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inclined to follow him in that particular. This is carrying the matter too far ; but still it must be owned, that the opinion of right to property has a great infu-' ence in this subject.
Upon these three opinions, therefore, of public intereft, of right to power, and of right to property, are all governments founded, and all authority of the few over the many. There are indeed other principles, which add force to these, and deterinine, limit, or alter their operation ; such as self-interest, fear, and asfe&tion : But still we may affert, that these other principles can have no influence alone, but suppose the antecedent influence of those opinions above-mentioned. They are, therefore, to be esteemed the secondary, not the original principles of government. 1
FOR, first, as to self-interest, by which I mean the expectation of particular rewards, distinct from the general protection which we receive from government, 'tis evident, that the magistrate's authority must be antecedently established, or, at least be hoped for, in order to produce this expectation. The hope of reward may augment the authority with regard to some particular persons; but can never give birth to it, with regard to the public. Men naturally look for the greatest favors from their friends and acquaintance;, and therefore, the hopes of any considerable number of the state, would never center in any particular fer of men, if these men had no other title to magistracy, and had no separate influence over the opinions of mankind. The same observation may be extended to the other two principles of fear and affection. No man would have any reason to fear the fury of a tyrant, if he had no authority over any but from fear ; since, as a single man, his bodily force can reach but a small way, and all farther power he porfesses must be founded either on our own opinion, or on the presumed opinion of others. And tho' affeEtion to wisdom and virtue in a sovereign extends very far, and has great influence ; yet he must be antecedently supposed invested with a public character, otherwise the public esteem will serve him in no stead, nor will his virtue have any influence beyond a narrow sphere.
A GOVERNMENT may endure for several ages, tho' the balance of power, and the balance of property do not agree. This chiefly happens, where any rank or order of the state has acquired a large share of the property ; but, from the original conftitution of the government, has no share of the power. Under what pretext would any individual of that order pretend to intermeddle in public affairs ? As men are commonly much attached to their ancient government, it is not to be expected, that the public would ever favor such usurpations. But where the original conftitution allows any share of power, tho' small, to an order of men, who possess a large share of the property, 'tis easy for them gradually.to stretch their authority, and bring the balance of power to coincide with that of property. This has been the case with the house of commons in ENGLAND.
Most triters, who have treated of the BRITISH government, have supposed, that pa's the houfe of commons represents all the commons of GREAT BRITAIN ; so its weight in the scale is proportioned to the property and power of all whom it represents. But this principle must not be received as absolutely true. For tho' the people are apt to attach themselves more to the house of commons, than to any other member of the constitution ; that house being chosen by them as their representatives, and as the public guardians of their liberty ; yet are there instan
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be founded eitheach but a small my out from fear cald
ces where the house, even when in opposition to the crown, has not been followed by the people; as we may particularly observe of the tory house of commons in the reign of king WILLIAM. Were the members of the house obliged to receive instructions from their constituents, like the Dutch deputies, this would entirely, alter the case ; and, if such immense power and riches, as those of the whole commons of BRITAIN, were brought into the scale, 'tis not easy to conceive, that the crown could either influence that multitude of people, or withstand that overbalance of property. 'Tis true, the crown has great influence over the collective body of BRITAIN in the elections of members ; but were this influence which at present is only exerted once in seven years, to be employed in bringing over the people to every vote, it would soon be wasted ; and no skill, popularity or revenue, could support it. I must, therefore, be of opinion, that an alteration, in this particular, would introduce a total alteration in our government, and would foon reduce it to a pure republic; and, perhaps, to a republic of no inconvenient form. For tho' the people collected in a body like the ROMAN tribes, be quite unfit for government, yet when dispersed in small bodies, they are more susceps. tible both of reason and order ; the force of popular currents and tides is, in a great measure, broke; and the public intereft may be pursued with some method and constancy. But 'tis needless to reason any farther concerning a form of government, which is never likely to have place in BRITAIN, and which seems not to be the aim of any party amongst us. Let us cherish and improve our ancient government as much as pollible, without encouraging a passion for such dangerous novelties.
