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DIALLING. power, will be unfolded as we proceed strong a tribute as could well have with our description.

been paid to their merits. From the The engraving on our front page peculiar manner of their construction exhibits the external elevation of the they act with ine least possible interengine. Mis the carriage-frame; E ference from the weight of tne engine, the end of a circular boiler which and being perfectly cylindrical, bear passes under the carriage frame to equally with their whole breadth on the wards the steam-chamber A; L a rails. The lightness for which these hopper to receive the fuel, (which is wheels are famed, is not in this incarried in two small baskets placed on stance so remarkable; " The Novelty the frame) whence it falls through à being itself in its main parts so light, pipe in the centre of the steam-cham- as to throw other things in comparison ber A, into the furnace S; M the ash with it into the shade. Of the total pit; D and N two working cylinders weight of 2 tons 15 cwt., we believe and their slides (one of eaeh only is 18 cwt. falls to the share of the seen in the engraving); B the water- wheels. tank; Can air-compressing apparatus, [To be continued in our next; when which acts on the furnace through the we shall complete our account of medium of a pipe that passes under "The Novelty,” describe one or more the framework, and ends at K; Na of the other engines, and add some pipe for the escape of the heated air; general remarks:] Queh geed the comecting rods which impart

won
the action of the pistons to the wheels.
30 The boiler is made to contain about

DIALLING. 4ārgallons of water; the diameter of Sir, Observing in your Septemeach of the cylinders is 6 inches, and

ber Part (1827) some questions in the length of the stroke 12.

dialling by "J. G.” which have not on the engraving on the second page I believe been yet answered, I take of this week's Number, is intended to

the liberty of sending the following lexplain amore particularly a very sketch of the fundamental principles beautiful arrangement of the springs, of the art, which, as it is altogether to which this engine is mainly in- new, and contains sufficient to solve debted for its i superior steadiness all those questions, may not be deemwhen rein action. The axle-trees are

ed unworthy a place in the valuable fixed to the iron rod A, and a sling C pages of the Mechanics' Magazine. ist introduced to obviate that side action which would otherwise take

Sketch of the Fundamental Principles place between the rod and the car

of Dialling fiage-frame B. Again, to prerent the The equator may be considered the action of the springs from interfering plane of a dial, and the stéreographic with the action of the engine, the projection of the meridians upon the connecting rod, D, is placed as nearly equator will give 24 hour lines; and in a horizontal position as possible; if the earth be supposed transparent

the connecting rods are moved by bell- and the axis opaque, when the sun 2 cranks, E, which are connected by comes upon the plane of any of these

slings, F, with the piston rod. The meridians, the shadow of the axis springs, by the way, are of singularly will fall on the opposite meridian ; texcellent manufacture ; they were and so of the rest as the sun comes made by Thrupp, and fully justify upon the plane of each of the merithe celebrity which he has acquired dians in succession, the shadow of the

in this peculiar branch of art. axis will fall on the opposite side. Ne

The wheels are of the excellent Hence to construct an equatorial description patented by Messrs. Jones dial, nothing more is necessary than -Hurand Co.,* and the choice of them by to divide its plane into 24 equal parts od Messrs. Braithwaite and Ericsson is as by, lines divergent from the centre, nible 21202..

fixing the axis perpendicular to the For a particular description of plane, and putting the names of the vs Messrs. Jones, and Co.'s wheels, the hours to their proper lines, and erect- Federal reader may consult our 245th number. ing the plane to ap, angla egual to

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Duilino.

12! the coldtitule of the place. There pass through the equator, and to fuLab he no sensible error in this con

cline in any angle in its surface, it is struction, for the distance from the obvious from the consideration of the

to surface of the but as a poiut compared with the dis points where the meridians cut the site tance of Che earth from the sun. cumference of the equatorial plane, lives

But if a plane pass obliquely to the be drawn perpendicularly to the oblique equator through the centre of the plane, the points where these lines cut earth, or parallel to the horizon of the oblique plane being joined to the some place not on the equator, i centre will give the true hour lines on equally by the meridians (1); and from the contes curier rechtenerseita the axis will make with the plane an cut the circumference of the oblique angle equal to the complement of its plane, lines he drawn upon the equaangle with the equator at the centre. torial plane perpendicularly to its Now the difficulty of this art lies surface, they will fall upon the hour principally in finding these points; on lines at cqual distances from each che circumference from which to the other. "Upon a plane surface the point where the axis is fixed, lines · lines on the oblique plane are being drawn shall be the hour lines. easily found by an orthographic

Now when a plane is supposed to projection.

