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YOME People are subject to a certain delicacy of passion, which makes them
extremely sensible to all the accidents of life, and gives them a lively joy
upon every prosperous event, as well as a piercing grief, when they meet with misfortunes and adversity. Favors and good offices easily engage their friendship ; while the smallest injury provokes their resentment. Any honor or mark' of distinction elevates them above measure ; but they are as sensibly touched with contempt. People of this character have, no doubt, much more lively enjoyments, as well as more pungent forrows, than men of cool and sedate tempers: But, I believe, when every thing is balanced, there is no one, who would not rather chuse to be of the latter character, were he entirely master of his own disposition. Good or ill fortune is very little at our own disposal: And when a person, that has this sensibility of temper, meets with any misfortune, his sorrow or resentment takes intire possession of him, and deprives him of all relish in the common occurrences of life ; of which the right enjoyment forms the greatest part of our happiness. Great pleasures are much less frequent than great pains; so that a sensible temper muft meet with fewer trials in the former way than in the latter. Not to mention, that men of such lively passions are apt to be transported beyond all bounds of prudence and discretion, and to take false ftęps in the conduct of life, which are often irretrievable.
THERE is a delicacy of taste observable in some men, which very much relem. bles this delicacy of paljon, and produces the same sensibility to beauty and deformity of every kind, as that does to prosperity and adversity, obligations and injuries. When you present a poem or a picture to a man pofseffed of this talent, the delicacy of his feeling, makes him be touched very sensibly with every part of it; nor are the masterly strokes perceived with more exquisite relish and satisfaction, than the negligences or absurdities with disgust and uneasiness. A polite and judicious conversation affords him the highest entertainment ; rudeness or impertinence is as great a punishment to him. In short, delicacy of taste has the fame effect as delicacy of passion: It enlarges the sphere both of our happiness. I and misery, and makes us sensible to pains as well as pleasures, which escape the rest of mankind. B. 2.
· I BELIEVE, however, there is no one, who will not agree with me, that notwithstanding this resemblance, a delicacy of taste is as much to be desired and cultivated as a delicacy of passion is to be lamented, and to be remedied, if pofsible. The good or ill accidents of life are very little at our disposal ; but we are pretty much masters what books we shall read, what diversions we shall partake of, and what company we shall keep, Philosophers have endeavored to render happiness entirely independent of every thing external. That is impossible to be attained : But every wise man will endeavor to place his happiness on such objects as depend most upon himself; and that is not to be attained so much by any other means as by this delicacy of sentiment. When a man is poffefsed of that talent, he is more happy by what pleases his taste, than by what gratifies his appetites, and receives more enjoyment from a poem or a piece of reasoning than the most expensive luxury can afford. .
How far delicacy of taste, and that of passion, are connected together in the original frame of the mind, it is hard to determine. To me there appears a very considerable connexion betwixt them. For we may observe that women, who have more delicate passions than men, have also a more delicate taste of the ornaments of life, of dress, equipage, and the ordinary decencies of behavior. Any excellency in these hits their taste much sooner than ours; and when you please their taste, you soon engage their affections.
But whatever connection there may be originally betwixt these dispositions, I am persuaded, that nothing is so proper to cure us of this delicacy of passion, as the cultivating of that higher and more refined taste, which enables us to judge of the characters of men, of compositions of genius, and of the productions of the nobler arts. A greater or less relish of those obvious beauties which strike the senses, depends entirely upon the greater or less sensibility of the temper: But, with regard to the sciences and liberal arts, a fine taste is, in fome measure, the same with strong sense, or at least depends so much upon it, that they are inseparable. To judge aright of a composition of genius, there are so many views to be taken in, so many circumstances to be compared, and such a knowledge of human nature requisite, that no man, who is not poffefsed of the foundeft judgment, will ever make a tolerable critic in such performances. And this is a new reason for cultivating a relish in the liberal arts. Our judgment will strengthen by this exercise : We shall form juster notions of life: Many things, which please or afflict others, will appear to us too frivolous to engage our attention: And we shall lose by degrees that sensibility and delicacy of passion, which is so incommodious.
But perhaps I have gone too far in saying, That à cultivated taste for the polite arts extinguishes the passions, and renders us indifferent to those objcêts which are so fondly pursued by the rest of mankind. On farther reflection, I find, that it rather improves our sensibility for all the tender and agreeable passions ; at the same time that it renders the mind incapable of the rougher and more boisterous emotions.
For this, I think there may be assigned two very natural reasons. In the first place, nothing is fo improving to the temper as the study of the beauties, either of poetry, eloquence, musick, or painting. They give a certain elegance of sentiment, to which the rest of mankind are entire strangers. The emotions they excite are soft and tender. They draw the mind off from the hurry of business and interest; cherish reflection ; dispose to tranquillity; and produce an agreeable melancholy, which, of all dispositions of the mind, is the best fuited to love and friendship..
In the second place, a delicacy of taste is favorable to love and friendship, by confining our choice to few people, and making us indifferent to the company and conversation of the greatest part of men. You will very seldom find, that mere men of the world, whatever strong sense they may be endowed with, are very nice in distinguishing of characters, or in marking those insensible differences and gradations which make one man preferable to another. Any one, that has competent sense, is sufficient for their entertainment: They talk to him, of their pleasure and affairs, with the same frankness as they would to another; and finding many, who are fit to supply his place, they never feel any vacancy or want in his absence. But to make use of the allusion of a celebrated * FRENCH author, the judgment may be compared to a clock or watch, where the most ordinary machine is sufficient to tell the hours; but the most elaborate and artificial can only point out the minutes and seconds, and distinguish the smallest differences of time. One that has well digested his knowlege both of books and men, has little enjoy. ment but in the company of a few select companions. He feels too sensibly, how much all the rest of mankind fall short of the notions which he has entertained. And, his affections being thus confined within à narrow circle, no wonder he carries them further than if they were more general and undistinguished, The gaiety, and frolic of a bottle-companion iinproves with him into a solid friendthip: And the ardours of a youthful appetite become an elegant passion.
point out the min digested his known felect companions which he has
* Monf. FONTENELLE, Pluralité des Mondes. Soir 6.