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160 Review.-Dr. Kitchener's Economy of the Eyes. - [Aug Constitution ; for Southey's Book of lustrative to make some preliminary the Church plainly shows, that to our remarks. In children the cornea is religious establishment we owe the extremely flexible, so as to be bent by preservation both of the Constitution its muscular ring into any given curvaand liberty.

ture necessary for reading, and of course The Pamphlet is cautious, modest, there is less occasion of contracting the and prudent, and we think that its pupil for distinct vision; but in old object is an important national good. persons the cornea is stiffer, so that A resident Clergyman is a resident they can hardly read without spectacounsellor. Ignorant country people cles, unless the print be large, or the are perpetually flying to petty lawyers light so strong as to cause a great puupon the most trivial occasions, and pilar contraction. Thus the necessity thus either

pay

much unnecessary mo- of spectacles ; but different lenses are ney to get into scrapes, or get out of required for the two reading kinds of them; nor do they understand the vision. Short-sightedness is owing to proper management of families, the the pencils of rays converging too fast, preservation of peace, the advantages and coming to a focus before they reach of temperance, the consolations of Re- the retina. Here a concave lens religion, or the comfort of having a lieves by making the rays diverge more friend in superior life, upon whom before they enter the pupil of the eye. they can rely, from his independence In long-sightedness the pencils of rays and professional philanthropic bias. diverge so as not to meet in a focus till With regard to worldly conduct, the they have passed the retina. Here a road to happiness, both temporal and convex lens, by making the rays' coneternal, must be founded upon pru- verge, is of benefit. As all our readers dence; and we therefore trust that no may not be acquainted with opticks, person, by our speaking, will presume we have made these remarks from that we mean to depreciate the doc. Priestley's History, by way of explanatrines of Christianity. God forbid ! tory introduction to ihe following imWe only mean healing diseases by me- portant matters from Dr. Kitchener. dicines.

-The best plan to preserve the eyes is

not to employ them at night in any 43. Elements of Thought. By Isaac Taylor, they who are careful in following a re

work which tries them (p. 51); and Jun. 12mo. Holdsworth.

gular gradation in the change of their THIS is by far the best elementary glasses, may preserve their eyes to the treatise on subjects connected with the latest period of life (p. 39); and many developement of the intellectual facul

persons have worn out their sight preties with which we are acquainted ;- maturely by beginning with too great of sufficient length for the demands of magnifiers (p. 40). The smaller the perspicuity,--short enough to remedy power, provided it be sufficient, is the the defect of weariness and exhaustion.

most pleasant and convenient (p. 56). To those who are not afraid of exa- Dr. K. recommends the following mode mining into the first principles of of trying new spectacles : mental exertion, to those who would emerge from the indolence of reposing paper with moderately large printed letters,

“ By placing upright against a wall a on the opinions of others, and endea- such as usually occur in the title pages of vour to think for themselves, this little

octavo books, he finds the greatest distance volume will be an invaluable treasure.

he can distinctly see the letters with a good light to be the focal length of the specta

cles." P. 56. 44. The Economy of the Eyes ; Precepls for

The Improvement and Preservation of the Using a single glass causes the idle Sight. Plain Rules which will enable all eye to become of a different focus to to judge exactly when and what Spectacles that which is employed with the glass. are best calculaled for their Eyes; Obser- (p. 13.) vations on Opera Glasses and Theatres ; “When persons who have long patronand an Account of the Pancratic Magni

ized one eye and slighted the other, take to fier, for Double Stars, and Day Telescopes. By William Kitchener, M. D. Author of glasses of a different focus for each eye."

spectacles, they will (generally) require the Cook's Oracle, &c. 12mo. Pp. 246.

P. 14. BEFORE entering upon this enter- The average period of the 'eyes rétaining and useful work, it may be il- quiring spectacles to read with is about

the

1825.)
Literature and Science.

161 the 45th year, and the following is the original pleasant writer, that he makes test, when they become necessary to the acquisition of fame and esteem a save the eyes :

mere every-day birth, while to others, The first indication of the eye beginning

even Jupiters, it is that of a Minerva to be impaired by age is, that when you wish

hammered out of the brains. to read a small print, you are obliged to re- We shall end our remarks with a move it further from your eye than you piece of apposite pleasantry in p. 42. have been accustomed to do, and desire the

Every man ought to use magnifying aid of plenty of light; and on looking at a

spectacles at a feast, for the conversion near object, it becomes confused, and appears to have a kind of mist before it, and check over-gorging, a rule of no small

of morsels into mountains, and may the letters of a book run one into another, or appear double, &c.; and by CANDLE

moment; for it seems that the usual LIGHT you catch yourself holding a book

allowance at a turtle feast is six pounds &c. close behind the candle." P. 26. live weight per head, an enormous raThere are many other things in this

tion, exceeding even Fielding's Parserviceable work which every man

son Thwackam, who used to eat at ought to know, and every wise man

one dinner only two pounds of beef, will know. Dr. Kitchiner is such an

and as many of pudding.

