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lived, at that time, in Grafton-street, in the house of her grandfather, a rich old clergyman, of the name of Fanning. I was then a scholar of the house in the University, and every day, after commons, I used to walk under her windows with one or the other of my fellow students ; I soon grew passionately fond of her, and she, also, was struck with me, though certainly my appearance, neither then nor now, was much in my favour; so it was, however, that, before we had ever spoken to each other, a mutual affection had commenced between us. She was, at this time, not sixteen years of age, and as beautiful as an angel. She had a brother some years older than herself; and as it was necessary, for my admission to the family, that I should be first acquainted with bim, I soon contrived to be introduced to him, and as he played well on the violin, and I was myself a musical man, we grew intimate, the more so, as it may well be supposed. I neglected no fair means to recommend myself to him and the rest of the family, with whom I soon grew a favorite. My affairs now advanced prosperously ; my wife and I grew more passionately fond of each other; and, in a short time,

proposed to her to marry me, without asking consent of any one, knowing well it would be in vain to expect it ; she accepted the proposal as frankly as I made it ; and one beautiful morning in the month of July, we ran off together and were married. I carried her out of town to Maynooth for a few days, and when the first eclat of passion had subsided, we were forgiven on all sides, and settled in lodgings near my wife's grandfather."

By a singular coincidence, the informer Reynolds became the husband of the sister of Tone's wife; to the latter Lucien Bonaparte alluded as follows in his public oration in 1799:

“It is precisely one year since, on the same day and in the same month, a court martial was assembled in Dublin, to try a general officer in the service of our Republic.--You have heard the last words of this illustrious martyr of liberty. What could I add to them? You see him, under your own uniform, in the midst of this assassinating tribunal, in the midst of this awe-struck and affected assembly. You hear him exclaim, "After such sacrifices in the cause of liberty, it is no great effort, at this day, to add the sacrifice of my life. I have courted poverty; I have left a beloved wife, unprotected, and children, whom I adored, fatherless.' Pardon him, if he forgot, in these last moments, that you were to be the fathers and protectors of his Matilda and of his children.—A few words more-on the widow of Theobald ; on his children. Calamity would have overwhelmed a weaker soul.' The death of her husband was not the only one she had to deplore. His brother was condemned to the same fate; and with less good fortune, or less firm. ness, perished on the scaffold. If the services of Tone were not sufficient, of themselves, to rouse your feelings, I might mention the independent spirit and firmness of that noble woman, who, on the tomb of her husband and her brother, mingles, with her sighs,


aspirations for the deliverance of Ireland. I would attempt to give you an idea of that Irish spirit which is blended in her counte. nance, with the expression of her grief. Such were those women of Sparta, who, on the return of their countrymen from battle, when, with anxious looks, they ran over the ranks and missed amongst them their sons, their husbands, and their brothers, exclaimed, He died for his country; he died for the Republic.'

Patrick Byrne,* an eminent bookseller, removed in 1784 from College-green to no. 108, Grafton-street, next to the

The other booksellers and publishers in Grafton-street before the Union were, William Ross (1765); Samuel Watson, ro 71 (1785); George Draper (1790); John Milliken, no. 32 (1791); Bernard Dornin, no. 33 (1792); William Porter, no. 69 (1796); Alderman John Exshaw, no. 98 (1782), publisher of “ Exshaw's Magazine;" on St. Patrick's day, 1797, the first regiment of “Royal Dublin Volunteers," commanded by this bookseller, was presented by Miss Exshaw, at his house, with two elegant stands of colors, richly embroidered by herself, and accompanied with an address. John Jones, bookseller, of no. 111 Grafton-street, opposite to the College, was the publisher of the Sentimental and Masonic Magazine,” commenced in July, 1792, and concluded in August, 1795. This periodical was edited by William Paulet Carey, a portrait painter and engraver, who first became known by his political prints, among which was one published in 1787, depicting Father O'Leary and the Presbyterian Dr. Campbell joining hands at the altar of peace. In 1791 he established the “National Evening Star" on the principles adopted on the foundation of the society of United Irishmen later in the same year. This paper, written almost entirely by himself, soon gained popularity from its tone, and Carey was styled the “printer of the people;" his essays most attractive to the public taste were those signed “Junius Hibernicus," and his poetic contributions under the name of “Scribblerius Murtough OʻPindar,” were subsequently collected and entitled “ The Nettle, an Irish bouquet, to tickle the nose of an English viceroy ; leing a collection of political songs and parodies, dedicated to the Marquis Grimbaldo (Buckingham), governor of Barataria, by Scriblerius Mur. tough O’Pindar, now handing about in the first circles of fashion, and sung to some of the most favorite airs. To which are added, the Prophecy, an irregular ode, addressed to his Excellency shortly after his arrival: and the Triumph of Freedom, addressed to the Right Hon. Henry Grattan, by the same author.” Carey became notorious by the decided opinions he promulgated relative to the various political points then being agitated, and he devoted a considerable space in his paper to the advocacy of Tandy, while the latter was under prosecution. Con. sidering it his duty to censure Dr. Theobald Mac Kenna for differing with the Catholic committee, he assailed him in a series of letters pub. lished under the name of “ William Tell.” Mac Kenna, in retaliation, succeeded in having Carey rejected when proposed a member of the United Irish Society by Rowan and Tandy; however, on a second ballot time he was elected by a large majority. In 1792 Carey was prosecuted for having published certain political documents issued by the United Irishmen, for which the society promised him indemnification, but finding himself deserted by them when in difficul. ties, he was obliged in self-defence to give evidence on the trial of Dr.


