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purposes of instruction in our colleges; and it was deemed inexpedient to increase unnecessarily the size of the volume.

The text is chiefly that of Alschefski; whose excel. lent edition,* not yet completed, is understood to mark a new era in the history of the text of Livy, and, in the judgment of distinguished European scholars, will unquestionably attain and long hold the rank of the standard critical edition of Livy. Wherever other readings have been preferred to those of Alschefskı, the reasons for the preference are usually given in the Notes.

The Notes have been prepared with chief reference to the grammatical study of the language; to the illustration of its forms, constructions, idioms, of its usages in general, and in particular, of the usage of Livy. Wherever it was possible, it has been thought best, simply to furnish apt references to such grammars and auxiliary works as were supposed to be in the hands of the student; but important difficulties, which required more ample means of investigation and study, have been more fully discussed and explained. It is hoped that the Notes will be also found to embrace all necessary information relating to history, geography, and antiqui ties, together with useful references to such standard works as are accessible to the student. A list of such works as are commonly referred to, may be found on the page immediately preceding the Notes. It has

* Titi Livii Rerum Romanarum ab urbe condita libri ad codicum manu scriptorum fidem emendati ab C. F. S. Alschefski, Vol. i. ii., primæ decadis part. prior. et part. alteram cont. 8 maj., Berolini, 1841, 43. Dümmler Vol. iii. Libros Livianos, xxi. xxii. xxiii., cont. 8 maj. ibid. 1846.— With the same title. Ps. i.-iv. (Schul-Ausgabe) 8 maj. ibid. 1843.

been the aim of the editor to furnish such assistance in the Notes as is needful to facilitate the progress of the diligent student; but above all things to avoid giving that pernicious help, whether in the form of indiscriminate translation, or of unnecessary explanation, which precludes all effort on the part of the pupil, and cripples his mental energies, by fostering habits of dependence and inaction.

The editions which have been consulted, besides Drakenborch's, have been those of Crevier, Ruperti, Bekker and Raschig, Twiss, Dymock by W. M. Gunn, Fabri, and Alschefski. In the preparation of the notes upon the Twenty-first and Twenty-second Books, the editor has been greatly indebted to the excellent edition of Fabri and the larger edition of Alschefski; but in the remainder, he is not aware that he has derived important aid from previous editions. In all cases he has aimed to acknowledge whatever direct assistance he has gained from the labors of others.

The Geographical Index has been partly translated from the edition of Fabri, and partly prepared from general sources. The Index to the Notes has been made with much care, and it is hoped, will be found useful.

The Plan of Rome, which accompanies the volume, has been taken from Professor W. A. Becker's recent work on Roman Antiquities; an account of the Map will be found on the page which faces it.

The Editor avails himself of this occasion to acknowledge his obligations to his friends who have encouraged him in the preparation of this volume, and in particular to Professor Johnson of the New York University, for the generous interest manifested in his labors, and for the use of a valuable work which was essential to the prosecution of his undertaking.

With these remarks, the present volume'is submitted to the public, with the hope that it will be of some service in promoting the study of Livy, and of the noble language in which he wrote.


In the notes which have reference to the passage of Hannibal, I have followed the route as originally made out by General Melvillo, the cor. rectness of which cannot be doubted. Gon. Melville's account of the march of Hannibal may be found in M. de Luc's Histoire du Passage des Alpes par Hannibal, Genève et Paris, 1818; and in Wickham and Cramer's Dissertation on the Passage of Hannibal over the Alps; London, 1828. The Map, which accompanies this edition of Livy, is copied, with some corrections, from that prefixed to the latter of the above-mentioned works.

It may be well to give here a brief statement of Hannibal's route. After crossing the Pyrenees, he went to Nimes. From Nimes ne marched to the Rhone, which hó crossed at Roquemaure, and then went up tho river to Vienne. From thence, he marched across the flat country of Dauphiné, and rejoined the Rhone at St. Genis d'Aouste. He then crossed the Mont du Chat to Chambery, joined the Isere at Montmeillan, ascended it as far as Scez, crossed the Little St. Bernard, and descended upon Aosta and Ivrea by the river Doria Baltea. After halting a short time at Ivrea, he marched upon Turin, which he took, and then prepared himself for operations against the Romans.

The following is a summary of the distances, (after the passage of the Pyrenees,) as given by Polybius, in B. 3, ch. 39 :From Emporium to the passage of the Rhone,

1,600 stadia, or 200 Roman miles. From the Rhone to the ascent of the Alps,


175 The Alps themselves,


150 I add here Dr. Arnold's view of Hannibal's route :

“On the whole, it appears to me most probable, that the pass by which Hannibal entered Italy, was that which was known to the Romans by the name of the Graian Alps, and to us as the Little St. Bernard. Nor was this so circuitous a line as we may at first imagine. For Hannibal's object was not simply to get into Italy, but to arrive in the country of those Cisalpine Gauls with whom he had been corresponding. Now these were the Boii and Insubrians; and as the Insubrians, who were the more westerly of the two, lived between the Addi and the Ticinus, the pass of the Little St. Bernard led more directly into the country of his allies, than the shorter passage into Italy by the Cottian Alps, or Mont Genevre.". Hist. 2, Note L.

The same view is taken by Dr. Schmitz, in his History of Romo, p 139



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