LITERATURE, SCIENCE, &c.
Ready for Publication.

Preparing for Publication. The Third Portion of the History of Mo- A new and enlarged Edition of the Rev. dern Wiltshire; containing the Hundred of Mr. Brewster's History and Antiquities of Branch and Dole. By the Rev. John Offer Stockton upon Tees. and Sir R. C. HOARE, Bart.

Four Volumes of Sermons, by the late Part IV. of Progresses of King James. Dr. DoDDRIDGE.

Mr. BRAYLEY's Historical Descriptions of Essays on practical, religious, and moral the London Theatres, illustrated by 14 ex- Subjects. By the Rev. S. HOPKINSON, terior Views (besides ground plans), co- Rector of Etton, Northamptonshire. loured.--His Londiniana, or Reminiscences The Speeches of the Right Honourable of the British Capital, &c. is likewise far GEORGE CANNING on various Public Occaadvanced through the Press, and will ap- sions in Liverpool. pear at the commencement of the ensuing Dr. Charles Parry, of Bath, F.R.S. winter, with numerous graphic illustrations. Author of a valuable Work of the Arteries,

Roman Antiquities; or the Durobrivæ of &c. &c. is engaged in publishing new EdiAntoninius Identified, in a Series of Plates il- tions of his late father's Medical Works, lustrative of the excavated remains of a Ro- and extensive Colleetions from his unpubman Station in Castor, Northamptonshire. lished medical writings. Of the latter, one By E. T. Artis, Esq. F. S. A. who has interesting Volume has already appeared, nearly ready for publication, Antediluvian and with it an introductory volume by the Phytology, illustrated by a Collection of the Editor, in which the scope and tendency of Fossil Remaius of Plants peculiar to the Dr. Parry's doctrines are exhibited. Coal Formations of Great Britain.

Of Telescopes ; being the result of No. X. of Mr. Britton's Illustrations of thirty ears' Experiments with fifty-one the Ancient Architecture of Great Britain, Telescopes, of from one to nine inches in to complete the Volume ; another Number diameter, in the possession of William of the Cathedral Antiquities; and vol. III. KITCHINER, M. D. author of “ The Cook's of the Beauties of Wiltshire.

Oracle,” &c. &c. &c. Remaios of the Rev. Christian Frederick A Translation of the Six Cantos of KlopSchwartz, Missionary in India; consisting stock's Messiah, in verse. of his Letters and Journals.

Practical Observations on the Nature, The Secret Correspondence of Madame de Causes, and Treatment of Water in the Maintenon and the Princess des Ursins, Brain. By Dr. SHEARMAN. from the original Letters in the possession A Practical Treatise on Poisons ; forming of the Duke de Choiseul, containing an in- a comprehensive Manual of Toxicology. By teresting account of the political transac- John Gordon SMITH, M.D. tions of the Court of Louis XIV.

A Work, displaying the Useful Arts and A Treatise on Epidemic Cholera, and Manufactures of Great Britain, similar to Sketches of the Diseases of India, including “ les Arts et Metiers" of France. By Dr. Statistical and Topographical Reports, &c.

BIRKBECK. By JAMES ANNESLEY, Esq.

The Session of Parliament for 1825, conGENT. Mag. August, 1825.

taining

neas.

162
Literature and Science,

[Aug taining a careful estimate of all the Parlia young man cannot be maintained and inmentary parties and interests, the state of structed at Oxford or Cambridge at a less Ireland, the Catholic question, and the charge than 2001. or 250l. per annum : whole business of the Session, &c.

while the expenses of most exceed this sum, Attic Fragments. By the Author of the and nearly five months in the year are als « Modern Athens."

