Vienna 442 that these gigantic remains had been disinCupola of St. Peter's at Rome

terred by a Mr. W. Schofield, of New OrPyramid of Cephrenes in Egypt 426 leans, who spent about a year in this arduSteeple of St. Martin's at Landshut

ous undertaking. A fragment of a cranium Steeple of the Cathedral at Cremona 396 is stated to measure twenty-two feet in Steeple of the Minster at Friburg

length; in its broadest part four feet high, Cupola of the Cathedral'at Florence

and perhaps nine inches thick; and it is Steeple of St. Persina in Saxony

said to weigh 1,200lbs. The largest exCupola of the Cathedral at Milan

tremity of this bone is thought evidently to Steeple of the Cathedral at Utrecht

answer to the human scapula ; it tapers off Pyramid of Sackkarah in Egypt

to & point, and retains à Alatness to the Steeples of Notre Dame at Munich

termination. From these facts it is in Cupola of St. Paul's at London 347 ferred, that this bone constituted a fin, or Steeple of St. Ascharius at Bremen

fender. One of its edges, from alternate Steeples of the Cathedral at Magdeburg 335 exposures to the tide and atmosphere, has Steeple of St. Mark's at Venice

become spongy or porous, but, generally, it Cupola of the Jesuit's Church at Paris 314

is in a perfect state of ossification. A large Assinelli Tower at Bologna

groove or canal presents itself in the supeCapola of the Invalids at Paris

rior portion of this bone, upon the sides of Steeple of St. Mary's at Berlin

which considerable quantities of ambergris DIAMONDS.

may be collected, which appears to have The weight of diamonds is estimated in suffered little or no decomposition or changes carats, 150

of which are equal to one ounce by age. It burns with a beautiful bright troy. The average price of rough diamonds flame, and emits an odoriferous smell while is about 2. per carat. According to this burning; it is of a greasy consistence, simiscale, a wrought diamond, 3 carats, is lar to adipocere. It is evident that there worth 721., and one of 100 carats 80,0001. was a corresponding fin, or fender. "The The largest diamond probably ever heard of animal, therefore, must have been fifty feet is one mentioned by Tavernier, who saw it in breadth from one extremity of a fin to in the possession of the Great Mogul. It the other, allowing for wear and tear, as was about as big as a hen's egg, and weighed well as a disproportionate width of the back

543 501 431 476

452

431

422

395 384 352 357 356 356 348

345

328

314
295
202

to

164
Antiquarian Researches.

[Aug
to the length of the fins. There are seve body of each vertebræ is at least twenty
ral of the dorsal vertebræ, and one of the inches in diameter, and as many in length ;
lumbar, and a bone answering to the cocy the tube or calibre for containing the spinal
gis in our anatomy. The vertebræ are marrow is six inches in diameter ; some of
sound, and corresponding in size to the the arterial and nervous indentations, or
largest bone; the protuberances of the ver courses, are yet visible. There is a bone
tebræ are three feet in extent; they lead to similar to our os calcis, one foot in length,
the supposition that the animal had consi- and eight inches in diameter.
derable protuberances on the back; the

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ANTIQUARIAN RESEARCHES.
An Essay on the Composition of the Ancient sure derived from this 'investigation was

Earthen Vases, commonly known by the much augmented by some observations
name of Etruscan. Read before the Royal which it suggested to me regarding their
Society of Gottingen. From the Latin of composition. The little that I have learned
Professor Hausmann*.

with regard to this subject, either during
The ancient painted vases chiefly dug up my journey, or from subsequent observation
in many districts of Lower Italy, have ex and experiments, I shall endeavour to expose
cited much interest among the learned, and in the following essay.
the admirers of ancient art. While the Sect. 1. Of the vascs, commonly called
elegance and diversity of their forms, to Etruscan, in general.-We shall confine
gether with the singularity and boldness of ourselves to the vases commonly called
their figures, delight the eye of the be- Etruscan, although the greater part of them
holder, the variety of design and subject in are not of Etruscan, but of Grecian origin.
the paintings with which they are decorated. The celebrated Winkelmann was the first
equally conduce to the illustration of my who refuted the opinion chiefly supported
thology, history, and ancient art. The in- by Gorius and Buonarotli, that these painted
vestigation of these paintings has already vases of pottery-ware had been manufactured
contributed in no small degree to improve in ancient Etruriat. But although it canuot
our knowledge of antiquity; nor has the be denied that the greatest quantity of vases
imitation of the forms of those vases been has been dug up in those parts of Italy and
less a source of profit as applied to the art Sicily, which were formerly inhabited by
of pottery. The famous Wedgwood ware the Greeks, nor that the style of their
owes its celebrity as much to the successful paintings and their inscriptions sufficiently
imitation of the forms of those vases as to demonstrate their Grecian origin ; yet it is
the excellence of its material. In like man probable, that the art of fabricating painted
ner, the beautiful ornaments observed upon vessels of earthen-ware was not contined to
these vases, have, in our times, been trans that portion of Italy, but also extended to
ferred to the subjects of many other arts ; other districts, since, in many places remote
and have been employed for the decoration from it, vases of the same general description
of buildings, rooms, furniture, articles of have been dug up, which, however, possess
dress, and other works of luxury, insomuch so much diversity of character, with regard
that antique forms have become so common to their forms and paintings, as to induce
in modern art, that their origin has been the inference, that they had not been trans-
nearly forgotten. Although ancient art mitted to those parts by commerce. Nor
has, in this manner, made its way into the was this art confined to ancient Italy alone,
shops of potters and other artificers, and but was also practised in Greece I, and
even into our drawing-rooms, yet the scien- thence made its way into some of the neigh-
tific study of technology, and the history of bouring districts of Pontus §, The painted
the mechanical and chemical arts, have vases found in these countries are essentially
hitherto been little advanced by the investi- the same as those discovered in Italy.
gation of those ancient vases.

The vases found in different parts and In the writings of the ancients we scarcely situations of Italy, differ more or less from find any passages in which positive mention each other, both with respect to the quality is made of them; and none in so far as I of their material, and to the workmanship know, where their composition is spoken of. and style of painting; the cause of which This point, therefore, can only be ascer difference is to be sought for in the different tained by an accurate examination of the natural qualities of the materials, or in a vases themselves. During a journey which different degree of perfection in the art. I made last year through Italy, I had opportunities of examining the splendid collec

t Geschichte der Kunst, p. 193 et seq. tions of those vases which adorn the museums

Clarke's 'Travels, vol. iv.-Walpole's of Florence, Rome, and Naples. The piea- Memoirs, 2d edit.-Antiq. of Athens, p.

322.-Ritter's Vorhalle Europäischer Vol* From the Edinburgh Philosophical kergeschichten von Herodotus, p. 232. Journal for April 1825.

Ritter, as above, p. 231.

For

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