I SHALL conclude this subject with observing, that the present political controversy, with regard to instrućtions, is a very frivolous one, and can never be brought to any decision, as it is managed by both parties. The country-party pretend not, that a member is absolutely bound to follow instructions, as an ambassador or general is confined by his orders, and that his vote is not to be received in the house, but so far as it is conformable to them. The court-party again, pretend not, that the sentiments of the people ought to have no weight with each member ; much less that he ought to despise the sentiments of those whom he represents, and with whom he is more particularly connected. And if their sentiments be of weight, why ought they not to express these sentiments ? The question, then, is only concerning the degrees of weight which ought to be placed on instructions. But such is the nature of language, that 'tis impossible for it to express distinctly these different degrees ; and if men will carry on a controversy on this head, it may well happen, that they differ in their language, and yet agree in their sentiments; or differ in their sentiments, and yet agree in their language. Besides, how is it possible to fix these degrees, considering the variety of affairs which come before the house, and the variety of places which members represent? Ought the instructions of Totness to have the same weight as those of LONDON ? or instructions, with regard to the Convention, which respected foreign politics, to have the same weight as those with regard to the excise, which respected only our domes. tic affairs ?
differ in their lopee in their languagers which con
T KNOW not whence it proceeds, that women are so apt to take amiss every I thing which is said in disparagement of the married state ; and always consider a satyr upon matrimony as a satyr upon themselves. Do they mean, that they are the parties principally concerned, and that if a backwardness to enter into that state should prevail in the world, they would be the greatest sufferers?: Or, are they sensible, that the misfortunes and miscarriages of the married ftate are owing more to their sex than to ours ? I hope they do not intend to confess. either of these two particulars, or to give such an advantage to their adversaries, the men, as even to allow them to suspect it.. . · I have often had thoughts of complying with this humor of the fair sex, and of writing a panegyric upon marriage: But, in looking around for materials, they seemed to be of so mixed a nature, that at the conclusion of my reflections, I found that I was as much disposed to write a satyr, which might be placed on the opposite pages of the panegyric: And I am afraid, that as satyr is, on most occasions, thought to contain more truth than panegyric, I should have done their cause more harm than good by this expedient. To misrepresent facts is what, I know, they will not require of me. I must be more a friend to truth, than even to them, where their interests are opposite.
I shall tell the women what it is our sex complains of most in the married ftate; and if they be disposed to satisfy us in this particular, all the other differences will easily be accommodated. If I be not mistaken, 'tis their love of dominion, which is the ground of the quarrel ; tho’’tis very likely, that they will think it an unreasonable love of it in us, which makes us insist so much upon that point.: However this may be, no passion seems to have more influence on female minds, than this for power; and there is a remarkable instance in history of its prevailing. above another passion, which is the only one that can be supposed a proper counterpoife for it. We are told that all the women in ScYTHIA once conspired against the men, and kept the secret so well, that they executed their design before they were suspected. They surprised the men in drink, or aseep; bound them all fait in chains; and having called a solemn council of the whole sex, it was debated what expedient should be used to improve the present advantage, and prevent. their falling again into Navery. To kill all the men did not seem to the relish of any part of the assembly, notwithstanding the injuries formerly received ; and they were afterwards pleased to make a great merit of this lenity of theirs. It was, therefore, agreed to put out the eyes of the whole male sex, and thereby resign in all future time the vanity which they could draw from their beauty, in order to fecure their authority. We must no longer pretend to dress and show, say they ; but then we shall be free from Navery. We shall hear no more tender sighs ; but
in return we shall hear no more imperious commands. Love must for ever leave us; but he will carry subjection along with him.
'Tis regarded by some as an unlucky circumstance, since the women were resolved to maim the men, and deprive them of some of their senses, in order to render then humble and dependent, that the sense of hearing could not serve their purpose, since 'cis probable the females would rather have attacked that than the sight: And I think it is agreed among the learned, that, in a married state, 'tis not near so great an inconvenience to lose the former sense as the latter. However this may be, we are told by modern anecdotes, that some of the SCYTHIAN women did secretly spare their husband's eyes; presuming, I suppose, that they could govern them as well by means of that sense as without it. But so incorrigible and intractable were these men, that their wives were all obliged, in a few years, as their youth and beauty decayed, to imitate the example of their lifters; which it was no difficult matter to do in a state where the female sex had once got the superiority. ,
I KNOW not if our Scottish ladies derive any thing of this humor from their SCYTHIAN ancestors; but, I must confess that I have often been surprized to see a woman very well pleased to take a fool for her mate, that she might govern with the less controul ; and could not but think her sentiments, in this respect, Itill more barbarous than those of the ScYTHIAN women above-mentioned ; as much, as the eyes of the understanding are more valuable than those of the body,
But to be juft, and to lay the blame more equally, I am afraid it is the fault of our sex, if the women be so fond of rule, and that if we did not abuse our authority, they would never think it worth while to dispute it. Tyrants, we know, produce rebels; and all history informs us, that rebels, when they prevail, are apt to become tyrants in their turn. For this reason, I could wish there were no pretensions to authority on either side ; but that every thing was carried on with perfect equali:y, as between two equal members of the same body. And to induce both parties to embrace those amicable sentiments, I shall deliver to them Plato's account of the origin of love and marriage.