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Poser In the abuve figure, if ABC řepre- perpendiculars upon BC; prodýce sent a quadrant nf the equator, C the

DC to E, and upon CB transfer the centre, and a, b, c, d, e, points where

distances et, dw, cr, &c. to the points the hour lines meet the circumference, fg, h, &c., and from f, g, h, &c. * the points m, n, 03P, 9, will be points draw perpendiculars upon AC; trans- found by the method of orthographic

fer these perpendiculars along et, dw, projection, through which from the &c. to the point i, n; &c., and they centre the bour lines will pass for a will be points through which the hour le plane, making with the equator an

lines for the oblique plane will pass. Mangle equal to BCD; or they are the The above observations contain all e same as would be found by drawing the general principles of the construcfrom the points a, b, &c. on thc equa

tion of dials, and will be found suffitor lines perpendicular to an oblique cient to an ingenious mind for the ods

plane, making with the equator an, construction of all sorts of dials. angle equal to the angle BCD.

If the dial is to be vertical for a ng The points m, n, o, p, f,

, are fonnd
given latitude, its axis must

evidently as follows:

from a, b, c, d, e, draw (from what has been said; make with

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And it may be remarked that, if Ocean Trood is the naine or a new species of 144

DIALLING. its, plane an angle equal to the co Nsu Sheathing for Shipl.-It is stated in se latitude (2); and this being done ship is now building there of teak, and that it is

counts from Van Dieman's Land, that a 7 gunupon the plane, the hour lines

are to to be sheathed with sheets of India rubber, be found by the orthographic projec

which it is supposed will be not only impervious

to water, but wholy free from any liability to tion in the manner explained.

e foulness or corrosion. the surface of the dial be curved, the wood which has been lately used by Dir. Toraxis must hare the same position as kisors of mahogany, and its name is supposed to if it were a plane, and the hour lines have been given, from a fancied resemblance its must be traced over the curve surface grain presents to the undulation of the sea. It

is quite an unique in the English market, and from the extremities of their delinea for a single log Mr. Tomkison is zaid to have tions upon the plane.

paid the enormous sum of 2300 guineas.is These remarks enable us to proceed ! Painting on Glass - The Count de Noè, a peer immediately to the solution of J. G.'s'

of Franca, professes, to have invented a methor

of painting on glass, which equals the still no questions. And it is evident, se

discovered method of the ancients. Four pictures (1.) That the positions of the hour which have been lately painted by him on glass. lines will be different on dials having

one of them for the chapel at the Luxembourg,

are spoken of in terms of great praise by the the same degree of obliquity for dif Parisian critics.

ferent latitudes. UTA (2.) That the axis of a vertical dial

The Art of Interweaving Figures on Cloth, by

varying the arrangement of the warp, appears to must make with its plane an angle have been early practised by the Egyptians. * equal to the co-latitude of the place.

cuirass or breast-plate, sent King

Amasis ta (3.) That the axis of an east or the Lacedemonians, with many figures of animals west dial must be parallel to its plane.

woven into it; adding, as a thing extraordinary,

that each thread of it, though apparently slender, (4.) If a dial decline or recline from

was composed of three hundred threads, all dis the east or west, its axis (parallel to tinctly visible. the axis of the earth) can no longer An Air Spout.- On the 15th ult. an extraordi be parallel to its surface: therefore nary phenomenon presented itself at Gorschoff

in the Russian government of Pskow. Under a any alteration in the position of the cloudy but tranquil sky, a violent whirlwind, same plane with the same index will accoinpanied by hail and a roaring noise, sud

denly arose, and, passing over the town, comproduce a corresponding alteration in

pletely devastated wbatever it met in its pasthe time.

sage, for a breadth of about eighty yards. 'Se(5.) The enunciation of the fifth

veral buildings were totally destroyed, and

others unroofed. Large trees were torn up by question is absurd; for the plane of

the roots, and carried to the distance of ten an east or west dial at the equator wersts. A considerable number of persons lost will not be parallel to it, but perpen

their lives, and a great quantity of cattle perish

ed. In the other parts of the towa every thing dicular or parallel to the axis.

was perfectly calın, not a single bough being (6.) If an east or west dial be in shaken. clined in any angle to the horizon, it

Preservation of Peach Trees.-A writer in tha

Southern Parrior proposes, as a way to prevent can no longer be an east or west dial, worms from injuring the trunks of peach trees, and therefore will not be cut in the that a quantity of clay or compost be heaped same points by the meridians; conse

round the roots, mixed with a little lime, marsh,

or mud, while they are in the wood, that they quently the hour lines will be differ may be suffocated before the fly can escape. ently posited, that is to say, this inclination will alter the time shown. Aug. 26, 1829.

B.

INTERIM NOTICES.
Communications received from D. C.-Mr.
Baddeley-Q.-Philo Mechanicus - A West-

Countryman-S. P. W.- Mr. Greenal-H.
MISCELLANEOUS.