lowed for vacations. The whole expense for

each student's instruction at the London Among the collection of two hundred University, will not exceed 25l. or 80l. per Arabic, Persian, and Turkish MSS., which annum, (this supposes a student to attend have been purchased of M. Rousseau, five or six of the general classes, but the French Consul-general, and Charge des Af- medical education will be necessarily more faires at Tripoli, by the Emperor of Russia, expensive, from the costs of the anatomical for 15,000 francs, are some which will sup- department;) with not more than ten weeks ply deficiencies in the most interesting pe- of vacation. A treaty is now in progress for riods of modern history. There is the His- a suitable piece of ground, in a central situatory of the Arabs in Spain, by Ahmed Al- tion, for the buildings and walks ; and it is magari; the Bark Yainani, or History of expected that the structure will be completed the Conquest of Arabia Felix by the Oth- in August, 1826, and the classes opened in mans; an Arabic translation of the History October following. The vacations will comof the Jews; and a History of the Sultan prise a fortnight at Easter, about six weeks Noureddin ; but of which Noureddin we from the middle of August to the end of cannot state. Certain we are, that the Em- September, and a fortnight at Christmas. peror has made a most valuable acquisition The capital (300,0001.) is to be raised by for the Asiatic Museum of St. Petersburgh. 3000 shares of 100l. each, or donations of At Mr. Eyans's sale, on the 20th and 21st

501. which will entitle the donor to the same of July, the celebrated Mazarine Bible, privileges for life, as a shareholder of 1001. printeà on vellum, was purchased by Mr. Each holder of a 1001. share will receive Perkins, the opulent brewer, for 480 gui- interest at a rate not exceeding four per cent.

The Duke of Sussex bought the per annum, payable half-yearly, and be enLatin Bible, in 2 vols. without date, place, The shares will be transferable by sale and

titled to present one student for each share, or name of the printer, but undoubtedly from the press of Ulric Zell

, for 44 guineas; by bequest, and descend to the holders' likewise the Latin Bible printed at Nurem- representatives in cases of intestacy, The berg, by Frisner et Sensenschmin, 1475,

money will be called for by instalments, as for 48 pounds. Mr. Thorpe purchased the wanted; but it is calculated that not more excessively rare Latin Bible, in 2 vols. with

than two thirds of the amount will be reout signatures, date, place, or name of the quired, and the remaining third will thus be printer, but certainly one of the earliest and in reserve, to provide for an extension of the noblest productions of the press of Metellin, plan, or any unforeseen contingency. No and printed before 1466, for 180 guineas. person to hold more than ten shares; and a Mr. Thorpe also bought the original draw- donor of 501. to have all the privileges of ings by Francis Grose, most of which have shareholder during life, except the receipt of been engraved for the Antiquities, for 100

interest and transfer of his rights. The guineas. The Musée Francais, in 4 vols. interest on the shares will be paid out of the folio, was bought by Arch, the bookseller, surplus revenue of the institution, after defor 1261. The first edition of Martial, in fraying all the expenses of conducting the folio, produced 141. 10s. The first edition

same, and arising from the annual payment of Plutarch, in 2 vols. without date, brought of five guineas by each Student to the Gene211. Mr. Heber gave 91. 125. for Plinii ral Fund, exclusive of one guinea per andùm Historia Naturalis, 1472. A collection of

to the Library, Museum, and collection of the documents chiefly relative to the Abbey Maps, Charts, Drawings, and Models. The of Culross, one of the most ancient Abbeys rules of this establishment will be submitted in Scotland, was bought by Sir Thomas to a general meeting of shareholders and Phillipps, for 401. 198. The four days' sale donors; who it is auticipated will be induced amounted to between two and three thou

to vest its government in a Chancellor, Vicesand pounds.

Chancellor, and 19 ordinary members of

Council (a proportion of which will go out LONDON UNIVERSITY.

of office annually), to be elected by the There is every prospect of this Institution shareholders and donors, voting either in being soon established and brought into person or by proxy. The Professors, will active operation. Its principal object is to have moderate salaries, but their emoluments bring the means of a complete scientific and will principally depend on the fees received literary education home to the inhabitants from students. of the metropolis, who may thus be enabled Single Blocks OF STONE. to educate their sons at a moderate expense, The enormous columns of granite destined and under their own immediate superinten- for the portico of the new church now builddence.

Under existing circumstances a ing in the Place d'Isacc, at St. Petersburgh,

are

1925.]
Literature and Science.