MANKIND, according to that fanciful philosopher, were not, in their original, divided into male and female, as at present; but each individual person was a compound of both sexes, and was in himself both husband and wife, melted down into one living creature. This union, no doubt, was very entire, and the parts very well adjusted together, since there resulted a perfect harmony betwixt the male and female, altho' they were obliged to be inseparable companions. And so great was the harmony and happiness Aowing from it, that the ANDROGYNES (for lo PLATO calls them) or Men-WOMEN, became insolent upon their prosperity, and rebelled against the Gods. To punish them for this temerity, Jupiter could contrive no better expedient, than to divorce the male-part from the female, and make two imperfect beings of the compound, which was before so perfect. Hence the origin of men and women, as distinct creatures. But notwithstanding this division, fo lively is our remembrance of the happiness which we enjoyed in our primæval state, that we are never at rest in this situation ; but each of these halves is continually searching thro'.the whole species to find the other half, which was broken from it. And when they meet, they join again with the greatest fond. ness and sympathy. But it often happens, that they are mistaken in this parti
cular ; that they take for their half what no way corresponds to them ; and that the parts do not meet nor join in with each other, as is usual in fractures. In this case the union is foon dissolved, and each part is set loose again to hunt for its loft half, joining itself to every one whom it meets, by way of trial, and enjoying no rest till its perfect sympathy with its partner Mews, that it has at last been fuc-. cessful in its endeavours.
WERE I disposed to carry on this fiction of Plato, which accourts for the mutual love betwixt the sexes in so agreeable a manner, I would do it by the following allegory.
WHEN JUPITER had separated the male from the female, and had quelled their pride and ambition by so severe an operation, he could not but repent him of the cruelty of his vengeance, and take compassion on poor mortals, who were now become incapable of any repose or tranquillity. Such cravings, such anxieties, such necessities arose, as made them curse their creation, and think existence itself a punishment. In vain had they recourse to every other occupation and amusement. In vain did they seek after every pleasure of sense, and every refinement of reason. Nothing could fill that void, which they felt in their hearts, or supply the loss of their partner, who was fo fatally separated from them. To remedy this disorder, and to bestow some comfort, at least, on human race in their forlorn situation, JUPITER sent down Love and HYMEN to collect the broken halves of human kind, and piece them together in the best manner posible. These two deities found such a prompt disposition in mankind to unite again in their primæval state, that they proceeded on their work with wonderful success for some time; till at last, from many unlucky accidents, dissension arose betwixt them. The chief counsellor and favorite of HYMEN was Care, who was continually filling his patron's head with prospects of futurity; a settlement, family, children, servants; so that little else was regarded in all the matches they made. On the other hand, Love had chosen Pleasure for his favorite, who was as pernicious a counsellor as the other, and would never allow Love to look beyond the present momentary gratification, or the satisfying of the prevailing inclination. These two favorites became, in a little time, irreconcileable enemies, and made it their chief business to undermine each other in all their undertakings. No sooner had Love fixed upon two halves, which he was cementing together, and forming to a close union, but Care insinuates himself, and bringing Hymen along with him, diffolves the union produced by love, and joins each half to some other half, which he had provided for it. To be revenged of this, Pleasure creeps in upon a pair already joined by HYMEN; and calling Love to his assistance, they under-hand contrive to join each half by secret links, to halves, which HYMEN was wholly unacquainted with. It was not long before this quarrel was felt in its pernicious consequences; and such complaints arose before the throne of JUPITER, that he was obliged to summon the offending parties to appear before him, in order to give an account of their proceedings. After hearing the pleadings on both sides, he ordered an immediate reconcilement betwixt Love and Hymen, as the only expedient for giving happiness to mankind: And that he might be sure this reconcilement should be durable, he laid his strict injunctions on them never to join any halves without consulting their favorites Care and Pleasure, and obtaining the consent of both to the conjunction. Where this order is strictly ob
contrive to join.
It was not longo fe before the time