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Irish Academy house, where he published the principal pamphlets in favor of parliamentary reform and Catholic emancipation. Among the works issued by Byrne, was Wolfe Tone's second essay in pamphleteering published in 1790, under the title of “ An inguiry how far Ireland is bound, of right, to embark in the impending contest on the side of Great Britain : Addressed to the members of both houses of parliament;" relative to this production its author has left the following anecdote :

“On the appearance of a rupture with Spain, I wrote a pamphlet to prove that Ireland was not bound by the declaration of war, might, and ought, as an independent nation, to stipulate for a neutrality. In examining this question, I advanced the question of separation, with scarcely any reserve, much less disguise; but the public mind was by no means so far advanced as I was, and my pamphlet made not the smallest impression. The day after it appeared, as I stood perdue in the bookseller's shop, listening after my own reputation, Sir Henry Cavendish, a notorious slave of the House of Commons, entered, and throwing my unfortunate pamphlet on the counter in a rage, exclaimed, Mr. "Byrne, if the author of that work is serious, he ought to be hanged.' Sir Henry was succeeded by a bishop, an English Doctor of Divinity, with five or six thousand a year, laboriously earned in the church. His lordship's anger was not much less than that of the other personage. • Sir,' said he, if the principles contained in that abominable work were to spread, do you know that you would have to pay for your coals at the rate of five pounds a ton ? Notwithstanding these criticisms, which I have faithfully quoted against myself, I continue to think my pamphlet a good one; but, apparently, the publisher, Mr. Byrne, was of a different opinion, for I have every reason to believe that he suppressed the whole impression, for which his own Gods damn him.”

Hamilton Rowan selected Byre to publish the authorized report of his trial in 1794, which, with Rowan's usual Drennan in 1794, and appealed to the public in justification of his conduct. Carey engraved several of the plates, and wrote the majority of the verse in the" Masonic Magazine;" his assistants in the latter department being John Brenan, M.D., W. E. O'Brien, and Thomas Moore; the latter tells us that Carey desired to have his portrait engraved, a proceeding prevented by the interference of his mother. We find that, although not elsewhere noticed, Moore contributed to this Magazine the following pieces, not included in any edition of his works : “Anacreontique to a bee;" “Myrtilla, to the unfortunate Maria, a pastoral ballad ;" “ The Shepherd's Farewell, a pastoral ballad ;" and a poem styled “Friendship.” Jones, the publisher of the Magazine, was succeeded in Grafton-street in 1797 by a bookseller named Rice. Carey died in America; his sons were long the most wealthy booksellers in Philadelphia, where they published in 1819 M. Carey's elaborate “ Vindiciæ Hibernicæ."

philanthropy was sold for the benefit of the distressed manu. facturers.

“ There is not a day,” said Curran, “that you hear the cries of your starving manufacturers in your streets, that you do not also see the advocate of their sufferings that you do not see his honest and manly figure, with uncovered head, soliciting for their relief ; searching the frozen heart of charity for every string that can be touched by compassion, and urging the force of every argument and every motive, save that which his modesty suppresses—the authority of his own generous example. Or if you see him not there, you may trace his steps to the abode of disease, and famine, and despair, the messenger of heaven, bearing with him food, and medicine, and consolation."