Guor - A Constant Reader - John O'Groat

A.C.R.-W.W-A Young Beginner-Milival 5110 Price of Calico Fifty-three years ago.--The Thignk-T-X. -Omicron-G.P.-G. A.E.

following memorandum was written in a Bible, Mr. Franklin,

now in the possession of a family at Rishton, TDear Blackburn, for the purpose, no doubt, of More particular acknowledgments in our next.

recording the period when the manufacture of

calico was first introduced into this country - 15 September, 1776. Thonias Dixbury, of Rishton, near Elackburn, sold to Messrs. Peels,

LONDON : Published for the Proprietor, by Yates, and Co. Church Bank, two common fine

M. SALMON, at the Mechanics' Magazine calico pieces foi 25. Os. Bd. These were the

Office, No. 115, Fleet Street; where Commu. I first calico pieces ever manufactured in this

nications for the Editor (post paid) are rekingdom." Pieces of the same description are

questeá to be addressed. How sold for about 5s. . or 6s. cach

M. SALMON, Printer, Fleet Street.

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Mechantes Magazine, MUSEUM, REGISTER, JOURNAL, AND GAZETTE.

No. 324.]

SATURDAY, OCTOBER 24, 1829.

[Price 3d.

« THE ROCKET," LOCOMOTIVE STEAM ENGINE OF

MR. ROBERT STEPHENSON.

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146

GRAND MECHANICAL COMPETITION. COMPETITION OF LOCOMOTIVE CAR the engineers and scientific men now in

RIAGES ON THE LIVERPOOL AND Liverpool-that it is the principle and MANCHESTER RAILWAY.

arrangement of this London engine

which will be followed in the construc(Continued from our last Number.)

tion of all future locomotires. The Seventh Day, 14th October. powerful introduction of a blast bel

lows, the position of the water tankbelow *** It appears that after we left the

the body of the carriage, by which railway on Wednesday se'nnight, and

means the centre of gravity is brought took our departure for town, Messrs.

below the line of central motion, the Braithwaite and Ericsson intimated

beautiful mechanism of the connecting to the judges, that as the joints of

movement of the wheels, the absolute “The Novelty” which had given way, absence of all smell, smoke, noise, vi: could not be restored to a working bration, or unpleasant feeling of any state before the lapse of at least eight kind, the elegance of the machinery, days, and the prolongation of the com

in short the tout ensemble proclaim tha petition was likely to be attended with perfection of the principle. great inconvenience to many parties,

“ In withdrawing so honourable

from the competition, Messrs. Braikio they would withdraw their engine

waite and Ericsson have done ther. from any further trial, and " leave it

selves the highest credit; and they may to be judged of by the performances

rest assured that the scientific world will it had already exhibited. The man

do justice to their efforts, and look with ner in which this virtual conclusion to

anxiety to a speedy completion of their the proceedings has been announced elegant and compact engine

prepared by one of the Liverpool papers, is so to bear the fiercest ordeal' which the distinguished by its fairness and libe judges may please to direct.". rality, that we cannot deny ourselves

“ The Novelty" still remains at the pleasure of making the following, Liverpool, and Messrs. Braithwaite quotation from it on the subject : and Ericsson have publicly announ

(From the Liverpool Mercury.) ced that as soon as it is repaired, and “We may consider the trial of the the cement of the joints sufficiently Locomotive Engines as now virtually hardened, they will(with the leave of at an end. It is much to be regretted, the Directors) complete the exhibition that The Novelty' was not built in time

of its powers; and show that but for to have the same opportunity of exer.

the accidents which it unfortunately cising that Mr. Stephenson's engine

met with, it was more than equal to had, or that there is not in London, or its vicinity, any railway where experi.

the accomplishment of the task that ments with it could have been tried.

was last assigned to it. It will evidently require several weeks The prize is not expected to be posito perfect the working of the machine tively awarded for some little time yet and the proper fitting of the joints, and to come. It appears that the gentle under this impression, Messrs. Braith men who were appointed to act as waite and Ericsson bave acted wisely in judges, have had only the name and withdrawing, as they have done, from

not the usual powers of judges conthe contest,

ferred upon them. All that they have " The course is thus left clear for Mr. Stephenson; and we congratulate him,

been required and permitted to do is with much sincerity, on the probability of

to make an exact report to the Direc his being about to receive the reward of

tors of the performances of the com£500. This is due to him for the per peting engines; the Directors reserve fection to which he has brought the ing to themselves the power of de old-fashioned locomotive engine ; but ciding which is best entitled to the the grand prize of public opinion is the premium. From the manner in which one which has been gained by Messrs. such reserved powers have been exer Braithwaite and Ericsson, for their de. cised in other cases (witness the con cided improvement in the arrangement, duct of the New London Bridge Com. the safety, simplicity, and the smoothness and steadiness of a locomotive

mittee to Mr. Gwilt), we should not be engine; and however imperfect the

inclined to indulge in any favourable present works of the machine may be, anticipations on the present occasion; it is beyond a doubt-and we believe but it so happens, that this competi We speak the onigion of nine-tenths of

tion bas taken a course which makes

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