163 are very remarkable. In order to form à 900 carats in the rough. The largest dias proper estimate of their size, we may give mond ever brought to Eutrope is one now in the comparative magnitude of the largest the possession of the Sovereign of Russia. blocks known, both ancient and modern. It weighs 195 carats, and was long employed 1. The column of Alexandria, commonly as the eye of a Braminical idol. A French called Pompey's Pillar, holds the first rank: Soldier discovered the value of the gem; and it is of a single block of red granite, 67 ft. changed his religion, worshipping at the 4 in. 11ļ lines. 2. The columns of the altar of the god, that he might deprive him Church &'Isacc, just mentioned, in height of his splendid eye. At length he succeeded 56 ft. 3. The columns, whose ruins are in substituting a piece of glass for the dianear Mount Citoria, at Rome, height 52 ft. mond, and again became a good Christian ! 4 in. 4. Columns of the portico of the After passing through several hands, the Pantheon, height 46 ft. 9 in. 11 lines. 5. Empress Catherine at length fixed it in the Colamns of the Cathedral of Casan, at St. possession of the Russian Crown, giving for Petersburgh, height 42 ft. 6. Two columns it 90,0001., and a perpetual annuity of 10001. of the Church of St. Paul, at Rome, with. It is cut in the rose form, and is the size of out the enclosure, height 38 ft. 4 in. 7. & pigeon's egg. One of the most beautiful The columns near the Baths of Dioclesian, is the Pitt diamond, which is a brilliant, and those of Caracalla, now placed at Flo- and weighs rather more than 136 carats ; it rence, near the Pont Trinité, of the same was brought from India by Governor Pitt, height as the preceding. To these may be and purchased by the Duke of Orleans, who added a beautiful column of white marble, placed it in the Crown of France, where it about 40 ft. long, taken from a quarry on still remains. (See p. 106.) The celebrated the south side of the Simplon road ; it was Pigot diamond is now in the possession of destined by Napoleon for the ornamental Messrs. Rundell and Bridge. . improvements of Milan.

GIGANTIC ORGANIC REMAINS. COMPARATIVE HEIGHTS OF THE HIGHEST We lately mentioned (says the New York EDIFICES KNOWN IN THE WORLD.

Evening Post of July 15) that the bones of

Eng: Feet, a nondescript aninial, of an immense size, Pyramid of Gizeh in Egypt

and larger than any bones that have hitherto Steeples of the Cathedral at Cologne

been noticed by naturalists, had been discoSteeple of the Minster at Ulm

vered about twenty miles from New Orleans, Steeple of the Cathedral at Antwerp

in the alluvial ground formed by the MissisSteeple of the Minster at Strasburg sippi river and the lakes, and but a short Pyramids of Cheops in Egypt

distance from the sea. It now appears, Steeple of St. Stephen's at Vienna

that these gigantic remains had been disinCupola of St. Peter's at Rome

431

terred by a Mr. W. Schofield, of New OrPyramid of Cephrenes in Egypt

leans, who spent about a year in this arduSteeple of St. Martin's at Landshut

422 ous undertaking. A fragment of a cranium Steeple of the Cathedral at Cremona 396 is stated to measure twenty-two feet in Steeple of the Minster at Friburg

length; in its broadest part four feet high, Cupola of the Cathedral'at Florence

and perhaps nine inches thick; and it is Steeple of St. Persina in Saxony

said to weigh 1,200lbs. The largest exCupola of the Cathedral at Milan

tremity of this bone is thought evidently to Steeple of the Cathedral at Utrecht

answer to the human scapula ; it tapers off Pyramid of Sackkarah in Egypt

to a point, and retains a flatness to the Steeples of Notre Dame at Munich

termination. From these facts it is in Cupola of St. Paul's at London

ferred, that this bone constituted a fín, of Steeple of St. Ascharius at Bremen 345 fender. One of its edges, from alternate Steeples of the Cathedral at Magdeburg 335 exposures to the tide and atmosphere, has Steeple of St. Mark's at Venice

become spongy or porous, but, generally, it Cupola of the Jesuit's Church at Paris 314

is in a perfect state of ossification. A large Assinelli Tower at Bologna

314

groove or canal presents itself in the supeCapola of the Invalids at Paris

543 501 431 476 486 452 442

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rior portion of this bone, upon the sides of Steeple of St. Mary's at Berlin

which considerable quantities of ambergris DIAMONDS.

may be collected, which appears to have The weight of diamonds is estimated in suffered little or no decomposition or changes carats, 150

of which are equal to one ounce by age. It burns with a beautiful bright troy. The average price of rough diamonds flame, and emits an odoriferous smell while is about 21. per carat. According to this burning; it is of a greasy consistence, simiscale, a wrought diamond, 3 carats, is lar to adipocere. It is evident that there worth 721., and one of 100 carats 80,000l. was a corresponding fin, or fender. The The largest diamond probably ever heard of animal, therefore, must have been fifty feet is one mentioned by Tavernier, who saw it in breadth from one extremity of a fin to in the possession of the Great Mogul. It the other, allowing for wear and tear, as was about as big as a hen's egg, and weighed well as a disproportionate width of the back