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The following dialogue took place between Byrne and the chief justice of the king's bench relative to the publication of the trial of Rowan :« Lord Clonmel. Your servant, Mr. Byrne ; I perceive you have

I advertised Mr. Rowan's trial.'

Byrne. • The advertisement, my lord, is Mr. Rowan's, he has selected me as his publisher, which I think an honour, and I hope it will be profitable.'

Lord Clonmel. •Take care, sir, what you do ; I give you this caution ; for if there are any reflections on the judges of the land,

; by the eternal G- I will lay you by the heels!'

Byrne. I have many thanks to return your lordship for your
caution; I have many opportunities of going to Newgate, but I
have never been ambitious of that honour, and I hope in this case
to stand in the same way. Your lordship knows I have but one
principle in trade, which is to make money of it, and that if there
were two publications giving different features to the trial I would
publish both. There is a trial published by M.Kenzie.'
Lord Clonmel. I did not know that ;


you may on the subject, if you print or publish what may inflame the mob, it behoves the judges of the land to notice it'; and I tell you by the eternal Ğ-, if you publish or mis-state my expressions, Í will lay you by the heels! One of Mr. Rowan's advocates set out with an inflammatory speech, mis-stating what I said, and stating what I did not say. I immediately denied it, and appealed to the court and gentlemen in it, and they all contradicted him, as well as myself. These speeches were made for the mob, to mislead and inflame them, which I feel it my duty to curb. If the publication is intended to abuse me, I don't value it ; I have been so long in the habit of receiving abuse, that it will avail little; but I caution you how you publish it; for if I find anything reflecting on or misstating me, I will take care of you.'

Byrne. "I should hope Mr. Rowan has too much honor to have anything mis-stated or inserted in his trial that would involve his publisher.'


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Lord Clonmel. •What! is Mr. Rowan preparing his own trial ?' Byrne.

Lord.' Lord Clonmel. Oho, Oho! that is a different thing. That gentleman would not have been better used by me, standing in the situation he did, if he was one of the princes of the blood.'

Byrne. • My Lord, Mr. Rowan being his own printer, you know he will publish his own trial; I stand only as his publisher.'

Lord Clonmel. •Even as his publisher, I will take care of you ; and I have no objection to this being known.' Byrne. “I return your Lordship many thanks."

Byrne's shopin Grafton-street was the usual literary rendezvous of the United Irishmen, and the publisher, himself a member of that association, was the first Roman Catholic admitted into the guild of booksellers,* after the relaxation of the Penal laws in 1793. One of the most constant visitors to his establishment from the year 1796 was captain John Warneford Armstrong, of the king's county militia, whose regiment was stationed in 1798 at the camp at Loughlinstown. Armstrong, then about twenty-nine years of age, openly avowed anti-monarchical principles, and was in the habit of purchasing at Byrne's publications of republican and deistical tendencies. Having led the bookseller to believe that his political sentiments coincided with those of the United Irishmen, he procured from him in 1798 an introduction to the brothers Sheares, who were then engaged in maturing their revolutionary organization,

“Armstrong, on leaving Byrne's on the 10th of May, immediately proceeded to his brother officer, Captain Clibborn, and informed him of what had passed. The latter advised him to give the Sheares a meeting. He then returned to Byrne's late the same day, and remained there till Henry arrived. Byrne led him to the inner part of the shop, toward a private room, and introduced him to Sheares, in these terms: ‘All I can say to you, Mr. Sheares, is that Captain Armstrong is a true brother, and you may depend on him.

Previous to the declaration of independence in 1782, the company of Dublin booksellers was the first corporation which publicly associated to wear Irish manufacture, in which they appeared dressed at their anni. versary banquets. John Exshaw, bookseller and high sheriff, presided over the general meeting of the freemen and freeholders of the city of Dublin, at which they resolved : “ That we will not, from the date hereof, until the grievances of this country shall be removed, directly or indirectly import or consume any of the manufactures of Great Britain ; nor will we deal with any merchant, or shopkeeper, who shall import such manufactures; and that we recommend the adoption of a similar agreement to all our countrymen who regard the commerce and constitution of this country.'

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