295
202

164
Antiquarian Researches.

[Aug. to the length of the fins. There are seve- body of each vertebræ is at least twenty ral of the dorsal vertebræ, and one of the inches in diameter, and as many in length; lumbar, and a bone answering to the cocy- the tube or calibre for containing the spinal gis in our anatomy. The vertebræ are marrow is six inches in diameter ; some of sound, and corresponding in size to the the arterial and nervous indentations, or largest bone; the protuberances of the ver- courses, are yet visible. There is a bone tebræ are three feet in extent; they lead to similar to our os calcis, one foot in length, the supposition that the animal had consi- and eight inches in diameter. derable protuberances on the back; the

ANTIQUARIAN RESEARCHES. An Essay on the Composition of the Ancient sure derived from this 'investigation was

Earthen Vases, commonly known by the much augmented by some observations name of Etruscan. Read before the Royal which it suggested to me regarding their Society of Gottingen. From the Latin of composition. The little that I have learned Professor Hausmann*.

with regard to this subject, either during The ancient painted vases chiefly dug up my journey, or from subsequent observation in many districts of Lower Italy, have ex- and experiments, I shall endeavour to expose cited much interest among the learned, and in the following essay. the admirers of ancient art. While the Sect. 1. Of the vases, commonly called elegance and diversity of their forms, to- Etruscan, in general.-We shall confine gether with the singularity and boldness of ourselves to the vases commonly called their figures, delight the eye of the be- Etruscan, ough the greater part of them holder, the variety of design and subject in are not of Etruscan, but of Grecian origin. the paintings with which they are decorated, The celebrated Winkelmann was the first equally conduce' to the illustration of my- who refuted the opinion chiefly supported thology, history, and ancient art. The in- by Gorius and Buonarolli, that these painted vestigation of these paintings has already vases of pottery-ware had been manufactured contributed in no small degree to improve in ancient Etruriat. But although it cannot our knowledge of antiquity; nor has the be denied that the greatest quantity of vases imitation of the forms of those vases been has been dug up in those parts of Italy and less a source of profit as applied to the art Sicily, which were formerly inhabited by of pottery. The famous Wedgwood ware the Greeks, nor that the style of their owes its celebrity as much to the successful paintings and their inscriptions sufficiently imitation of the forms of those vases as to demonstrate their Grecian origin ; yet it is the excellence of its material. In like man- probable, that the art of fabricating painted ner, the beautiful ornaments observed upon vessels of earthen-ware was not contined to these vases, have, in our times, been trans- that portion of Italy, but also extended to ferred to the subjects of many other arts; other districts, since, in many places remote and have been employed for the decoration from it, vases of the same general description of buildings, rooms, furniture, articles of have been dug up, which, however, possess dress, and other works of luxury, insomuch so much diversity of character, with regard that antique forms have become so common to their forms and paintings, as to induce in modern art, that their origin has been the inference, that they had not been transnearly forgotten. Although ancient art mitted to those parts by commerce.

Nor has, in this manner, made its way into the was this art confined to ancient Italy alone, shops of potters and other artificers, and but was also practised in Greece I, and even into our drawing-rooms, yet the scien- thence made its way into some of the neightific study of technology, and the history of bouring districts of Pontus §, The painted the mechanical and chemical arts, have vases found in these countries are essentially hitherto been little advanced by the investi- the same as those discovered in Italy. gation of those ancient vases.

The vases found in different parts and In the writings of the ancients we scarcely situations of Italy, differ more or less from find any passages in which positive mention each other, both with respect to the quality is made of them; and none in so far as I of their material, and to the workmanship know, where their composition is spoken of and style of painting; the cause of which This point, therefore, can only be ascer- difference is to be sought for in the different tained by an accurate examination of the natural qualities of the materials, or in a vases themselves. During a journey which different degree of perfection in the art. I made last year through Italy, I had opportunities of examining the splendid collec

t Geschichte der Kupst, p. 193 et seq. tions of those vases which adorn the museums

Clarke's Travels, vol. iv.-Walpole's of Florence, Rome, and Naples. The piea- Memoirs, 2d edit.--Antiq. of Athens, p.

322.--Ritter's Vorhalle Europäischer Vol* From the Edinburgh Philosophical kergeschichten von Herodotus, p. 232. Journal for April 1825.

Ritter, as above, p. 231.

For

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